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Full text of "80 Microcomputing Magazine June 1980"

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microcomputing 



Inside Level I: Learn how 
to better utilize its 
commands. Pg. 96. 

Testing 1, 2, 3; Interface 
your 80 with test ^ 

■equipment. Pg. 136. '^ 

Computer Trainer: Helps you 
understand Assembly 
Language. Pg. 118. 



Special Graphics Issue: Explore 
the full graphics potential of your 
system. 



74470"65947 




Plus: 

Software Reviews. Hardware 

Reviews, Book Reviews. 

More than 30 articles and columns 



-^ 



Ffctn ?tmm 



One-Orive System: 

S399. (40-trach) & $675. (77-track» 
Two-Orive System: 

$795. (40-lfack drives) & $1351). (77-track drives) 
Thfee-Drive System; 

$1195. (40-lfack anves) & $2025. j77-tfack drivesi 
Requires Expansion Interlace. Level II BASIC & t6K RAM. 




Low Cost Add-On Storage for Your TRS-80*. 

In the Size You Want. 

When you're ready for add-on disk storage, we're ready for you. 
Ready with six mini-disk storage systems — 102K bytes to 591 K bytes of 

additional on-line storage for your TRS-80^ 



• Choose either 40-traclt TFD-100^^ drtves 
or TT-track lfD-2W* drives. 

• One-, two- and three-drive systems Im- 
mediately available. 

• Systems include Percom PATCH PAK 
#1'", on disk, at no extra charge. PATCH 
PAK #1"'de-gl(lches and upgrades 
TRSOOS* for 40- and 77-track operation. 

• TFD-100^" drives accommodate "flippy 
disks." Store 205K bytes per mini-disk. 

• Low prices. A single-drive TFD-100^" 
costs just S399. Price includes PATCH 
PAK #r" disk. 

• Enclosures are linished in system- 
compatible "Tandy-silver" enamel. 



Whether you need a single, 40- 
track TFD-100'" add-on or a three-drive 
add-on with 77-track TFD-200^"s, you 
get more data storage for less money 
from Percom. 

Our TFD-100'" drive, for example, 
lets you store 102.4K bytes of data on 
one side of a disk — compared to 80K 
bytes on a TRS-80' mini-disk drive — 
and 1 02, 4K bytes on the other side, too. 
Something you cant do with a TRS-SO' 
drive. That's almost 205K bytes per 
mini-disk. 

And the TFD-200^" drives provide 
197K bytes of on-line storage per drive 



— 1 97K, 394K and 591 K bytes for one-, 

two and three-drive systems, 

PATCH PAK #r", our upgrade 
program for your TRSDOS", not only 
extends TRSDOS' to accommodate 40- 
and 77-lrack drives, it enhances 
TRSDOS* in other ways as well. PATCH 
PAK #1*^" is supplied with each drive 
system at no additional charge. 

The reason you get more for less 
from Percom is simple. Peripherals are 
not a skJeline at Percom, Selling disk 
systems and other peripherals is our 
main business — the reason you get 
more engineering, more reliability and 
more back up support for less money. 



In the Product Development Queue , . , a printer interface lor using your TRS-60' with any 
serial printer, and , , , thef/ecfr/cC/'ayon''' to map your computer memory onto your color TV 
screen — for games, animated shows, business displays, graphs, etc. Coming PDO! 




L' 



PERCOM DATA COMPANY, INC, 
211 N KIRBY . GARLAND. TX, . 75042 



n» TFO-IOO rFO-200. WCH PAK and Elecirtc Craytm ire IraOemanis ot PERCOM DATA COMPANY 

-TftS 80 »r-<> IRSOOS aii toaemarK o( 'andy Corpo'aiiwi gna Amk) Stai* wWci niw pio reUioniMp lo PERCOM OAIA COMPANV 



To order add-on mini-disk storage tor your TRS-SO*. 
or request additional literature, call Percom's toll-free 
number: 1-800-527-1592, For detailed Technical infor- 
mation call (214)272-3421. 

Orders may be paid by check or money order, or 
charged to Visa or Master Charge credit accounts Texas 
residents must add 5% sales tax. 



Percom peripherals tor personal computing' 




The easiest, least expensive way to generate 

spectacular multi-color graphics, sharp two-color alphanumerics: 

Your computer, a color tv set and the Percom Electric Crayon™. 



Add the Electric Crayon^" to your 
system and your keyboard be- 
comes a palette, the tv screen 
your medium. 

You dab and stroke using one- 
key commands to create dazzling 
full-color drawings, eye-catching 
charts and diagrams. 

Or you run any of innumerable 
programs. Your own BASIC lan- 
guage programs that generate 
dynamic pyrotechnic images, 
laugh-provoking animations. 

From a combined alphanu- 
merics-semigraphics mode to a 
high resolution 256- by 192- 
element full graphics mode, the 
microprocessor-controlled Electric 
Crayon^" is capable of generating 
10 distinctly different display 
modes. 

Colors are brilliant and true, and 
up to eight are available depend- 
ing on the mode. 

As shipped, the Electric 
Crayon^" interfaces a TRS-80* 
computer. It may be easily 



adapted for interfacing to any 
computer or to an ordinary parallel 
ASCII keyboard. 

But that's not all 

The Electric Crayon is not just a 
color graphics generator/control- 
ler. 

It is also a complete self- 
contained control computer With 
built-in provision for IK-byte of 
on-board program RAM, an 
EPROM chip for extending EGOS^", 
its on-board ROM graphics OS, 
and a dual bidirectional eight-bit 
port — over and above the com- 
puter/keyboard port — for 
peripherals. The applications are 
endless. 

Shipped with EGOS^", IK-byte of 
display memory and a com- 
prehensive user's manual that in- 
cludes an assembly language list- 
ing of EGOS^" and listings of 
BASIC demo programs, the E!ec- 
tnc Crayon^" costs only $249.95. 



Options include: 

• LEVEL II BASIC color 
graphics programs on 
minidiskette: $17.95. 

• A 34-conductor ribbon 
cable to interconnect the Elec- 
tric Crayon^" to a TRS-80*: 
$24.95. 

• RAM chips for adding re- 
fresh memory for higher den- 
sity graphics modes: $29.95 
per K-byte, 

• Electric Crayon^" 
Sketchpad, a sketching grid 
of proportioned picture ele- 
ments (pixels) in a tv aspect 
ratio. For 128 x 192 or 256 x 
192 graphics modes, 11 -inch 
by 17-inch, 25-sheet pads: 
$3.95 per pad. 

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: the video cir- 
cuitry of the Electric Crayon^** provides di- 
rect drive input to a video monitor or mod- 
ified tv set An internal up-modulator for rt 
antenna input may be constructed by add- 
ing inexpensive components to the existing 
video circuitry. 

Prices and spec itic aliens sub|ecl lo change wilhout nolce 



PEflSOM 



^258 



PERCOM DATA COMPANY INC 

211 N KIBBY GABLAND TEXAS 75042 
12141272 3421 



'" J- Ifademark of Percom Daia Company, Irx; 

■ - trademark oi Tandy Radio ShacK Co'DO'ation wlcti las fio re.ationsnio to Percom Dala Company 

Get into computer color graphics the easy, low-cast way with a Per- 
com Electric Crayon^". Available at Percom dealers nationwide. Call 
toll-free, 1-800-527-1592, for the address of your nearest dealer, 
or to order direct if there is no Percom dealer in your area. 



^Heatler service— sea page 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 3 



SPECIAL DELIVERY with EXTRACT 

. A 100% Machine Language Word Processor a 





TRS-80 "" + Electric Pencil ^ or Radio Shack's Scripsit 



We can't stop improving and expanding the capabilities of your 
TRS-80^M By using SPECIAL DELIVERY with EXTRACT and either 
Electric Pencil^ or Radio Shack's Scripsit- you can get even more 
out of your computer. From just one program, you will get all this; 



MAILFORM: Create MAILFILE: The 
ONLY complete name and ad- 
dress list entry/editor program 
written in machine language. 
Instant search on any field, 
complete cursor control, just 
fill in the form! 

MAILRITE: Print letters written with 
either the Electric Pencil"^ or 
Radio Shack's Scripsit* insert- 
ing information from a MAIL- 
FILE into the letter for person- 
alizing and addressing. You 
can send a personalized letter 
to one person then a different 
personaiii^ed letter to a second 
person with true typist quality 
from your fine printer. Fea- 
tures: Indents, Underscore, 
Bold Type, End of Page Stop, 



Address Envelopes, unlimited 
insertion from address list and 
More! 

EXTRACT: Take out information 
from MAILFORM, the ma- 
chine language mailing list. 
Find the names you need by 
Zip Code, Street Address, 
Gender, Age or any other way! 

SORT: In-Memory sort on an entire 
address list using any field as 
the key. This program can sort 
AW entire list in a matter of 
seconds! 

LABEL: Prints labels from MAILFILE. 

CONVERT: Make MAILFILE from 
RS mail list. 



SPECIAL DELIVERY will run on your TRS-BO' with TRSDOS," NEWDOS" or any 
other TRS*-like DOS. 

If you bought SPECIAL DELIVERY from us, send us the disk and we will update 
it to include EXTRACT for $25. If you haven't already taken advantage of our 
SPECIAL DELIVERY program, we'll send you the complete program including 
EXTRACT for just $125 {Disk). We can also send you the Electric Pencil "* on Disk 
for $150. 




Software Etc . . , 
1839 Chamberlain Drive 
Carrollton, Texas 75007. 
Phone Orders: (214) 492-0515 



u'Ki 



Demand & Demnnslration fmm your local Dealer or write for a brochure of our complete line of fine w>ftw.ire. 




microcomputirig DATA 



June 1980 Issue #6 



APPLICATION 

148 Quiz Master. Is this the answer? Richard Eckert. 

BUSINESS 

130 Accountants Aid. A workhorse worksheet. James Sheats. 

GENERAL 

38 The Game of Life. Play God for a day. Dennis Kitsz. 

62 Adventures in Roseland. Interesting displays. AHan Jofte. 

65 Randomness. Is your 80 really random? Todd Carpenter. 

72 Doodle Bug. Pen and paper saver. Daniel Bishop. 

78 Kaleidopen. Computerized kaleidoscope. Robert Nicholas. 

82 Real time Graphics. PEEK and POKE fun, Richard Zidonis. 

96 Inside Level I. Baby brother grows up! Robert Meushaw. 

106 Double Size Graphics. Larger than Life? Bertram Thiel. 

118 TRS-80 Trainer. Display your regrsters. William Colsher. 

124 EDTASM Index. Find references quickly. Terry Kepner. 

HARDWARE 

154 Fuse Fix. Save on repair charges. William Winter. 

INTERFACE 

1 1 1 DECwriter Driver. Terminal I/O made easy. James Beauchamp. 

136 Testing 1,2,3. Check your measurements. D. C. Nelson. 

142 Teletype Interlace. El cheapo printout. Peter Noeth. 

REVIEW 

92 Applications Software. Micro packages. Rod Hallen. 

SOFTWARE 

116 True or False? Computerized pattern recognition. John Krutch 

STYLE 

140 Keyboard Interogatiwi. Key Information? M. Yarbrough & J. Vosteen. 

UTILITY 

88 Hex Display. Turn your FF into Decimal, Dr H Campbell 
132 Buffer Analysis. Display your ASCII. Robert Chambers. 
134 Display Formatting. Tidy screens. Allan Joffe 
146 CLOAD Assembly Language. Get an autostart. Arthur Batter. 



REGULARS 

8 80 Remarks. Wayne Green 

10 Input. Why not you? 

12 DEBUg. /, N. Error 

14 Reviews. Chris Brown. 

20 80 Accountant. Michael Tannenbaum, 

20 Captain 80. Bob Liddil. 

22 The Assembly Line. WtUiam Barden, Jr. 

Cowsr by Clare McCarttiy 



28 80 Applications. Dennis Kitsz. 

32 Unlimited 80"s. Sherry Smythe- 

32 Club 80. ftoss Wirth. 

34 NEWS. Nancy Robertson. 

162 Preview. Next month in 80. 

162 Advertisers Index. 



Eclllor'Publi«h«r 
Waynr Green 

Assistant EdllorlPublishcr 

JpH OeTfay 

Managing Editoi 

jifT) Pe'ry 

Production Editor 

Michael Comendul 

EdKoriat A sai slants 

Emily Gibbe 

TTiomas Peabody 

Nancy Robertson 

Review Editor 

Chris B'own 

Production Manager 

Noe. Sell 

AsststenI Production Manager 

HoDi'i Slodr 

Production 

Stevt! B.iiawin 

Jarnes Burk-r 

Tecia Clutt 

Bob D'ew 

Bii»:p Heilin 

Kentioth j(trk!>ijn 

Claie McCarltiy 

Micnasl Mu(pt<y 

Dion Owens 

Patrice Scrlbner 

Sue Symonos 

Jo^nWtiite 

Typesetting 

Barbara Laltl 

Sere Bedell 

Mary Klnzei 

Karen Podiyckl 

Photography 

Bill Heydoipti 

Terrle ArvaofBon 

Reese Fowler 

Ctecuilve Vice Preskler>t 

Shnrry Sniytbo 

Corporate Controller 

Alan Thulanaer 

ExectMive Assistant 

Lea!' ice ONeil 

Accounting Manager 

Knua Kellc 

Circulation Manager 

DeOia Boudrieau 

Circulation 

Barbara Block 

Pauline Johnstone 

Bulk Sales Manager 

Gmny Boudneau 
European Marlietlng 

Remtiard Nedeld 

Australian Distributor 

Rudi Koess 

A*Mrftoln« 

•OMU-nn 

Kevm Rub ha ho, Mgr. 

Penny Brooks 

Nartcy Ctampe 

Marcia Stone 

Jerry Merrltleld 

Harold Stephens 



M^-iuscripls are welcome at aOMicracornpuffrr^. we will consider publication o4 any TRS^ oriented rnaierlel. Guidelines lor budding auttK>rs are availaCHe. please send 
1 .i-'l addressed envelope and ask for -How to Write 'or 80 Microcomptitirm" All material lo be published wilt be paid lor upon acceptance by the Editor, Address all sub- 
ii.ssions lor the attention of the Managing Editor Entire contents copyrlgnt 1980 By lOOtOOl Inc. No part of this publication may be reprinted, oi reproduced by any 
means, without prior written permission Irom ttie publishef Alt programs are publislied for personal use onty, and may not be reproduced for others. An ngtiis reserved 

ao Microcomputing (ISSN t applied for) is published monthly by 1001001 Inc., 80 Pine Street. Peterborough, NM 03458 Application lo mail second class posiage rate is 
pending ai Peterborough. NH 03458 and at additional mailing offices. Phone 603-9243873, Subscription rates inltieU S are S 15 to' one year and S40 tor three years. In 
Canada $17 tor one year arxl M6 lot three years, in Europe please contact Monika Nedela. Marksli 3. 0-7778. Markdorl, W Germany, in South Africa contact 80 Micro- 
computing. P O, Box 782815, Sandlon. S Africa 2146 Australian Distributor Eleclronlc Concepts. Rudi Hoess, 55 Clarence Sireet. Sidney 2000, Ausiialia All other 
lore>onsubscriplionsE3D(oneyeeroniy)surfacemail. Alius, subscription correspondence should be addressed 10 SO Microcompuring.Subscnptlon Department, PO 
Box 961, Farmingdale, NY 11737 Please Include your address label with any correspondence. Poslmastsf. Send form 1(3579 to 80 Microcomputing. Subscription Ser- 
vices, PC Bon 981, Farmingdale, NY 11737, 



TRSBO Is B irademark of Itw Tandy Corporatton 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 5 



META TECHNOLOGIES 



• NEW* MTC AIDS-MI* •NEW* 

MODEL I . . .S69.95 MODEL II . . .$99.95 

Introducing the latest addition to MTCs lamily o1 data management syilems, AIDS-III, NO 
PROGRAMMING, easy to use COMPLETE PACKAGE including demonstration application, 
documentation and MAPS III (see below) 

• Up to 20 USER DEFINED FIELDS of either numeric or character type, 

• CHARACTER-type tields may be any length (total: up to 254 characters) 

• NUMERIC-type tields feature automatic tormatttng, rounding, decimal alignment and 
validation. 

• Full feature EDITING when adding or changing records: 

ENTER FIELD (fan't type in mo'e characteri than specilied) 
BACKSPACE (delete lasl character typed! RIGHT JUSTIFY FIELD conlenli 

■ DELETE FIELD contents SKIP FIELD (to next or previcms deld) 

RESTORE FIELD contents SKIP RECORD (to next or previous record). 

• SORTING of records is MACHINE CODE assisted 

200 RECORDS i40 characters; m about 6 SECONDS 

ANY COMBINATION of fields ^including numerics) with each field in ascending or 
descending order 

• SELECTION of records for Loading, Updating Deleting Printing and Saving is 
MACHINE CODE assisted 

Specify up to 4 CRITERIA, each using one of 6 RELATIONAL COMPARISONS 

LOAD or SAVE selected recoids using MULTIPLE FILtS- 
- Example Select records representing those people who live in the state of Col- 
orado, but not in the city of Denver whose last names begin with "F" 
and whose incomes exceed $9000 00 

Example Select records representing those sales made to XYZ COMPANY that 
exceed J25.00. between the dates 03/ lb and 04/10 

MAPS III (MTC AIDS PRINT SUBSYSTEM), included at no charge, has the following features: 

• Full AIDS 111 SELECTION capabilities. 

• Prints user specified fields DOWN THE PAGE 

• Prints user specified fields in titled, columnar REPORT FORMAT, automatically 
generating column headings, paging and (optionally) indentation. 

• Can create a single report from MULTIPLE FILES. 

• Prints user defined formats for CUSTOM LABELS, custom forms, etc. 

BELOW ARE TESTIMONIALS from ovtrners of AIDS systems These are absolutely authentic 
statements and are typical of the comments we receive 

"This program will do more tor my business than all the other programs I 
have, combined. ' 

David Wareham, Vice President (EDPi. National Hospital and Health Care Services Inc 

"We have 32 different Data Base Management packages for the TRS-80. AIDS III is easily 

the best. It also makes it easier for us to step up to our Model II since the package is 

available for both computers ' . i n, ■ n -■ . o/^ ». . c 

Jack Bilinski President 80 Microcomputer Services 

"Your AIDS program is far and away the finest informatton management system that I've 
ever seen I am currently using it to maintain a clear picture of the demographic data on alt 
the kids in our residential treatment program and it is working for me superbly." 

Frank Boehiii, Director Front Door Residential Treatment Program 

• COMPATIBLE with AIDS II data files and AIDS subsystems 

• Move up from AIDS 11 and EXPAND to 20 field capability WITHOUT REENTERING 
DATA 

• AIDS 1^ (Model I or II) owners may UPGRADE FOR ONLY J25.00. 

■WARNING' This Drogram 15 wntteti in BASIC and can be listed ir the normal iranner 
MoCif'cattor o) program code is NOT RECOMMFNDFD dje to its exlrerre comDien tv 



mTc-SHIRTS 

HIGH QUALITY. POLY-COTTON 

BLEND T SHIRTS. Whrte w<th Navy Blue 
neck and sleeve ringers ' MTC togo on sleeve 
Top quality transfers of your choice on front 
Specify sue (S M L XL ) and Transfer: 

• META TECHNOLOGIES MAKES EVERY BYTE 
COUNT' 

• DONT TOUCH MY BITS! 

01 I I I I 10 

• RAM If 

. MICRO LOVERS TAKE SMALLER BYTES! 

mTc SHIRTS $5.95 



MAILSORT(Model I) $19.95 

MAILSORT replaces exi&tmK sort in Radio Shack 
Disk Mailing List" system Sort by any combina - 
tion of fiekJs, such as NAME, within CITY, within 
STATE Hi speed in memory routine sorts 300 
records in approximately 60 seconds Minimum 
32K recommended For use with old or new ver 
s»on^ 



MTC AIDSII 

Ailinc lntorm«tx>n'' Doctor it up witti AIDS fl This 
Automated Information Directory System is user- 
defined features user specified fields and 
prinfdisptay locmats, coodttionai record selection, 
updating of lietds within records, sorting by any 
oonibination of fwtds, and mucti more! Unique 
"vrirKtowing" capabifity allows directories of 
untimrted siie Window yie is typically 200 or mofC 
records in 32K Can be used lor mailing lists client 
retererKe reporting appointment calendars", in- 
ventory records and other information systems, 
Eaiy to use. Defining a system UKes about a 
minute Formatting a report or defining a custom 
WmI, less than 30 seconds Sorting 200 records 
takes less than 5 seconds. Add 'subsystems' for 
additional capabilities 

MTC AIDS-II $49.95 

For Model II $79.95 



CALCULATION SUBSYSTEM (CALCS) 

Use for report generation involving basK manipuld- 
txm of numeric data such as quantity & cost com 
piftations balances carried forward dnd columnar 
totals Expands capabilities with respect to inven- 
tory, accounting and otfier numeric tused informa- 
tion systems 

MTC CALCS $24.95 

For Model II $39.95 



MAILING/INFORMATION LIST 
SUBSYSTEM (MAILS) 

Use for report & label generation involving for 
matting of primarily non numeric data, such as 
custom, ' N up and "N-copy ' label forms, 
index-type report formatting, and trimmed fiekl 
capabilities for selection & print Expands AIDS- 
II with respect to client product reference 
systems, mailing lists and other non numeric in- 
formation systems 

MTC MAILS $24.95 

For Model II $39.95 



RECORD/FILE ORGANIZATION 
EXECUTIVE (REFORGE) 

Use for expanding, contracting or reformatting 
AIDS-II flies. Convert rarxlom & sequential files to 
AIDS-II format Use for converting mailing lists to 
AIDS-II Includes MERGE & PURGE capabilities for 
combining smaller dies into Larger ones and remov- 

a; duplicate records. 
TC REFORGE $24.95 

For Model II $39.95 



PEEK&POKE $14.95 

Frustrated because PtEK and POKE bave t>een 
removed from Model II BASIC Satisfy your 
curiosity vnth PEEK&POKE from MTC Included 
are Sbit and 16-bit (LSB MSB) self rekx.ating 
machine language routir>es, instructnns. and demo 
program 



Transfer PROGRAMS artd DATA 
from MODEL I to MODEL II 

TRAN-SEND 



$49»* 



by MTC 



Requires MODEL II and MODEL I with dish & 
RS 232 Simple to use not a tut nothing else to 
buy Complete with custom cable 5' ." & 8" flop- 
ptes. instructions May be used over ptione lines 

Custom Cable only $19,95 

juiliDie tui u-x "itn Radio Sr.ic*" Iraniler iiri;^id(iiAU Qlj;; 



6 • 80 Microcomputing. June 1980 



MAKES EVERY BYTE COUNT 

IN YOUR TRS-80° MODEL I OR MODEL II DISK SYSTEM 



PROGRAMMING 
TOOLS 



TDAM $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Includes MTC QUE Card! 

Having trouble with RANDOM FILES' With MTCs 
Table-Driven Access Method <TDAM) you'll never 
tret over FIELDing again No knowledge ot 
random access files is required Insert the TDAM 
"interpreter" into any BASIC pri^ram and type in 
a lew DATA statements describing the information 
in your tiles TOAM does the rest! Reads and 
wrrtes fields and records of any type (even com 
presses a DATE field into 3 bytes') Features 
automatic file butler allocation, deallocation, 
memory buffering, sub-record blocking^de- 
blocking, and handles up to 255 fields per record. 
Super last and super simple! Complete with 
TDAM interpreter, instructions and demo pro- 
gram 



T 



h 



BuyA.getipppC 

Any 5. $79.80 '^^^ 

For Model II $119.80 

SIFTER $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Twelve in memory high speed sorts tor use in any 
BASIC program: stable, non-stable, with/without 
tags, tor numeric or string data Random File 
Sort included. Some sorts written in machine 
code. Includes sort subroutines, demo programs 
and instructions Relocate as needed with 
REBUILD. 



SHRINK $19.95 

For Modem $29.95 

Makes Every Byte Counts. Make programs 
smaller and taster! Combines lines & removes un- 
necessary code including remarks, without alter- 
ing program operation. Typically reducM pro- 
gram size 25% to 40% 



DIVERGE $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Compares two BASIC program files, showing the 
differences between them Identifies & lists lines 
wtiKh have been inserted, deleted, & replaced 
Use for version control. 



REBUILD $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Reorganize programs for adding program code, 
faster eiecution. readability Much more than sim- 
ple renumbering Rearrange groups of statement s 
within a program - automatically updates 
references to line numbers Use with 
SUPERSEDE and MINGLE lor maximum effect 



> 



MTC TECH B.S. 

Our exclusive Technical Bulletin Service reveals 
the insKJe story on the TRS^aO' I & It Sent by first 
class mail, bulletins are issued as the news breaks, 
not just once a month. Expensive, but worth it! No 
advertising or flyers, just pure Technical 8 S ! 
Cancel any time unused balarKe refunded Free 
year-end subject index with I2month subscrip- 
tioo Subjects have included PEEK&POKE tunc- 
tJons for Model 11", "Machine Language Sort for 
String Arrays'. Tandy Markebng Plans", and 
"Level It Memory Locations" Subscriptions may 
be back-dated to obtain previous Bulletins 

1-Year Subscription 

(Includes free index) $36.00 

Monthly Subscription $3.00/mo. 



SUPERSEDE $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

A 'must have" tor the professional programmer 
or the serious amateur Probably one ot the 
greatest time savers available Write programs in 
shortharKi - change variable names generate 
ogram documentation use with REBUILD and 
ItlGLE to build new programs from old ortes. 



MINGLE $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Merge up to 14 liles (Program or Data) into a 
single file Data liles may be merged in ascending 
or descending sequence with the ordering based 
on a user specified comparison field A very han 
dy utility tor consolidating data tiles. 



Single sided. Single density. Soft-sectored 

DISKETTES 

Verbatim S'Ainch 

N*^^ Box otic 

Quantity 10 Boxes S23.50 

Hard sectored (lO-hole) Boiol 10 S26.95 

8-inch FLOPPIES 

Single-density, Box ol 10 $29 95 

Double density. Box ol 10 $39 95 

RUSTIC LIBRARY CASES 
5. inch or 8-inch diskette case. . , . $3.00 

FACTORY FRESH. ABSOLUTELY FIRST QUALITY 
Minimum order 1 box. NO order limit! 



Complete for Model I with all utilities 
Plus exclusive MTC QUE card! 



NEWDOS +11 

$99 



95 ^y Apparat 
and MTC 



40 TRACK VERSION $ 109.95 

includes REF RENUM. SUPERZAP 
EDITOR AS5EM DISASSEM DiRCHECK. and 
more! This is the original NEWDOS with all of Ap- 
parafs utility programs plus any 2 MTC PROGRAM 
MING TOOLS (for Model I), ol your choice Includes 
exclusive MTC QUE (Quick User Education) card. 
MTC QUE Card only $1.50 



Let your TRS-80' Teach You 

ASSEMBLY 
LANGUAGE 

REMSOFTs unique package, 'INTRODUCTION 
TO TRS-80' ASSEMBLY PROGRAMMING" in- 
cludes ten 45'minute lessons on audio cassettes, a 
display program lor each lesson providing illustra- 
tion & reinforcement, and a text book on TRS-80' 
Assembly Language Programming. Includes use- 
ful routines to access keyboard, video, printer and 
ROM Requires 16K - Level II. Model L 

REMASSEM-1 $69.95 



* 



ik 



The perfect supplement for your 
NEWDOS +, from IJG. Inc. 

'TRS-80 DISK AND 
OTHER MYSTERIES" 

by Harvard C. Pennington 

132 pages written in PLAIN ENGLISH packed with 
HOW TO information with details examples and in- 
depth explanations Recover k)st liles and direc- 
tories, remove file protection, make BASIC pro 
grams unlistable How to use SUPERZAP. recover 
from DOS errors and MORE! 

TRS-80 DISK $22.50 



ik 



All products 

guaranteed (or 

replacement only. 

Prices, Specitications & 

Offerings subject to 
change without notice. 



w 



w 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED 

WITHIN ONE 

BUSINESS DAY 



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TH V 80 ina Rji! iUi.i I'f ic, Vf ' 



^ Header Service — see page '62 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



so REMARKS 

%^^^ bv Wavne Green 



'*As the size of the 

magazine increases, so does 

the postage involved in sending 

it to the subscribers, " 



My editorial on electronic mail brought 
.quite a bit of response. To my knowl- 
edge there are at leasl three firms designing 
Electronic Mail Boxes (EMB), a unit that will 
plug into both your computer and your tele- 
phone. 

Some questions have been raised about my 
proposal. First, I suggested EMB's use 1200 
baud because I felt the currently used 300 baud 
was far too slow. It should be possible to con- 
nect and transfer a one page message all within 
one minute . . . and that requires at least 1200 
baud. 

Suggests 9600 

A letter from Art Brothers, who runs a small 
phone company out in Utah, suggests we think 
in faster terms. He claims that it is possible to 
Jam 9600 baud over a phone line using com- 
pression and expansion techniques. Undoubt- 
edly a lot of you readers are far more experi- 
enced with this than I, so we need some articles 
on the subject. A 9600 baud system which 
would work over any conceivable phone con- 
nection over long distance lines with 100 per- 
cent transferor a message would be wonderful. 
If this is even remotely possible, we should 
work for it right now and not be forced to 
change standards in a year or two. 

We also need to establish proiocols for 
signaling over the lines. Then, we need a hand- 
shake protocol to initiate the transfer of the 
message and a protocol to assure that the mes- 
sage has been received 100 percent error free. 
We can use error correcting codes for this to 
some advantage, but we will still need a system 
for checking the received copy . . . and ac- 
knowledging it's receipt. 

One suggestion is that the EMB automatical- 
ly forward a received message, if desired. Per- 
haps we could get a dump of watting messages 
from any remote terminal. Even if the first 
systems do not have these features, I think they 
will be along soon enough. 

Received messages will have to be stored on 
tape or disk automatically, so that the system 
will be ready for the next message. And (he 
software must be flexible enough that you can 
be writing messages to be sent at the same time 
as the system is receiving one. 

Would we want a duplex switch on the sys- 
tem for immediate two-way communications 
similar to a Telex? Why not? A special signal 
might indicate that the recipient of the message 
is on the line for immediate answer. 

The software should include a word pro- 
cessor so we can write our messages on the tube 
anti edit them. It does not have to have all of the 
sophistication of a full Hedged word processor, 
complete with paragraph movers and key word 



finders. If it does just a little better than a 
Teletype machine, it will be fine for this. 

If there is enough interest in this, I will be 
glad to organize a symposium for individuals 
and firms interested in exchanging information 
so that we may standardize protocols. I think 
that between 80 Microcompuiing and Kilobaud 
Microcomputing I ma\ have enough clout to 
make sure thai the best system becomes a stan- 
dard. 

I believe that Radio Shack wiU be selling on 
the order of half a million computers this year 
and I will be disappointed if at least 75 percent 
of those buyers do not get an EMB to go with 
their system. 

Research Done 

In order to get this project moving, we first 
have to do the research and development. This 
means that the ball is in the air. Most of the 
technical development has been done and the 
results published in one or more magazines. 

Cover Photos 

Would you like the prestige of getting a 
photo on the 80 Microcomputing cover? 

Subject? Generally we like to have some 
photo which shows the TRS-80 — either model 
— in use . . . hopefully with some interested 
people around. 

Submissions will do best if they are larger 
than 35mm. We prefer the 6x7 cm or larger 
format, so we will have clear and sharp cover 
pictures. 

Photographers should keep their eyes open 
for interesting applications of the Tandy com- 
puter system. Radio Shack stores are not ex- 
empt from the competition and a credit line on 
the photo will not hurt business one bit. 

Oh, I almost forgot ... we pay up to $100 
for cover photos. 

The Price Goes Up 

When a publisher starts a new magazine, it is 
always a gamble. Of course I try to keep the 
gamble to a minimum by knowing my trade 
better than most people. I've gotten rather 
good at starting new magazines and having 
them succeed, right from the first issue. In 1975 
it was Byle, in 1977 it v/as Kilobaud Microcom- 
puting and now, 80. 

As the size of the magazine increases, so does 
the p>ostage involved in sending it to the sub- 
scribers or in shipping copies to the newsstands. 
That is why cover prices and subscription prices 
tend to go up. Of course inflation makes mat- 



ters even worse. In order to be sure that 80 got a 
good start I set the cover price and subscription 
rate much lower than normal for a technical 
magazine of its quality. There are several 
higher priced magazines with a lot less in- 
teresting material on the market. 

Starling with the July issue the cover price of 
50 will be S2. 50 and the subscription rate within 
the U.S. will be $18 per year. A three year sub- 
scription is currently only $40. This will be go- 
ing up to $45 with the July issue. 

If you follow the normal pattern of procras- 
tination, you'll do me a big favor and pay the 
higher price. In order to "save money" you'll 
buy at the one year rate and we'll do even bet- 
ter. 1 cxp)ect the cover price to go up again, pos- 
sibly by the end of this year, to $2,95, with the 
subscription rate going to 525 for one year and 
S53 for three years. Why not wait and see for 
yourself? 



See Vou in Hong Kong 

You have always wanted to go to Asia, but 
you just haven't had the proper push to get you 
going. I'm pushing ... so get out your check- 
book and enjoy the ride. 

Last fall I went on an IEEE sponsored tour 
of the Far East and had a fantastic time. The 
tour is running again and you'll want to come 
along and see Asia, it will be from October 2- 
22nd and the cost is just over $2,000 each, a 
wonderful bargain. That includes all plane 
fares, buses, hotels, banquets and sightseeing 
trips. 

Quite a few microcomputer addias and in- 
dustry people make this trip, so it will be much 
more fun than going with undertakers or pipe- 
fitters. The trip coincides with consumer elec- 
tronic shows in Tokyo, Taipei, Seoul and Hong 
Kong. Unless you are made of sterner stuff, 
you will find yourself getting enthused over im- 
porting some of the electronic and computer 
equipment that smaller Asian firms are mak- 
ing. 

Or you may want to take advantage of the 
low cost production facilities for some product 
you are making or would like to make. 

We'll plan on getting together with the presi- 
dent of the Hong Kong TRS-80 club, which had 
over 300 members last year. We'll also visit 
Akihabara in Tokyo, a section of town with 
hundreds of electronic stores. 

If you're interested, drop me a line and ask 
for further information. I think we'll try for 
two tables of computerists — that's about 24 of 
us — so don't procrastinate. The address is: 
Asia Tour, c/o 80 Microcomputing, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458 ■ 



6 * 80 Microcomputing. June 1980 



More for Less. 




Bigger Is Better. 

Expandable storage. Greater Versatility. 

The Vista Model ir Disk Expansion 
System provides one, two or 
three drives, and adds 
up to 1.5 miiiion bytes 
of storage. 

You say you want more disk stor- 
age, more programming versatil- 
ity ... at a reasonable price. Say no 
more. Our Vista Model II Disk Ex- 
pansion System may be just the an- 
swer for you. Choose from 1 , 2 or 3 
drives, already mounted. Each ad- 
ditional disk drive will add about 
1.5 million bytes of on-line stor- 
age to your system. Buy only 
what you need now. As your 
needs grow, you can continue to 
expand your capacity by adding 
another drive. It's that simple. 

But the best part we've saved for 
last. The price. It's cheaper than 
Radio Shack, yet our Model II will do 
everything Radio Shack's expan- 
sion system can do. The only differ- 
ence is our Model M will keep on working long 
after most others have stopped. That's why we are justifiably 
proud of our product's high reliability. And our 120-day warranty. Actuatty, it's 
not hard to stand behind a product — that works — if you know what we mean. 

'Model II IS a registered trademark o( Radio Shack, a Tandy Corpofation 

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The Villa Computer Company 1401 Borchard Street •Santa Ana. California 92705*714/953-0523 ^65 



^RmaOar S»ryicw- S»9 page 162 



80 Microcomputing. June 1930 ■ 31 



cwbSO 

hw Prtcc VA/irth ^^ ^^ 



by Ross Wirth 



'^Someone recently 

estimated that there was a 

backlog of $200 billion . . . 

in software projects, ' ' 



Anew Pascal special iniercst group is being 
formed this month. The coordinaior is 
Richard J. Bonneau, PhD (6 Tanglewood Dr., 
Shrewsbury, MA 01545). Richard is a comput- 
er software consultant and feels more people 
should be made aware of the potential benefits 
of higher-order languages. If you have an inter- 
est in Pascal pass your thoughts and ideas along 
to Richard. 

Do the FORTRAN, FORTH. COBOL and 
LISP users out there desire a special interest 
group for their language? All it takes is one per- 
son to take the lead and serve as the coor- 
dinator. 

Business Special InlcrtsI Group 

A local business group is forming in the cen- 
tral coast area of California. The local coordi- 
nator is John J. Duemler (128 S. Elm St., Ar- 
royo Grande, CA 93420). John works for H&R 
Block and has written and is using data process- 
ing and payroll programs in three H&R Block 
offices. He is currently planning to write a pro- 
gram to check tax returns (a natural). If you use 
a TRS-80 for business and desire to meet fellow 
users, you can call John at (805) 489-1414. 

iLducatlon Special InlMTSl Group 

George Christoph is forming a special inter- 
est group for the exchange of information on 
computers in education. George teaches com- 
puter programming in a Cincinnati Junior 
High School (using seven TRS-80's) and BA- 
SIC programming in the local community edu- 
cation program. The first Information Process- 
ing Tournament, held in Ohio in 1974, was 
sponsored by George. To contact George 
Christoph write to him at Finneylown Junior 
High School, 8916 Fontaineblcau Terrace, Cin- 
cinnati, OH 45231. 

And don't forget about the High School Sci- 
ence Special Interest Group (Richard A. Mar- 
ble, c/o Casady School, Box 20390, Oklahoma 
City. OK 73156). 

Amateur Radio Operators' Group 

If you are a ham, interested in the TRS-80 
this new group may be just for you. For infor- 
mation contact Sam Martinez N3SM, 625 
Kingston Road, .Middle River, MD 21220. 

Gelling Behind? 

Someone recently estimated that there was a 
backlog of $2(X) biUion (that's right, billion) in 
software projects. Are you among all the others 
waiting for the "right" program to be devel- 
oped? If you do not have the expertise to devel- 
op the software yourself and do not want to pay 
the full price for a custom program, there is still 
hope. Offer a free-lance programmer the mar- 



keting rights to the programs he writes for you. 
I often do this for clients and it benefits every- 
one. The programmer gets a little something 
right away and the possibility of a later profit, 
if he does a good job. Vou, the customer, get a 
program to your specifications. The public also 
gets another program to choose from. 

Programming Hint 

To disable the BRHAK key in NEWDOS use 
the following BASIC statement in your pro- 
gram: 



POkb ;.V»61,1) 

To reactivate the BREAK, you should PEEK 
the contents of 23461 into a temporary variable 
before POKting 0, and then use another 
POKE lo replace the original value when you 
want the BREAK enabled. 

I am always happy to hear from you. Please 
send your comments lo me ai 15906 E. 96 St. 
N., Owasso, OK 74055. Please include a self- 
addressed stamped envelope for personal 
replies. ■ 



UNimiTEDSi7*! 



by Sherry Smythe 



Recently, I was given the red carpet treat- 
ment by Radio Shack while visiting the 
Tandy Towers in beautiful downtown Fort 
Worth, Texas, where the West begins. 

It's hard not to be impressed by one of the 
world's nicest private subway systems, a I andy 
Center free service given to the residents of Fort 
Worth. The end of the line takes you to a mall 
whose center attraction is a large ice skating 
rink with all the trimmings — beautifully cos- 
tumed skaters and their pupils. 

Upstairs, about seventeen floors higher, are 
Tandy's corporate offices paneled with oak, 
offering breathtaking panoramic views ot the 
city. 

Tighl Security 

About ten minutes away, amid tight security, 
in what used to be a J. C. Penney's store and 
later a Motorola factory, is now a Tandy manu- 
facturing plant, assembling TRS-80 Model I's 
and H's. Inside, in the austere waiting room, 
visitors sign in, receive passes and wait for a 
tour escort. Mr. Nishikawa conducted our 
tour. 

Everywhere you look Model H's are in all 
stages of completion. Much of the sub assem- 
bly work IS done in the orient, and many of the 
raw materials for this assembly come from 
other Tandy enterprises. The assembly line in 
Fort Worth is a narrow track thai winds its way 
through the room. Each computer rests on a 
flat car that rolls along until the Model 11 is ful- 
ly assembled and packed. Quality is controlled 
by a machine thai can pinpoint any short on a 
board and reject it, if it is not perfect. Every 



Model II has two burn-in periods. One is under 
normal conditions for 24 hours and the other 
under extremes of heat and projected user 
abuse. 

In a smaller area of the same building. Model 
I's are constructed. Only the keyboard-CPU 
unit is assembled in Fort Worth. But quality is 
controlled in every step of the production. 

Mr. Nishikawa keeps his employees com- 
petitive within the organization by recording 
the progress of various construction stages on a 
scries of five or six TRS-80's mounted in the 
wall. Each displays the performance records of 
the departments and the daily percentage com- 
pleted of their assigned goals. 

The number of rejected units is shown and 
teams of employees endeavor to keep their re- 
ject scores low and their daily output high. 

Upgrading 

One pan of the Model I assembly area is 
dedicated to upgrading the machines. Every- 
thing from new chips lo new keyboards are in- 
stalled. 

Repairs are performed in another area with 
special diagnostic equipment that tells the 
operator Just what's wrong and in most cases 
how to fix it. Spooky! Computers fixing com- 
puters. 

John Roach assured me that Radio Shack is 
planning to maintain support on all existing 
computers, even though new and more exotic 
equipment is now being developed to hit the 
marketplace in late summer or early fall. And 
witnessing the thousands of computers being 
cranked along the assonbly line. I believe it. ■ 



32 ' 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



WEVE DONE IT AGAIN! MORE QUALITY ACCESSORIES 
STARTING WITH TSHORT+ ! LVII & DOS SUPER SHORTHAND. 




-^VNOW! WEB'S FAMOUS TSHORT'^ EXPANDS! 



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TYPING PROGRAMS 
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Look at these new Features: 

• NOWi 41 pteprogrammed LV II and DOS 
statement keys 

• NOWI n SAVEABLE KUSTOM keys Ten 
10-character and one 64-cnafactef 

• NOW Includes automatic keyboard 
DEBOUNCE and AUTO REPEAT 

• NOW RELOCATABLE Less than t K Ijytes ol 
mactiine language in low or hign memory 

• NOW Available on tofrnatted DISKETTES (or 
2 Of more drives Comes on cassette (or LV II 
and single disk drives 

• Hold ■SHIFT" or ■CLEAfl' and pfess de- 
sired key — entire slalemeni is lyped on 




TRS-80 Keyboard with Oecais msiallea 

screen Installed CRTL" key can substitute 
tof ■■SHIFT" 

• Complete decal sel (see picture) included tor 
both LV II and DOS systems 

• Features self enienng commands i e 
CONT, GOTOIO, KUSTOM 

• Automatic Close Paren } may be pro- 
grammed in KUSTOM 



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TSHORT+ lormatted 
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• Spec. a. TRS-80 cable with custom Pause 

Reset switches Our optional V cable 
allows 'I to be plugoed ir* wiin oi*ier printers 

• A supenof word processing system 

• Compatible wiih Electric Pencil^^or Radio 
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not required 

• Completely tested and ready to LPRiNT 
TSEL (cleaning and minor 

service included) $795.00 

(Options and shipping extra — caii or wnie tor 
special shipping instructions) 



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The t>est cassette tapes money can buy — 

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Now. the twst ol Iwth worldal A battery aup- 
ported memory giving you READ/WRITE 
capability wHh ROM seeurHyt 

• Use tor retaining important totals/variables, 
utility /system software (i e TSHORT. TLEC], 
development programs, monitors, etc 

• User programmable Write enable switch ■» 
OUT statement ensures memory security 

• External plug-in module Available in either 
IK or 2K ADDR 3000 to 37 Hex 

• Retains memory contents on power down or 
latiure tor 2 weeks or more Buill-m Batteries 
recharge automatically 

• Instant access to memory contents upon 
power up 

• Uses i.nassigned area ot memory No 
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• Compatible with either LV II or Disk Operating 
System (Special cable required for LV Jl) 
TMEM w/lK $124.95 



TMEM W'2K 



$174.95 






TBEEP 2'" 

A TBEEP hit you install inside your TRS-80 

tieyboard. 

• Completely assembled and tested 

• Allach to keyboards PC boatO with double- 
sided toam tape (included) and solder three 
wires to easily located points on keyboard 
unit Installs m minules 

• Uses power from your TRS-80 No battery 
required 

• DEALERS1 Install wfien modifying your cus- 
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four word BASIC command in your oft the 
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"BEEP 2 Kir (witn complete 

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Send Check or Money Order to: 

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,0. Box 60 QF, Monrovia, CA 9101 
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DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 
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FOREIGN ORDERS 
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JipNEWS 



by Nancy Robertson 



Radio Shack Support 
Of Computer Products 



According to siatemenis made by company 
President Lewis Kornfeld in a recent press re- 
lease. Radio Shack is offering wider support of 
their computer products. Computer leasing has 
been available since January. Computer centers 
have been opened in (he 50 major markets and 
on-site service is an option to carry-in service. 

Komfcid stales that the computer centers 
each incorporate "a full servicing facility, as 
well as a classroom, stockroom, sales room and 
display area." 

Charlie Philips, company vice president, ex- 
plains that, theoretically, each computer center 
has an instructor and a technician on the pay- 
roll. Courses are offered in the basics of com- 
puting. Customers are offered advice on devis- 
ing a system of hardware and peripherals that is 
best for their specific needs. 

The on-site service contract will bring a re- 
pairman to your door. To maintain and repair 
the equipment after the warranty lapses, con- 
tracts may be purchased for limited or unlim- 
ited on-site service for the Model II. This op- 
tion is generally available for Model 11 service 
only. If you own abevy ofTRS-80Model I's, it 
may also be possible to contract for the service. 

Contracts and costs for on-site repairs vary 




TRSSO Model II 



from system to system. According to Philips, 
the most common form of the limited service 
agreement provides an installation visit, one 
preventative maintenance call and two remedial 
calls for $500 within a 50 mile zone of the ser- 
vice center. 

Further information on leasing and on-site 
service contracts is available from computer 
centers and from company owned RS stores. 
Check with dealers as well. Computers centers 
may be located through the yellow pages or di- 
rectory assistance in large urban areas. IvOcal 
Radio Shack owned stores can direct rural resi- 
dents to the center nearest them.B 



Three Software Utilities 



There is another editing tool on the market. 
This one. Packer, is sold by Cottage Software, 
614 N. Harding, Wichita, KS 67208. Using five 
options. Packer helps save memory and time. It 
is one of three new releases from Cottage Soft- 
ware. 

Packer is written in machine language, and is 
supplied on two tape cassettes in three versions, 
one each for 16K, 32K and 48K for Level II or 
Disk BASIC. Packer is sold with an instruction 
manual for $29.95. It works with the following 
commands: 

UNPACK unpacks multiple statement BA- 
SIC lines into single statement lines while main- 
taining program logic. It also inserts spaces for 
easy reading and editing. You select the starting 
and ending line numbers, or unpack the entire 
program. 

SHORT removes urmeccsary words (eg. 
LET, GOTO after THEN or ELSE), spaces, 
and remark statements to shorten program 



length. Again, you can specify starting and 
ending line numbers. 

PACK performs UNPACK then SHORT. 
Next it packs lines into multiple statements up 
to the ma.ximum length you specify. It main- 
tains complete program logic, including IF/ 
THEN/ELSE statements, branches, etc. You 
can PACK the entire program or just sections 
of it. 

RENUM renumbers your BASIC program 
lines including all branch references, such as 
GOTO, GOSUB, etc. You may input the first 
line number to be changed, the new line num- 
ber and the increment for all subsequent lines to 
the end of the program. 

MOVE moves any number of program lines 
to any new location in your program, and 
changes all branch references to the new line 
number. 

Cottage Software's Disassembler disassem- 
bles Z-80 objea code into Zilog mnemonics 
and shows ASCII Strings during disassembly. 

With the MEMORY DISPLAY/MODIFY 
routine you can see the contents of 256 bytes of 



memory at orte time in either hex or ASCII . You 
can modify the contents of RAM from the key- 
board. STRING SEARCH searches through 
memory for a string of objea codes to find sub- 
routine calls, compares, register loads, etc. 
With READ/WRITE OBJECT TAPE you can 
read an object tape into memory for disassem- 
bly or modification, and then make a copy on 
tape of any part of ROM or RAM. 

A program written in BASIC that edits Dis- 
assembler for use on a line printer and a pro- 
gram that allows loading and inspection of any 
TRS-80 500 baud tape arc included in the pack- 
age which costs $19.95. 

System Tape Duplicator, another Cottage 
Software product, duplicates machine lan- 
guage tapes. Programs recorded on your own 
equipment normally load more easily, as the 
folks at Cottage Software point out. This item 
sells for $12.95. 

Reader Service ^ 170. 



Machine Code Disassembler 



Datagraphics, P.O. Box 566 Union Station, 
Endicott, NY 13760, is selling DisasKmbler-80. 
This software disassembles ROM or RAM, and 
has selectable output to either video display or a 
printer. It prints standard Z-80 mnemonics, 
with decoded data and addresses, in an easily 
readable format. Disassembler-80 handles all 
legal code combinations and traps illegal codes. 

It provides an aid to assembly language pro- 
grammers arKJ is an educational tool for anyone 
interested in learning the workings of the Z-SO 
microprocessor. The package is supplied on 
tape for 16K Level II with optional line printer 
and is disk compatible. It costs $9.95 for the 
Model 1. It h£is just become available for Model 
II, as well. 

Reader Service ^ 169. 



Products Stretch 
Memory of Models I & II 



For the Model I TRS-80, Vista Computer 
Co., 1401 Borchard St., Santa Ana, CA 92705, 
offers the V-80 Disk Drive System. Available in 
one-, two-, and four -drive configurations, the 
V-80 is a 40-track system which provides I02K 
bytes per drive. Track-to-track access time for 
the V-80 is 1 2ms compared to 40ms for the 
TRS-80. 

A program patch, supplied at no charge by 
Vista, will adapt your TRSDOS disk operating 



34 • fl£7 Microcomputing, June 1980 



system to accommodate the 40-track drives and 
faster access times. Patches are available for all 
existing versions of TRSIX)S. Cables are avail- 
able for two and four drives. 

Another Vista product, Ihe VXM-80 Expan- 
sion Module, operates with the TRS-80 expan- 
sion interface lo provide double density stor- 
age. In other words, toial storage on a 40-lrack 
diskette can be increased from 102K to 204K 
bytes. VXM is priced at S239, including all 
hardware and software. 

Beware; The VXM-80 is designed for use 
with Vista's V-80 Disk Drives, and Vista does 
not guarantee its operation in double-density 
format with TRS-80 drives. 

Vista also offers Model 11 Disk Expansion 
System, which is available with up to three 
eight-inch, 77-track disk drives. A three-drive 
system can add 1.5 Mbytes of storage to your 
Model II TRS-80. giving the system a total of 
up to 2 Mbytes of on-line disk storage. Vista's 
Model M is fully compatible with the TRS-80 
Model 11, and plugs directly into one of the ex- 
pansion connectors on Ihe TRS-80. 

The single-drive expansion system lists for 
$1000, the two-drive for $1550, the three-drive 
for $2100 and additional drives for $525, Vista 
products carry a 1 20-day warranty which 
covers both parts and labor. 

Reader Service y* 180, 



Level II Data Management 



A data management utilitv for the TRS-80 
Level II 32K, TRSDOS or NEWEX>S, is avail- 
able from Standard Systems Corp., Marketing 
Department, 2421 Tanglcwood Road, Decatur, 
GA 30033. 

The program, which is written in Disk BA- 
SIC, is called Customized Record Inquiry/hdii 
System (CRIES). It is menu managed for key- 
indexed records. 

Naturally, the program will EDIT, ADD and 
DELETE records. It will allow listing of record 
keys, searching by examples and merging of 
disk selected portions. 

The disk package contains CRIES, DOS 
command file, documentation and sample data 
nies for S45. 

Reader Service ^ 164. 



Create and Compile 
Graphics and Animation 



Electra Sketch is an animation and graphics 
compiler which is available from Macrolronics, 
1 125 N. Golden State Blvd., Suite G, Turlock, 
CA 95380. 

Macrotronics explains Electra Sketch will let 
you create your own movie sequence or com- 
bine graphics and plain text to create anima- 
tion. 

Electra Sketch works with one-key com- 
mands lo control cursor direction, erase, draw 

vedOTS, fill in backgiounds, ot aeate titles. 
Frames are saved on disk, can be recalled, 
edited and printed on a line printer. 



Saved frames are animated by displaying 
them in either forwarder reverse sequence. The 
speed of the animation can be changed in 10 
increments from slow motion to rapid play. 

Mac^ot^onic^ is charging $14.95 for Electra 
Sketch, A catalog of 30 Macrolronics products 
is available without charge. 

Reader Service ^ 163. 





Examples of Elecira Sketch graphics 

Series 8000 Medical & 
Dental Management Systems 

The Series 8(XK) Medical and Dental Manage- 
ment Systems for the TRS-80 Model II land 
most other 32K CP/M disk based microcom- 
puters) upgrades Univair, Inc.'s early version 
of the package. 

Among other things, the new features in- 
clude automatic display and computation of 
normal office charges, improved patient sched- 
uling routines, alphanumeric paiicnl sorting 
and archiving, provisions to link special user- 
developed programs into the main menu, and 
detailed operators manuals. 

Series 80(K) Medical -'Dental Systems are on 
sale from Univair, Inc., 10327 Lambert Int. 
Airport, St. Louis, MO 63145 for S495 each. 
The price includes telephone consultations on 
initial set-up. Series 2000 owners may upgrade 
their systems at a cost of $100 and will receive a 
new Mx-movilh 'warranty. Operators manuals 
may be bought separate!) for S15. 

Reader Service t^ 177. 



Accounts Receivable/ 
Invoicing for Model II 



Accounts Receivable/ Invoicing Svsicm for 
Ihe TRS-80 Model II is available from laranio 
& Ass., Inc. The package design is the rt'sull of 
users' experience with Taranto's Model I L.on- 
version of the Osbornc/McGraw-Hill Ac- 
counts Rcvcivablc book, and has also been ex- 
panded to include an mvoicc program. 

Customer and \n\ oicc files are kev coiurnlled 
for quick access, lip lo 51 items may l>e billed 
on a single in\oice. Both invoices and state- 
ments are pruued. Package users deliric salc^ 
lax rates as ihcy appiv to each customer. C us- 
[onier service charge rales are also defined b> 
users. These functions are then computed as 
thev apply. 

The package generates reports which list in- 
voices thai have not been billed, open items, 
closed items, and an aitalysis of age and open 
items. 

Osborne/McCiraw-Hill's Acmiint^ I'ayuhle/ 
Accounts Heci'ivablf Wan^ Hook documeiils 
much of the package and must be used in con- 
junction with il. Both the book and the package 
are a\ailable from laranio & .Ass,. Inc., Box 
6073, 4136 Redwood Hwy.. San Kalad. CA 
'*49()3, The book costs S20. Accouuis Receiv- 
able/Invoicing S>sicm costs S249.95. 

Reader Service «^ 162. 



Data Base Management 



IDM-M2, an interactive data manager for 

the TRS-81) Model II. provides a general pur- 
po.se approach to data base managenient. Mi- 
cro Archileci, who produces IDM-M2, sug- 
gests ihai il allows many applications lor users 
without ihe technical knowledge required by 
most data base programs. 

The package is a conversion of IDM-IX tor 
the Model 1 wiih additions, li includes ivso 
levels of st'curiiy, up lo 40 fields, search com- 
mand, statistics and error trapping. Ihe re|-H)ri 
generator has optional column jusiiflcJlion, 
dating and automatic paging and a record selec- 
tion range. The report writer includes Held ad- 
dition and subtraction, and operators lor filter 
criteria, field updaies, record deletion and a 
display formal tor records. 

IDM-M2 is written in BASIC, It requires 
64K memory, I he package is priced at SI Wand 
is sold by Micro Architect. 96 Dolhaii Si,, Ar- 
lington, MA 02 1 74, Demonstrations can be ar- 
ranged. 

Reader Service i^ 176. 



32K Expansion Interface 



An expansion interface for the TRS-80 called 
Model LX80 is available from Lobo Drives Int. 
It expands memory capacity up to 40 million 
bvies. or.32Kof RAM. 

A switch permits overriding the keyboard 
ROM for booting in diagnostics and cuslom- 



'Ra^a^f Service ~s*9pag0 162 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 35 



i/edopcraiingsyMems. Connectors for ihc 5.25 

and eight-inch tloppy disk drive and other pe- 
ripheral devices arc located on the side and rear 
panels. 

Other features include a parallel Cenironics 
printer port; a port for ihe Lobo Drives Model 
7710T Winchester hard disk drives, a screen 
printer port, two microproces,sor -cent rolled bi- 
directional serial ptoris and a crssial controlled 
real time clock. 

The interface is sold by 1 oho Drives int.. 
50K2 Shirley Drive. 1 aPalma. C A 9062.1 tor 
$525. Dealer discounts Lire available, 

Keadcr Service i-- |7K. 




Loho Drives' Expansion Interface. 



Nevada COBOL for TRS-80s 



Business MicropriHlucis. I ivermore linan- 
cial Center. I83H C'atalina Ct.. livermore, CA 
94550, has the Nevada COBOL, compiler avail- 
able for the TRS-SO Model I and II. The com- 
piler has been running for one year under 
I'TlX)SandMas converted toCP .M in 1979. Ii 
has been relocated lo 42(K)H for ihc Model I. 
v^hile the Model II v^o^ks v»iih Ihe standard 
< P M. 

Nevada C'OUOL by Kills Computing was de- 
signed specifically for small businesses using 
microprocessors. It quickly translates source 
language programs into machine language pro- 
grams and is simple to use. 

The compiler is a subset of .■\NSI-74 and in- 
cludes random access file support, both fixed 
and variable length sequential files, debugging 
capability, copy siaiemeni, character siring, 
16-bil binary and packed decimal (COMP-.1) 
datatypes. IH-digii accuracy, hexadecimal non- 
numenc literals, English language error mes- 
sages and interactive .-XCCtPT DISPI AV. 

Nevada COBOI reguires lf.K RAM. two 
live-inch single density drives, or one eight-inch 
single density drive. 

Including a run lime package, sample 
COBOL program and terminal configuration 
program, ihe compiler is supplied on a CP'M 
data diskette. The cost, including a manual, is 
S99. Documeniaiion is available separately for 
$25. 

Reader Service y^ 166. 



Software for Dentists 



Dcnialware. a package combining patient 
ireaimeni plans with patient billing, is being 
.sold by Caldata Systems, P.O. Box 178446, 
San Diego, CA 92117. Caldala explains that 



"complete v*ord processing capability" is 
thrown into the bargain. 

Besides keeping track of past and planned 
treatment for each patient, the package can 
lake care of all patient accounts. Fees arc set by 
the package user, then the package will issue 
itemized statements and tally balances. Dental- 
ware can also be used to fill and file insurance 
forms. 

Designed for the Model II. Ihc complete 
package costs $2600. (From what Caldata says, 
you get the impression that pulling lecth will be 
just about the only thing left for the dental staff 
to do.) The instruction manual may be pur- 
chased separately for $35. The word processor. 
Word Magic 11, costs $100 when purchased 
separately. 

Reader Service *-■ 181 . 



Dectric Pencil Products 



Several new Electric Pencil products are 
available from Michael Shrayer Software, Inc., 
1198 Los Robles Drive, Palm Springs, CA 
92262. 

The Electric Pencil M is beijig shipped for 
TKS-SO Model II users who have CP/M, It is 
available with three print packages: 
Standard Prim Package runs with serial or par- 
allel interlaced primers. It costs $275. 
Diablo/Qume Print Package works with serial 
versions of the Diablo and Qume Micro Sprint 
5 printers, ll is priced at $300. 
NFC Print Package works with serial interface 
NFCs onlv. The price is $300. 

.Ml ihese packages contain fractional charac- 
ter spacing (pseudo propctrlional), bidirectional 
printing, boldface and automaiic negative line- 
feeds. 

The TRS-80 Model II TRSIXiS version of 
the Electric Pencil II lor non CP/M users is 
alsti available. Additional features in this ver- 
sion are word left, word right, word delete and 
page numbering at the bottom. 

Standard Printer Package retails for $325 
and the Diablo/QumcNEC Printer Packages 
retail for $350. The company makes no up- 
grades or exchanges between CP/M Model II 
and TRSDOS versions. 

Converi is a conversion utility program 
which converts files crcaied b> the Electric Pen- 
cil II to CP M. Files mav be created in assem- 
bly language, BASIC. I-"orlran, elc, using the 
Meciric Pencil and then converted into CP/M 
files for further processing. Convert is available 
for $35. 

Reader Service k^ 16'?. 



Personal Finance Package 



Investment Portfolio System, a data base 
management program with a broad range of 
applications, is available from Personal Fi- 
nance Systems, 1446 Durham Rd., Madison 
CT 06443. 

The program will store and report data on as 
many as 72 securities and review items in the 
portfolio by price, yield, percent gain or loss. It 



provides four special reports: complete sum- 
mary data on the portfolio; current value and 
return; long and short term gain and a security 
analysis report. This latter report provides in- 
formation about return on investment, annual- 
ized yield and earnings and yield gain compared 
10 market index. 

Personal Finance Systems is developing 
other data base management programs, which 
will record sales as well as purchases, issue tax 
reports and Security Exchange Commission re- 
ports and update the data base via a telephone 
modem. 

Investment Portfolio System is available in a 
disk version for TRS-80 32K Lll single drive 
computers, and in a tape version for I6K Lll. 
Both programs are supplied on a single tape. 
The package, including documentation, costs 
$39.95. Documentation is available separately 
for$7..';o. 

Reader Service ** 165. 



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Sample gain on value reports 



Mediamix Typesetter 



Mediamix, PO Box 8775, Universal City, 
CA 91608. IS selling PSRJ + 2.0 for use with 
their IBM Model 50Typewriler/TRS-80 Inter- 
face. This machine language program prints 
out an Electric Pencil text file (or any ASCII 
Hie) using the IBM 50's proptirtional spacing 
lype elements, with full right justification. 

The user can imbed codes in ihe text for cen- 
tering of titles, indenting paragraphs, underlin- 
ing, typing special characters and pauses during 
priming to allow changing lypc fonts for lilies. 
italics, etc. 

Reader Service t^ 174. 



36 • 50 Microcomputing. Jur}o 19^ 



%»4»0 






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^ Reader Service — see page 1S2 



,404)939-6031 



ao Mtcrocomputtng. June 1980 • 37 



The Game 
Of Life 




Dennis Bathory Kilsz 
Roxbury. VT 



Classic among challenges in computer 
programming is the Game ot Life, con- 
ceived and developed in the early 1970's by 
British mathematician John Conway. Life is 
not exactly a game, it is more than a pastime. 
and most ot all, it is a stunning display of video 
graphics for the TRS-80. 

The Game of Life is based on a few very simple 
rules. A universe of beings is created to live, give 
birth, and die. An infinite, random universe of these 
beings //ould be most interesting. On the other hand, 
a limited, regularly-ordered universe is the only reason- 
able way Life can be programmed on a computer, particu- 
larly on a computer of the TRS-80's size. 

Conway's original universe consisted of a regular grid. Any 
being on this grid is surrounded by eight immediate neighbors. 
Conway provided only three rules to determine the fate of these be- 
ings. 

1. A potential being, surrounded by three, and only three, immediate 
neighbors, is given birth. 

2. A being, once born, stays alive if bordered by two or three such immediate 
neighbors. With less than two, it dies of loneliness; with more than three, it succumbs 
to overpopulation. 

3. Every generation of births and deaths is commanded simultaneously. 
This is an ideal computer problem: Examine the current occupancy of each grid location, check the 

number of its neighbors, and readjust the grid next lime around. 

What follows is an assembly listingof the Life program itself, as well as a BASIC listing of a program for generating 
"seed" populations, I call it Playing "God" with Life, 



38 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 




Complete Assembly Code 
Listing Begins on Page 54 



About this Version 

This version of Life was created with cer- 
tain of llie frustrating aspects of real life in 
mind. In the beginning, when the screen 
clears and the introductory text is presented, 
a long delay ensues. Each letter appears sep- 
arately, and the text builds on the screen. The 
machine is taKen from the hands ot the user 
until the text iscomplete, and, even then, will ac- 
cept only the requested input, with no help from 
the ENTER or BREAK keys. 
Take a look at the actions of the program a step 
at a time. The assembly program. Listing 7, gives a 
loading message to the user starting at line 240, The 
following statement is displayed: 



LOADING LIFE9 ■ ' ' WAIT FOR GOOD LOAD" 



THEN ENTER"/" 



Notice, also, that a GOOD LOAD * • * • • message con- 
cludes the process (line 6740), in order to offer a measure of as- 
surance that the program made it. 

The first action of the Life machine program is at line 5190. These 

instructions transfer the opening monologue to the screen a character 

at a time. A call to a screen-clearing subroutine is made, which is held for a 

few seconds. At that point, the first two lines of text are displayed, followed by 

the introductory sentences. 

During this time (approximately 15 seconds), the keyboard is disabled, and the user 

IS forced to summon patience. A final delay holds the message on the screen, followed by 

"another clearing of the monitor. The starting address of BASIC'S "USR" call is put in place (line 

&860), and the user is presented with a message that asks whether a count of the passing generations 

is desired; the keyboard is scanned for a or a i . 

Another delay is ended by a "return to BASIC" message. When the user enters a zero (the program responds only to 

this character), the machine is returned to Level II BASIC control. The main Life pro- continued to page 44 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 39 




In the Game of Life, the pattern of growth 
should be fluid -although (or theoreti- 
cal purposes, this fluidity is not impor- 
tant - the beauty of tho changes is often 
the most important reason tor programm 
ing Lite- But the larger the gnd of beings, 
the slower these changes can be calculat- 
ed by the computer. 

A small (and certainly uninteresting) 
total universe of four cells by (our cells 
demands 16 checks on each cell and its 
Qight neighbors, or 144 examinations in 
all A 20 by 20 grid is still small, hardly two 
square inches on the video monitor, but 
demands about 3.600 distinct cell checks. 

The TRS-80 video graphics system of- 
fers an irresistible arrangement of 48cells 
deep by 128 cells wide-6,144 in all- For 
that large a grid, over 55,000 cell examina- 
tions have to be made to complete each 



generation 

After that introduction, the game may 
sound like a dry process, but the screen 
patterns produced are beautiful designs 
that are often referred to by names such 
as gliders, ponds, space ships, flashers, 
trafhc lights, and by more poetic terms 
such as civilizations, gypsy troupes, 
marauding bands, hermits, and so forth. 
Take a look at the (irst series of photo- 
graphs, 1-6. 

A simple group o( seven beings formed 
In the shape of an arch (sometimes called 
pi) develops over the course ol 1 73 genera- 
tions, producing fascinating symmetrical 
patterns. Through its life, this ctvittzation 
grows larger. 

One interesting pattern, dubbed a glider 
in Conway's original description, is 
among tho group of pentommoes, or pat- 



terns built from five characters. The glider 
goes through a few permutations, eventu- 
ally cloning itself after four generations, 
but moves in an angular path with each 
seUduplication See photos A-D. 

Another of the (amiliar Lite patterns is 
the spaceship, photos E-H. which repli- 
cates Itself in four generations as well, but 
appears in mitrot image every two genera- 
tions. 

The tall bar presented in photos 7-13 
reaches stability much earlier, but during 
that time offers dozens of designs remi- 
niscent of art deco, or. at the very least, 
like an old Wurlitzer juKe twx! 

The third series of photos. 14-6. shows 
three points in the long lite of a random in- 
itial population, which reaches stability 
only after hundreds o( generations. Some 
random patterns will continue for thou- 



»n ktiftn. 



itmn hint' IQRn 




1 1 



u 



II 



1 1 



Photos 1-6: The Lite of the arch pentomino. at binh; generations 18,90. 113, 159, and 
stability at gene/ation 173- 

Photos 7-13: A tall bar created of several hundrea cells, at birth; generations 1, 2, 3, 4, 
12, and stability at generation 31. 

Photos A-D: Life cycle of two -gliders". The glider returns to its original configura- 
tion at a new position in four generations. 

Photos E-H: Life cycle of the "spaceship". Like the gilder, this figure returns to its 
original configuration in four generations. 



PTwiot by D*nnl8 KKsz 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 41 



sands of generations, as a small group o( 
beings might develop m one corner, even- 
tually traveling and overtaking another 
portion of the screen in what could be 
called a battle or perhaps i[Tipenalistic ex- 
ploration or merely Iho mixing of great 
cultures. 

Lite atficionados will talk about Garden 
of Eden pattorns. Tt>ese are groups which 
must be created to exist, that Is. they can- 
not t>G given birth by any other known 
combination of cells. But the greater en- 
loyment tor me Is becoming an observer in 
an ageless master plan - a sort o( limited 
deity with control over a Garden of Eden, 
possessing the power to commit the uni- 
verse to oblivion or make it grow full 

You can create and destroy at will, but 
to change the master plan is lieyond your 
power. We can only observe as the gener- 
ations march by. suspending time to save 
a lew friends, 

II is a programming challenge to 
develop a Game ot Life that makes meta- 
phors like these possible To understand 
this challenge, it is worthwhile to attempt 
to produce a single generation from a 
seed pattern by hand. Let's take a look at 
throe ways of programming Life on the 
TRS-80. 

The first method of programming Is to 
use an entire memory location for each 
cell This means, unlortunateiy, that agrid 
ol only 64 characters across by 16 char- 
acters deep can be used. Nevertheless, 



this IS the easiest choice, and can be pro- 
grammed In BASIC (List mg 1), Each gener 
ation of blocks takes two minutes and 10 
seconds to produce. 

The second method of programming 
Life is to use all the graphics cells that 
make up the THS-80 video system. Each 
character location has been broken up In- 
to SIX graphics points, which are accessi- 
ble through the SET and RESET functions 
in Level II BASIC. However, the SET and 
RESET commands are very slow In order 
to demonstrate quickly the speed at 
which the built-in graphics of the TRS 80 
function, enter the three short BASIC pro- 
grams presented in Listings 2. 3 and 4 

The first of these executes in 60 
seconds, the second, in 10 seconds, and 
the third, fastest of the BASIC options, in 
two seconds, Now, enter the program in 
Listing 5. which POKES into place a pro- 
gram to perform the identical function ex- 
ecuted by the previous BASIC programs: it 
returns to BASIC after a short delay 

The speed of machine language 
changes is considerably faster, because 
once we have put a cycle ot instructions to 
the machmo s central processing unit, we 
can avoid making the dozens of compari- 
sons and calculations necessary to use 
the Level II BASIC interpreter in ROM, 

This Game of Life has been written in 
machine or assembly language. ■ 

by Dennis Kiisz 



10 CLS 

21) DFFINT X,N.O.A.B.C.D.F.G.M.I,J.K,LM 

3U DIMM'U:^'*) U = 191 K K 1S35S 

40 GOSUB JOO 

•M FOHM 1MW) in ll>;i20SrEr'fl4 P0KEMJ2 NEXT M 

FOH X ISJtjO lO IbJHS H 

A = PttMXKn H - PtEK(XMl C = PEEK (X.63| D - PEEK (X 11 

F - PEEKJX. li O r PEEK (X. 63) H = PEEK [X« 64) 1 = P€EK(X + 66| 

IF A = Q THEN N = N t 1 
♦ 1 
-^ I 



W 

A) 

80 

90 

100 IF B ■. QTHENN = N 

1I0IFC = QTHENN = N 

tZOIFD Q IHENN = N ♦ 1 

IX IFF = orHEN N = N > 1 

140 IF G ^ OTHCNN :: N + I 

150IFH - QTHENN ^ N ♦ 1 

160 IF I - OTHLNN ~ N + 1 

170 UXK) ' N 

180 NEXT X 

200 FOR X = 1&360 TO 16383 

210 IF UXK) = 2 THEN 240 

2X IF UX-Kl := 3 THEN POKE X.t91 GOTO 240 

230 POKE X,32 

240 NEXT X 

2» GOTO 50 

300 FOR X 1W60 TO 16383 

310 J -- HNDlT) IF J 1 THEN POKE X.191 

320 NEXT X 

330 HETURN 



Program Listing 1. Simplified Life in BASIC. 



10 CIS 

mrOHX = OTOAF 

-WFORV = OTO 127 

40SET|Y.Xt 

•M NEXT rjt 

tiUGOIOW) 

Program Listing2. Screen wtiite-out 
using SET and RESET functions 



10 CLS 

.-11 FOH X = 15360 TO 163B3 

JOPOKfc X.IHI 

40NFXTX 

MGOIO** 

Program Listings. Screen while-out 
using POKE commands. 



iocls 

X CLtAH 100 
30FOHX = I TO 15 
40 PRINT STHING*64,19'} 
50 NEXT X 
60 GOTO 60 

Program Listing 4 Screen whiteout 
usmg PRINT STRINGS tunclion 



10 CLS 

Ht IXU A(30l 

10 l-OHX = I 10 27 

40 HLAUAIX) 

'jO next X 

60 l)AIAJ3.0.b0,1 7,1,60.1.236.3.54.191.237. 

1 76,6.^ 
rx) 0AIA33.255,25b43,l24,1«l, 194,18.127. 

16,245,201 
80 FORX = 32612 TO 32M8 
10 POKE X.A(X 32511) 
UXJ NIXI X 

1 10 (>OKf 1652(>.0 ; POKE 1652M27 
120 M % = USH(Ol 
130 CLS 

Program Listing 5. Screen wfjite-out 
in machine language lumping from 
BASIC. 



Photos 14-16: A large random 
universe, at hirih. at generation 306. 
and finding stability at generation 
696. 



42 • 80 Microcomputmg, June 1980 




for the T1iS-80 from Micro- Wlega 



CAasnTE COWTWOL UWIT 

• S/>»«ruC row e»*t»f>9 »•• "•"<* ''"O • P^nuuiy^i e'os'i'" •oeii-oni o» f«i» ■ifi •i •uff*» monitai • 

plugging Mrnl unplugging of rvcoratf CJftWA 

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mmnvtl ionlrjtt of It** l9CO^»r at Ih0 lltck of * tmttcfi Want to llnO rA* 

boginn-ng o' ■ntf of •0n>ar*m' Flic* ■IKIin*' loKCACM yoi/ll tioo' ll *ll 

ctDHi t*mam piuooil m oil (>w fiTi* 

rfi> Winn Mvd* rmtdi* Conr'a' Un>i Oori I »( 10 imtiiDiF* tn* wi(w*' 

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momht twtoftimi ino III ctana amr /milt iftio in* uitii thtCtit*ii» 

Conlrol (Mil II (•MO'MloMcCrn-*! laMMW. ftwl *•)! M MBtf WM nw>r 
Oflt' 'VCO'V*'* *> ««JJ 




WSSfrrf CONTROL UNIT. , , 
Ada $1 00 for po&tag» anH harttJIing 



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• Raadat Smrvice-s^e pagt '62 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 43 



From page 39 

gram has not yet been activated. 

At this point, a set of "seed" civilizations can be created. This arti- 
cle includes a BASIC listing that will create 20 seed populations. 
(See Listing 6.) 

TRS-80'5 video system has two kinds of blanks, represented by 
decimal values 32 (a character space) and 128 (a graphics blank). 
Both these characters appear the same to the eye, but have entirely 
different results in the Life program. When clearing the screen for 
use with Life, it is essential that character 126 (hexadecimal 80) be 
used. The following subroutine will produce the desired effect: 



10CLS 

20 FOR X = 1536010 16363 

30 POKEX.128 

40 NEXT X 

Program Listing 8. Clears the screen before jumping to Lite. 



Now a seed population can be created on this blank field. Here is 
a section of Listing 6: 



2300 GOSUB 9999: REM " CLEARS SCREEN WITH CHAR 128 
2310 FOR X ^ 15817 TO 15860 
2320 POKE X,19) 
2330 NEXT X 
2340 M% = USR(0| 



Following the screen-clearing, these lines will POKE a graphics 
pattern into place that looks like this: 




It is created from a dense bar of graphics cells, and will eventually 
tollow the pattern shown in photos 18-21. Through the USR(O) com- 
mand, the program now jumps to the machine language Game of 
Life routines. 

The Action ol the Program 

The first action of the program is to save the BASIC stack pointer 
(line 280). The reason for this is that the program as a whole (the seed 
program and the Life program) will be using two stacks — one for the 
video display work area, and the other for the BASIC seed programs. 

Next, the generation count is set to zero, and the upper and lower 
borders of the video workspace are blanked. This blanking is 
necessary because unwanted neighbors to cells in our real popula- 
tion may intrude upon the territory of our universe and produce mu- 
tant births. 

Now the pattern on the screen is transferred to a scratchpad, or 
workspace, elsewhere in memory. Have you ever noticed the black 
s\reaks that detract trom the continuity of the screen display when 
graphics are being drawn? There is a very short period of time when 
the video memory circuits must be taken over by the rest of the com- 
puter system in order to place intormation on the video screen, or, 



less often, to read Information that is there. 

The memory Is taken out of the video scanning circuit for a very 
brief moment, so the display blanks out. The more times we need to 
dip into the video, the more black streaks there will be. In order to 
prevent our Life display from becoming a jittery mess, you can 
remove the information displayed as a block and place it elsewhere, 
whereyoucanplunderit at will. The screen then remains passive un- 
til the altered block is transferred back to the monitor. 

Two very important instructions appear in lines 610 and 760. 
These commands, which appear early in the program, load values in- 
to each of the two index registers available in the Z-BO microproces- 
sor chip. In fact, without these two registers, you could not attain the 
speed of this game. 



Program Listing 6. BASIC Seed Populations 

II CLS 

15 - SPACESHIP 

20 PHINT?46B, "PLAYING GOD KITH LIFE: 
•STARTS* 

30 FOflX-lTO20fl0;NEXT 

4B PRINT'ENTER 1 FOR INSTRUCTIONS 

ENTER 2 FOB GRAPHICS CHARACTER LIST 

ENTER 3 FOR LIST OF SEED CHARACTER PROGRAMS* 

50 PRINT; INPUT-ENTER 1, I OB 3-;A 

60 !FA"lCOTO10e 

70 IFA-2GOTO1000 

Si IFA.3GOTO20B0 

100 CLS 

110 PBINT'PLAYINC GOD WITH LIFE MUST START WITH A BASE 

CIVILIZATION CREATED BY A SEED PROGRAM, THIS PROGRAM 
USES TBE-BB'S GRAPHICS CHARACTERS SET, WHICH IS 
PRESENTED A BIT LATF.R IN THIS PROGRAM." 

121 PRINTiPRINT-ASCII CHARACTER 128 -- CHRS(12ai -- IS A 
GRAPHICS BLANK. ALL THE SEED PROGRAMS FIRST CLEAB THE 
SCREEN WITH THESE BLANKS, THEN PBODUCE A STARTING 
CIVILIZATION USING THE TBS-B0 GRAPHICS "( 

121 PRINT'CHARACTERS. FINALLY, THE SEED PROGRAMS JUMP INTO 
THE MACHINE LANGUAGE *LIFE* PROGRAM." 

130 PflINT:PRINT"REMEMBER, YOU MUST HAVE ALREADY ENTERED THE 
•LIFE9' SYSTEMTAPE THAT PRECEDES THIS ";CHRS(34)j 
■STARTS";CHRS 134) ;" SECTION, OR A FC EHROR?WILL BE 
GENERATED.' 

UB FORX.1TO10000:NEXT:CLS:GOTO40 

10 00 CLS 

1010 FCRX-128T0155STEP4 

1020 PRINTX;CHRS(X) , X*l ;CHRS IX* 1) , Xt2 ;CHRS (X*2 ) ,X'3 ; CHRS (X-'3) 

1025 PRINT 

1030 NEXTX 

104B INPVT-PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE";X 

1045 CLS 

1B5B F0BX-156TO163STEP* 

106 B PRINTX,-CHRS 1X1 ,X*1;CHRS(X*1) ,X-2;CHRS(X*2) ,Xi-3i 
CHRS(X*3) iPRINT 

107B NEXTX 

1B8B INPIIT'PRESS LNTEK TO COIJT I NUE " ; X 

1B90 FORX-la4T0191 

1100 PR1NTX;CHRS(X1 :PWINT 

1110 NhXTX 

112B INPUT'ENTER 1 TO Rl'.VIKW, 2 TO RETUHN";B 

113B IFB-1GOTO1000 

1140 IFB«2GOTO40 

2B00 CI.S:PRINT"ENTER THE NUHBER OF THE SEED PATTERK DESIRED:' 



11 - ARCH IPI) 

12 - LONG BARGE 

13 - tnHGi. BLOCK 

14 - GLIDF.BS 

16 - TALL RANDOM 

17 - TV.-0 ARCHES 90 DEG. 



2B1B PRINT" 1 - RANDOM 

2 - BOX 

3 - LONG BAR 

4 - SMALL RANDOM GROUP 

5 - TALL IlAJf 
2020 PRINT" 6 - KIXED SEEDS 

7-4 RANDOM GROUPS 

B - FLASHERS & GLIDERS 18-2 DIAGONAL RAKDOMS 

9 - THIS SQUARES 19 - THICK SOUAFES 

2030 PRINT" 10 - SPARSf RANDOM 20 - E:JRPRIEE" 

204B PRINT: INPUT'ENTER 1 THROUGH 20',-C 

2050 ONCGOTO210B,220B, 2300, 240B,250B,26BB, 27 BB.2B0B. 2900,3000, 
3100, 3200,3300, 3400,3510, 3600,3700, 3809, 3900, 4000 

21B0 GOSUB9999 

2110 FOHX-15360TO163e3 

2120 Y-1274RND(64) 

2130 POKEX,Y 

2140 NEXTX 

2190 Mt-USR(0) ;GOTO200B 

2200 COSUB9999 

2210 POKEl5B29,le3:POKE15a30,149 

2290 Mt-USR10) :GOTO2B00 

2300 GOSUB9999 

2310 FORX-15B17TO15a60 

2320 P0KEX,191 

2330 NEXTX 

2390 Kt-U5R(0; :GOTO2000 

2400 GOSUB9999 

2410 FORX-15700TO15716:V-127-.RND:6 4) : POKEX, Y : NEXTX 

24 20 FORX-15764TO157B0:Y-127*RND(6 4) : POKEX , Y : NEXTX 

24 3 FORX.15B2BT015844:Y-127tRND16 4; : POKEX , Y : NEXTX 

244 FORX-15892TOlS90e:Y-127tRND(64) : POKEX, Y ! NEXTX 

2490 Ht-USR(0) :GOTO20B0 

2500 GOSUB9999 

2510 F0RX-61TO67 

2520 FOBV-3T042 



44 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



Load the first index register (IX) with the first memory cell in the 
workspace. Index register lY is crucial: its value is the same as that 
of the new stack pointer. Initialize the stack at 7AEF (recall line 320), 
and now push six fresh zero bytes onto it (lines 710 to 740). In this 
way you can manipulate individual bytes near the top of the stack at 
will. These bytes are left on the stack, and the stack grows as the 
program progresses, but you still retain control over the contents 
without digging through the stack and piling heaps of bytes all 
about. 

This extensive manipulation of data is necessary because of the 
crude but serviceable graphics in the TRS-80. A byte of data is eight 
bits wide; bits through 5 normally define ASCII characters and con- 
trol codes (carriage returns, etc.), and bits 6 and 7 are ignored. But in 



iPOKEX.YiNEXTX 
iPOKEX.YiNEXTX 
:POKEX,yiNEXTX 



:POKEX,Y:NEXTX 
:POKEX,Y:NEXTX 
iPOKEX.YiNEXTX 



:HEXTX 
:NEXTY 



3111 
3120 
3131 
ia4B 
3B9I 



2S3I SET(X,y) 

254fl KEXTY,X 

259B NI-USR(fl] iCDTC2iae 

26a> GOSUB99S9 

2filB FOHX-15«BflT01B4»B:V-127+BMD(64) : POKEX, Y :NEXTX 

26 2 B E'ORX-lS4fi4T01S47 2:Y-127'fRND(e41 : POKEX , Y iNEXTX 

26 31 FORX-lG3BBT0163niY-127+RNQ;6 4| 
264fl F'ORX>16 364TOle37Biy-127»RNn(G4) 
Ub9 r0RX-l^B2BTOlbB4S;Y-127*RND(6 4) I 
269B M%-USB(e) :GOT02BBB 
27Ha aOSUB9999 

27 IB FORX-1536BT01537B!Y-127*RND(S4) 
27 2a FORX-lS424T015434:Y.127*MJD(641 
27 3a F0BX-15413T01S423:Y-127*R1JD(64I 
27 4a FOHX-lS477T015«a7:Y-I27+RND(6 4) : POKEX , Y : NEXTX 
375fl rORX-16373T0163B3:Y-127+RND[S4) : POKEX , Y : HEXTX 
27 SB FOHX-16 3B9TOi6319:Y-127*RHD(6 4 1 : POKEX , V : NEXTX 
277fl FORX-1632aT01633a:Y-127*RHD(S41 : POKEX , Y : NEXTX 
27 BB F0RX-lfi2S6TO1626fi:Y<127'>RHD(64] i POKRX , Y : NEXTX 
2798 M»-USfilB) :G0T02Befl 

2BBB C05l)B9999 

28 IB POKE1S99],130:POXE15994,1^5:POKE15857,1B2:POK!:15B5B,144: 

POKE163e9,16 7 :P0XE1G31B,129 
2B2B POKE1S570,183:POKE15571 , 149 : POKEIGBSB , 1 B 3 : POKE16B61 , 1 4 9 : 

POXElS364,ie3:POKE1^3«5,149 
2B3B POKEieieB,183:POKr.lfil61,149 
289a Ht-USRie) :GOT02eBB 
29aB GOSUB9999 

291 a FORX-2BT04a:SE:T(X,^) : SET (X, 171 
29 2B FOBY-5T017 :SET(2fl,Y) :SET(4B,Y) 
293B rORX-77T095:SET!X,2B) :SET[X,41) iNEXTX 
294« FORY-2BT041:SETm,Y) :SET(95,Y) iNEXTY 
2991 KI-USRIB) !COT02BflB 
3BBB aosUB9999 

FORX-1536BT0163BJSTEP3 
.127*RND(25) 

POKEX, Y 

NEXTX 

Kt-USR(B1 :C0T02BBe 
311B POKElSB39,lSl :POKE1584B,149 
312a H(-USR[a) :COTO20Be 
32aB GOSI1B9999 

321B POXElS83B,15B:PaKE158 31,14B:POKE:l5B94,137iPORE1589S,129 
3I9fl «»-L'SR(B) :GOT02flBfl 
3310 C05U59999 

331B FORX-45T085irORY-9TO29;SETa,Y) iNEXTY,X 
339B Ht-USRIB] iG0T02BBa 
34BB GOSUB9999 

341fl PDXE1549B,16B;POKE15499,lH5iPOKElS95e,lG7iPOKE15951,129 
349a Ht-USR(B) :G0T02BBB 
3SBB GOSUB9999 
35 IB POKE157 4 6,144:POKE157 47,lGa:POKEIS81B,16 4 i POKEISSI 1 , 17 6 : 

POKE15812,149 
1S9§ K»-USR(B) :C0T02BBB 
3eBa GOSUB9999 

36la FORX-lS392T01G3B3STepe4 
362a Y-127*RND(G4) :POKEX,Y:NEXTX 
363a FORX-15393T016383STEF64 
364B y-127*RND(64) :POXEX,yiNEXTX 
3G9a Nt-USR(a) !GOTa2BBa 
37afl GOSUB9999 

3710 POKElSB20,151iPOKF:l5821,14 9iPOXE15B59,ie3iPOKE15860,145 
3790 H%-USF10| :GOTO200e 
3800 GOSUB9999 

381B r0RXcl536BTO16383STEPe9:Y-127*RND(G4) : POKEX ,Y:NEXTX 
382 B FORX<1S424T01G3195TEPS9:Y-127*RND(64) : POKEX, Y: NEXTX 
3890 M*=USRI0) :G0TO26B» 
39B0 GOSUB9999 

3910 F0RX-16TO36:F0RY-2T05!SET[X,Y) jHEXTY.X 
3920 FORX-16TOaB:FORY-6T09!SET(X,t) :HEXTY,X 
3 9 30 F0RX-32TO36:FOR¥-6TO9:SETfX,yi :NEXTY,X 
3940 FORX-16T036:FOR1(-1BT013:SET(X,V1 iNEXTY.X 
3950 F0RX-4 8TO57:FORY-24TO3 8:SET(X,Y) :HEXTY,X 
3960 F0RX-SflTO55:F0RY-28TO34!RESET(X,Y) iNEXTY.X 
3998 Ht-USR(B) iC0T02flaa 
4000 GOSUB9999 

4010 FORX-lS3GBTOie383iy-RNI}[255) : POKEX, Y : NEXTX 
4B90 Ht-lISR(a) :GOT02aaB 

9998 GOT09998 

9999 FOBX-1536BT016J83: POKEX, llBiNEXTXiRETURN 
READY 



the TRS-80, these most significant bits cause the video circuit to 
switch from ASCII mode to graphics mode. 

A zero in both bits 6 and 7 will produce the expected letters and 
numbers; but if either or both of these bits goes high, the computer 
triggers a group of circuits which switch out of ASCII mode, and pro- 
duce a small graphics block for each of bits through 5 which is also 
high. It is a simple, functional video system, certainly not high-reso- 
lution, but assuredly better than an entire block per character. 

A diagram of a video memory cell and the bits responsible for 
each "hexant" is given in Fig. 1. 



2 3 

4 5 



Fig. 1. 



Recall that the Game of Life rule requires that we look at each 
neighbor of a cell. If each block were a single byte-sized entity, we 
could evaluate its neightwrs quickly and easily: The one above, the 
one below, left and right, and the four corners. But this TRS-80 bit 
system makes things quite nasty. If we label a cell X, and it lives in 
memory location A, what are its eight immediate neighbors? Well, 
there's more to know. What bit position does this upstart X occupy 
in a byte? Okay, let's arbitrarily say X resides comfortably in bit posi- 
tion zero, thus: 



A 
X 1 
2 3 
4 S 



Okay, seems easy. First neighbor, to the right, is bit 1; clockwise. 
the next is bit 3; then clockwise again it is bit 2. Pretty safe so far. 
Next neighbor clockwise is . . . hmmmm . . . memory location A 
minus one, uh .... bit 3. Better draw that: 



1 
23 
45 



« 1 
23 
45 



Yes. fine. Next neighbor further clockwise is memory location A 
minus 1. bit 1. Still safe. But then, what about the next neighbor 
clockwise? It's a line above on the screen, and back a space. Since 
our screen is 64 characters wide, this is back 64 and back one more. 
Now we've got to look at bits in A minus 65 and probably, if intuition 
serves, in location A minus 64 too. We'd better draw it. 



A-65 


A 64 


1 


01 


23 


33 


45 


45 


01 


I 1 


23 


23 


46 


45 



Yes, intuition is correct. We've got to check A minus 65. bit 5. and 

Continue to page 46 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 ■ 45 



adjust data within a certain geography of the register's base value. 
You may, for example, change the contents of memory location IX, 
IX-32, IX + 17 and so forth. The relative jump instruclion is one byte 
shorter than an absolute jump, saving considerable time in this pro- 
gram requiring thousands of jumps. 

Finally, we need to preserve not only the BASIC stack (which is 
fairly large) for use with the seed programs, but also maintain an ex- 
tensive stack of values analogous to the video pattern we are ad- 
justing. 

We know further that a check of all the cells in a given memory 
location must be made; thus, our algorithm for cell checking should 
probably be done within the context of one memory address at a 
time. If there are six cells in a video memory location with eight 

Continue to page 48 



A minus 64, bits 4 and 5. That's quite a lot of manipulation there, and 
there are six different bit possibilities tor every memory location! 
And to make matters worse in terms of speed, a machine operation 
to check the presence of a bit is itself four bytes long. 

Get a Cup of Coffee 

)f this were in my living room and not a magazine article, I would 
invite you to have a cup of coffee, sit back, and clear your mind. It 
took me three months and eight versions of the program to discover 
the key to speedy operation. 

My solution to the fast Game of Life algorithm would not have 
been possible if the designers of the TRS-80 had chosen another of 
the popular microprocessor chips. The two index registers— 16-bits 
wide—are needed, so also are relative jump instructions, bit test 
and manipulation, and an extensive stack movable anywhere in 
memory. The index register, you may recall, allows you to store and 




Photos 18-21: A long bar universe created from several hundred 
cells, at birth; generations 2, 6, 13, and 14. 



AB * 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 




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neighbors each, that comes to a total of 48 evaluations. 

Before your cup of coffee, we were attempting to test a cell and all 
of its neighbors. It we test cell X in bit of memory location A, then 
bit 1 is among its neighbors. Later, we will need to know, for exam- 
ple, the neighbors of bit 2 in memory location A. Or the neighbors of 
bit 3. Or the neighbors of bit 5 in memory location A minus 64. If we 
make our eel I checks independent of each other, we will be engaging 
in enormous redundancy. If cell X has eight neightwrs, then doesn't 
it follow that cell X is itself the neighbor ot eight other cells, in- 
cluding the ones just mentioned? Aha! 

Examine the diagram below. 

5 4 5 4 

10 10 
3 2 3 2 

6 4 5 4 

10 10 

Here we have a video memory address together with all the in- 
dividual cells that can be considered its immediate neighbors. In all, 
only 20 cells need to be examined to determine the fate of all six be- 
ings in that memory address. Let us now assign this memory ad- 
dress to register IX: all the needed addresses are well within the 
relative addressing range o1 IX: IX-65, IX - 64, IX-63, IX-1, tX. 
IX -H. IX + 63, IX + 64 and IX + 65. 

Return again to the assembly listing, t>eginning at line 800. This is 
the test for bit 5 in address IX -4t (the listing uses hexadecimal 
notation since the screen is numbered in even blocks of 40 hex). 
Twenty bit tests are made, identical to the pattern described above. 

What is done with the result of each bit test? You could store the 
result, using standard instructions, elsewhere in memory, in- 
crementng to the next or decrementing to the previous address as 
necessary. But this process consumes considerable time, and re- 
quires that flag resisters be saved, addition or subtraction be per- 
formed and so forth. 

Instead, look at lines 710 through 760. Here, you may recall, six 
empty bytes were pushed onto the stack, and the lY register was 
given to the top {actually, to the bottom, as the Z-80 stack moves 
downward in memory) stack value. If each byte in the stack 
represents one bit or being, then lY can sum the neighbors of being 
(bit) 5. lY -t- 1 can hold the total neighbors for bit 4. and so on. This is a 
terrible waste of memory, you may insist; I agree. It Is, however, the 
fastest way of completing the Game of Life computations using the 
80's complex graphic bit system. 

Is Your Neighbor Alive? 

Let's follow this process through. Bit 5 of IX -41 is tested. If the 
neighbor is alive (result of the bit test equals one), increment the 
value stored in lY -t-5. If not, skip It. going on to test bit 4 of IY-40. If 
this neighbor Is alive, increment the value stored in lY-f Sand lY -f 4. 
Why in two locations? Because bit 4 of IY-40 is neighbor to two 
cells in our memory location, cell and cell 1. If this neighbor is not 
alive, skip to the next test. 

Time for more coffee. Just to be sure, follow each bit test in lines 
800 through 1670 of the assembly listing. Test a bit. Is it alive? If so. 
add one to the stack byte representing the memory cells to which it 
is a neighbor. If not. go on. Make 20 tests. When all the checks ar 
complete, the six-byte stack will contain the total number of 
neighbors for each bit in the memory address under observation. 
Finally (line 1680). the memory address under test is advanced. The 
jump to HOLD shown in line 1700 is one of the special features of 
Playing "God" with Life, so for the moment, ignore this command. 

At line 1740, the BC register is decremented and tested; if all 1 ,024 




bytes (400 hex) video memory locations have been checked, the pro- 
cess ends. If not. we go back to line 670 and PUSH six more zero 
bytes onto the stack, each representing a bit in our next universe 
location. Earlier I mentioned that an extensive movable stack is im- 
portant to the operation of this Life algorithm; with six bytes as- 
signed to each universe location, and 1,024 locations to examine. 
this results in a fairly monumental stack more than 6K bytes deep! 

When the examination process is complete, how do we make our 
changes? First, let's see where we are. You have the initial genera- 
tion on the screen, a duplicate of it in a workspace, and 6,144 bytes 
of stack. Your object is to evaluate the stack values, a byte at a time, 
and alter their corresponding cells according to the result. 

At the top of the stack is the last cell evaluated. We begin the 
generation change process at the last memory address in 
workspace, STORE -t-3FF (line 1830). POP a register oft the stack, 
and compare the first byte to 2. If it is 2, remembering Conway's rule. 

Continue to page 50 



48 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



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^RmaOar S»ryicw- S»9 page 162 



80 Microcomputing. June 1930 ■ 31 



cwbSO 

hw Prtcc VA/irth ^^ ^^ 



by Ross Wirth 



'^Someone recently 

estimated that there was a 

backlog of $200 billion . . . 

in software projects, ' ' 



Anew Pascal special iniercst group is being 
formed this month. The coordinaior is 
Richard J. Bonneau, PhD (6 Tanglewood Dr., 
Shrewsbury, MA 01545). Richard is a comput- 
er software consultant and feels more people 
should be made aware of the potential benefits 
of higher-order languages. If you have an inter- 
est in Pascal pass your thoughts and ideas along 
to Richard. 

Do the FORTRAN, FORTH. COBOL and 
LISP users out there desire a special interest 
group for their language? All it takes is one per- 
son to take the lead and serve as the coor- 
dinator. 

Business Special InlcrtsI Group 

A local business group is forming in the cen- 
tral coast area of California. The local coordi- 
nator is John J. Duemler (128 S. Elm St., Ar- 
royo Grande, CA 93420). John works for H&R 
Block and has written and is using data process- 
ing and payroll programs in three H&R Block 
offices. He is currently planning to write a pro- 
gram to check tax returns (a natural). If you use 
a TRS-80 for business and desire to meet fellow 
users, you can call John at (805) 489-1414. 

iLducatlon Special InlMTSl Group 

George Christoph is forming a special inter- 
est group for the exchange of information on 
computers in education. George teaches com- 
puter programming in a Cincinnati Junior 
High School (using seven TRS-80's) and BA- 
SIC programming in the local community edu- 
cation program. The first Information Process- 
ing Tournament, held in Ohio in 1974, was 
sponsored by George. To contact George 
Christoph write to him at Finneylown Junior 
High School, 8916 Fontaineblcau Terrace, Cin- 
cinnati, OH 45231. 

And don't forget about the High School Sci- 
ence Special Interest Group (Richard A. Mar- 
ble, c/o Casady School, Box 20390, Oklahoma 
City. OK 73156). 

Amateur Radio Operators' Group 

If you are a ham, interested in the TRS-80 
this new group may be just for you. For infor- 
mation contact Sam Martinez N3SM, 625 
Kingston Road, .Middle River, MD 21220. 

Gelling Behind? 

Someone recently estimated that there was a 
backlog of $2(X) biUion (that's right, billion) in 
software projects. Are you among all the others 
waiting for the "right" program to be devel- 
oped? If you do not have the expertise to devel- 
op the software yourself and do not want to pay 
the full price for a custom program, there is still 
hope. Offer a free-lance programmer the mar- 



keting rights to the programs he writes for you. 
I often do this for clients and it benefits every- 
one. The programmer gets a little something 
right away and the possibility of a later profit, 
if he does a good job. Vou, the customer, get a 
program to your specifications. The public also 
gets another program to choose from. 

Programming Hint 

To disable the BRHAK key in NEWDOS use 
the following BASIC statement in your pro- 
gram: 



POkb ;.V»61,1) 

To reactivate the BREAK, you should PEEK 
the contents of 23461 into a temporary variable 
before POKting 0, and then use another 
POKE lo replace the original value when you 
want the BREAK enabled. 

I am always happy to hear from you. Please 
send your comments lo me ai 15906 E. 96 St. 
N., Owasso, OK 74055. Please include a self- 
addressed stamped envelope for personal 
replies. ■ 



UNimiTEDSi7*! 



by Sherry Smythe 



Recently, I was given the red carpet treat- 
ment by Radio Shack while visiting the 
Tandy Towers in beautiful downtown Fort 
Worth, Texas, where the West begins. 

It's hard not to be impressed by one of the 
world's nicest private subway systems, a I andy 
Center free service given to the residents of Fort 
Worth. The end of the line takes you to a mall 
whose center attraction is a large ice skating 
rink with all the trimmings — beautifully cos- 
tumed skaters and their pupils. 

Upstairs, about seventeen floors higher, are 
Tandy's corporate offices paneled with oak, 
offering breathtaking panoramic views ot the 
city. 

Tighl Security 

About ten minutes away, amid tight security, 
in what used to be a J. C. Penney's store and 
later a Motorola factory, is now a Tandy manu- 
facturing plant, assembling TRS-80 Model I's 
and H's. Inside, in the austere waiting room, 
visitors sign in, receive passes and wait for a 
tour escort. Mr. Nishikawa conducted our 
tour. 

Everywhere you look Model H's are in all 
stages of completion. Much of the sub assem- 
bly work IS done in the orient, and many of the 
raw materials for this assembly come from 
other Tandy enterprises. The assembly line in 
Fort Worth is a narrow track thai winds its way 
through the room. Each computer rests on a 
flat car that rolls along until the Model 11 is ful- 
ly assembled and packed. Quality is controlled 
by a machine thai can pinpoint any short on a 
board and reject it, if it is not perfect. Every 



Model II has two burn-in periods. One is under 
normal conditions for 24 hours and the other 
under extremes of heat and projected user 
abuse. 

In a smaller area of the same building. Model 
I's are constructed. Only the keyboard-CPU 
unit is assembled in Fort Worth. But quality is 
controlled in every step of the production. 

Mr. Nishikawa keeps his employees com- 
petitive within the organization by recording 
the progress of various construction stages on a 
scries of five or six TRS-80's mounted in the 
wall. Each displays the performance records of 
the departments and the daily percentage com- 
pleted of their assigned goals. 

The number of rejected units is shown and 
teams of employees endeavor to keep their re- 
ject scores low and their daily output high. 

Upgrading 

One pan of the Model I assembly area is 
dedicated to upgrading the machines. Every- 
thing from new chips lo new keyboards are in- 
stalled. 

Repairs are performed in another area with 
special diagnostic equipment that tells the 
operator Just what's wrong and in most cases 
how to fix it. Spooky! Computers fixing com- 
puters. 

John Roach assured me that Radio Shack is 
planning to maintain support on all existing 
computers, even though new and more exotic 
equipment is now being developed to hit the 
marketplace in late summer or early fall. And 
witnessing the thousands of computers being 
cranked along the assonbly line. I believe it. ■ 



32 ' 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



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No printer software requir " " 

Low cost 



,o;^-^"-vitc 




STAND ALONE INTELLrCENT 
PRINTER CONTROLLER 



STANDARD FEATURES: 

• ^/(J CONTROLLED (Z80l 

• 256 CMTR BUFFER 

• DOVtfNLINE COMMANDS 



COMMANDS: 

• JUSTIFY 

• PROPORTIONAL 
SPACING 



SEND YOUR NAME & ADDRESS FOR 
MORE INFORMATION AS AVAILABLE 



TBASE /TCHAIN'" 

2 I'ti.ve'tui winners coming up Waimoyr 305 
'o' release 



TBUFF^— OLD FAITHFULL 

Slop your cassette when it should wrth our 
TBUFF cassette interface buffer 



(Specify recorder make & model 



$ 9.98 



Telephone Orders: 
(714) 559-6249 

PLEASE NOTE All WEB Associates products p 
are designed to worK with Level II and Disk 
Operating Systems unless specified otherwise 



Send Check or Money Order to: 

WEB ASSOCIATES -^'^ 
,0. Box 60 QF, Monrovia, CA 9101 
(California Residents add 6% tax) 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 
UPS/CO. D - ADD $3 00 

FOREIGN ORDERS 
Add 20% ($10 maximum) 



JipNEWS 



by Nancy Robertson 



Radio Shack Support 
Of Computer Products 



According to siatemenis made by company 
President Lewis Kornfeld in a recent press re- 
lease. Radio Shack is offering wider support of 
their computer products. Computer leasing has 
been available since January. Computer centers 
have been opened in (he 50 major markets and 
on-site service is an option to carry-in service. 

Komfcid stales that the computer centers 
each incorporate "a full servicing facility, as 
well as a classroom, stockroom, sales room and 
display area." 

Charlie Philips, company vice president, ex- 
plains that, theoretically, each computer center 
has an instructor and a technician on the pay- 
roll. Courses are offered in the basics of com- 
puting. Customers are offered advice on devis- 
ing a system of hardware and peripherals that is 
best for their specific needs. 

The on-site service contract will bring a re- 
pairman to your door. To maintain and repair 
the equipment after the warranty lapses, con- 
tracts may be purchased for limited or unlim- 
ited on-site service for the Model II. This op- 
tion is generally available for Model 11 service 
only. If you own abevy ofTRS-80Model I's, it 
may also be possible to contract for the service. 

Contracts and costs for on-site repairs vary 




TRSSO Model II 



from system to system. According to Philips, 
the most common form of the limited service 
agreement provides an installation visit, one 
preventative maintenance call and two remedial 
calls for $500 within a 50 mile zone of the ser- 
vice center. 

Further information on leasing and on-site 
service contracts is available from computer 
centers and from company owned RS stores. 
Check with dealers as well. Computers centers 
may be located through the yellow pages or di- 
rectory assistance in large urban areas. IvOcal 
Radio Shack owned stores can direct rural resi- 
dents to the center nearest them.B 



Three Software Utilities 



There is another editing tool on the market. 
This one. Packer, is sold by Cottage Software, 
614 N. Harding, Wichita, KS 67208. Using five 
options. Packer helps save memory and time. It 
is one of three new releases from Cottage Soft- 
ware. 

Packer is written in machine language, and is 
supplied on two tape cassettes in three versions, 
one each for 16K, 32K and 48K for Level II or 
Disk BASIC. Packer is sold with an instruction 
manual for $29.95. It works with the following 
commands: 

UNPACK unpacks multiple statement BA- 
SIC lines into single statement lines while main- 
taining program logic. It also inserts spaces for 
easy reading and editing. You select the starting 
and ending line numbers, or unpack the entire 
program. 

SHORT removes urmeccsary words (eg. 
LET, GOTO after THEN or ELSE), spaces, 
and remark statements to shorten program 



length. Again, you can specify starting and 
ending line numbers. 

PACK performs UNPACK then SHORT. 
Next it packs lines into multiple statements up 
to the ma.ximum length you specify. It main- 
tains complete program logic, including IF/ 
THEN/ELSE statements, branches, etc. You 
can PACK the entire program or just sections 
of it. 

RENUM renumbers your BASIC program 
lines including all branch references, such as 
GOTO, GOSUB, etc. You may input the first 
line number to be changed, the new line num- 
ber and the increment for all subsequent lines to 
the end of the program. 

MOVE moves any number of program lines 
to any new location in your program, and 
changes all branch references to the new line 
number. 

Cottage Software's Disassembler disassem- 
bles Z-80 objea code into Zilog mnemonics 
and shows ASCII Strings during disassembly. 

With the MEMORY DISPLAY/MODIFY 
routine you can see the contents of 256 bytes of 



memory at orte time in either hex or ASCII . You 
can modify the contents of RAM from the key- 
board. STRING SEARCH searches through 
memory for a string of objea codes to find sub- 
routine calls, compares, register loads, etc. 
With READ/WRITE OBJECT TAPE you can 
read an object tape into memory for disassem- 
bly or modification, and then make a copy on 
tape of any part of ROM or RAM. 

A program written in BASIC that edits Dis- 
assembler for use on a line printer and a pro- 
gram that allows loading and inspection of any 
TRS-80 500 baud tape arc included in the pack- 
age which costs $19.95. 

System Tape Duplicator, another Cottage 
Software product, duplicates machine lan- 
guage tapes. Programs recorded on your own 
equipment normally load more easily, as the 
folks at Cottage Software point out. This item 
sells for $12.95. 

Reader Service ^ 170. 



Machine Code Disassembler 



Datagraphics, P.O. Box 566 Union Station, 
Endicott, NY 13760, is selling DisasKmbler-80. 
This software disassembles ROM or RAM, and 
has selectable output to either video display or a 
printer. It prints standard Z-80 mnemonics, 
with decoded data and addresses, in an easily 
readable format. Disassembler-80 handles all 
legal code combinations and traps illegal codes. 

It provides an aid to assembly language pro- 
grammers arKJ is an educational tool for anyone 
interested in learning the workings of the Z-SO 
microprocessor. The package is supplied on 
tape for 16K Level II with optional line printer 
and is disk compatible. It costs $9.95 for the 
Model 1. It h£is just become available for Model 
II, as well. 

Reader Service ^ 169. 



Products Stretch 
Memory of Models I & II 



For the Model I TRS-80, Vista Computer 
Co., 1401 Borchard St., Santa Ana, CA 92705, 
offers the V-80 Disk Drive System. Available in 
one-, two-, and four -drive configurations, the 
V-80 is a 40-track system which provides I02K 
bytes per drive. Track-to-track access time for 
the V-80 is 1 2ms compared to 40ms for the 
TRS-80. 

A program patch, supplied at no charge by 
Vista, will adapt your TRSDOS disk operating 



34 • fl£7 Microcomputing, June 1980 



system to accommodate the 40-track drives and 
faster access times. Patches are available for all 
existing versions of TRSIX)S. Cables are avail- 
able for two and four drives. 

Another Vista product, Ihe VXM-80 Expan- 
sion Module, operates with the TRS-80 expan- 
sion interface lo provide double density stor- 
age. In other words, toial storage on a 40-lrack 
diskette can be increased from 102K to 204K 
bytes. VXM is priced at S239, including all 
hardware and software. 

Beware; The VXM-80 is designed for use 
with Vista's V-80 Disk Drives, and Vista does 
not guarantee its operation in double-density 
format with TRS-80 drives. 

Vista also offers Model 11 Disk Expansion 
System, which is available with up to three 
eight-inch, 77-track disk drives. A three-drive 
system can add 1.5 Mbytes of storage to your 
Model II TRS-80. giving the system a total of 
up to 2 Mbytes of on-line disk storage. Vista's 
Model M is fully compatible with the TRS-80 
Model 11, and plugs directly into one of the ex- 
pansion connectors on Ihe TRS-80. 

The single-drive expansion system lists for 
$1000, the two-drive for $1550, the three-drive 
for $2100 and additional drives for $525, Vista 
products carry a 1 20-day warranty which 
covers both parts and labor. 

Reader Service y* 180, 



Level II Data Management 



A data management utilitv for the TRS-80 
Level II 32K, TRSDOS or NEWEX>S, is avail- 
able from Standard Systems Corp., Marketing 
Department, 2421 Tanglcwood Road, Decatur, 
GA 30033. 

The program, which is written in Disk BA- 
SIC, is called Customized Record Inquiry/hdii 
System (CRIES). It is menu managed for key- 
indexed records. 

Naturally, the program will EDIT, ADD and 
DELETE records. It will allow listing of record 
keys, searching by examples and merging of 
disk selected portions. 

The disk package contains CRIES, DOS 
command file, documentation and sample data 
nies for S45. 

Reader Service ^ 164. 



Create and Compile 
Graphics and Animation 



Electra Sketch is an animation and graphics 
compiler which is available from Macrolronics, 
1 125 N. Golden State Blvd., Suite G, Turlock, 
CA 95380. 

Macrotronics explains Electra Sketch will let 
you create your own movie sequence or com- 
bine graphics and plain text to create anima- 
tion. 

Electra Sketch works with one-key com- 
mands lo control cursor direction, erase, draw 

vedOTS, fill in backgiounds, ot aeate titles. 
Frames are saved on disk, can be recalled, 
edited and printed on a line printer. 



Saved frames are animated by displaying 
them in either forwarder reverse sequence. The 
speed of the animation can be changed in 10 
increments from slow motion to rapid play. 

Mac^ot^onic^ is charging $14.95 for Electra 
Sketch, A catalog of 30 Macrolronics products 
is available without charge. 

Reader Service ^ 163. 





Examples of Elecira Sketch graphics 

Series 8000 Medical & 
Dental Management Systems 

The Series 8(XK) Medical and Dental Manage- 
ment Systems for the TRS-80 Model II land 
most other 32K CP/M disk based microcom- 
puters) upgrades Univair, Inc.'s early version 
of the package. 

Among other things, the new features in- 
clude automatic display and computation of 
normal office charges, improved patient sched- 
uling routines, alphanumeric paiicnl sorting 
and archiving, provisions to link special user- 
developed programs into the main menu, and 
detailed operators manuals. 

Series 80(K) Medical -'Dental Systems are on 
sale from Univair, Inc., 10327 Lambert Int. 
Airport, St. Louis, MO 63145 for S495 each. 
The price includes telephone consultations on 
initial set-up. Series 2000 owners may upgrade 
their systems at a cost of $100 and will receive a 
new Mx-movilh 'warranty. Operators manuals 
may be bought separate!) for S15. 

Reader Service t^ 177. 



Accounts Receivable/ 
Invoicing for Model II 



Accounts Receivable/ Invoicing Svsicm for 
Ihe TRS-80 Model II is available from laranio 
& Ass., Inc. The package design is the rt'sull of 
users' experience with Taranto's Model I L.on- 
version of the Osbornc/McGraw-Hill Ac- 
counts Rcvcivablc book, and has also been ex- 
panded to include an mvoicc program. 

Customer and \n\ oicc files are kev coiurnlled 
for quick access, lip lo 51 items may l>e billed 
on a single in\oice. Both invoices and state- 
ments are pruued. Package users deliric salc^ 
lax rates as ihcy appiv to each customer. C us- 
[onier service charge rales are also defined b> 
users. These functions are then computed as 
thev apply. 

The package generates reports which list in- 
voices thai have not been billed, open items, 
closed items, and an aitalysis of age and open 
items. 

Osborne/McCiraw-Hill's Acmiint^ I'ayuhle/ 
Accounts Heci'ivablf Wan^ Hook documeiils 
much of the package and must be used in con- 
junction with il. Both the book and the package 
are a\ailable from laranio & .Ass,. Inc., Box 
6073, 4136 Redwood Hwy.. San Kalad. CA 
'*49()3, The book costs S20. Accouuis Receiv- 
able/Invoicing S>sicm costs S249.95. 

Reader Service «^ 162. 



Data Base Management 



IDM-M2, an interactive data manager for 

the TRS-81) Model II. provides a general pur- 
po.se approach to data base managenient. Mi- 
cro Archileci, who produces IDM-M2, sug- 
gests ihai il allows many applications lor users 
without ihe technical knowledge required by 
most data base programs. 

The package is a conversion of IDM-IX tor 
the Model 1 wiih additions, li includes ivso 
levels of st'curiiy, up lo 40 fields, search com- 
mand, statistics and error trapping. Ihe re|-H)ri 
generator has optional column jusiiflcJlion, 
dating and automatic paging and a record selec- 
tion range. The report writer includes Held ad- 
dition and subtraction, and operators lor filter 
criteria, field updaies, record deletion and a 
display formal tor records. 

IDM-M2 is written in BASIC, It requires 
64K memory, I he package is priced at SI Wand 
is sold by Micro Architect. 96 Dolhaii Si,, Ar- 
lington, MA 02 1 74, Demonstrations can be ar- 
ranged. 

Reader Service i^ 176. 



32K Expansion Interface 



An expansion interface for the TRS-80 called 
Model LX80 is available from Lobo Drives Int. 
It expands memory capacity up to 40 million 
bvies. or.32Kof RAM. 

A switch permits overriding the keyboard 
ROM for booting in diagnostics and cuslom- 



'Ra^a^f Service ~s*9pag0 162 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 35 



i/edopcraiingsyMems. Connectors for ihc 5.25 

and eight-inch tloppy disk drive and other pe- 
ripheral devices arc located on the side and rear 
panels. 

Other features include a parallel Cenironics 
printer port; a port for ihe Lobo Drives Model 
7710T Winchester hard disk drives, a screen 
printer port, two microproces,sor -cent rolled bi- 
directional serial ptoris and a crssial controlled 
real time clock. 

The interface is sold by 1 oho Drives int.. 
50K2 Shirley Drive. 1 aPalma. C A 9062.1 tor 
$525. Dealer discounts Lire available, 

Keadcr Service i-- |7K. 




Loho Drives' Expansion Interface. 



Nevada COBOL for TRS-80s 



Business MicropriHlucis. I ivermore linan- 
cial Center. I83H C'atalina Ct.. livermore, CA 
94550, has the Nevada COBOL, compiler avail- 
able for the TRS-SO Model I and II. The com- 
piler has been running for one year under 
I'TlX)SandMas converted toCP .M in 1979. Ii 
has been relocated lo 42(K)H for ihc Model I. 
v^hile the Model II v^o^ks v»iih Ihe standard 
< P M. 

Nevada C'OUOL by Kills Computing was de- 
signed specifically for small businesses using 
microprocessors. It quickly translates source 
language programs into machine language pro- 
grams and is simple to use. 

The compiler is a subset of .■\NSI-74 and in- 
cludes random access file support, both fixed 
and variable length sequential files, debugging 
capability, copy siaiemeni, character siring, 
16-bil binary and packed decimal (COMP-.1) 
datatypes. IH-digii accuracy, hexadecimal non- 
numenc literals, English language error mes- 
sages and interactive .-XCCtPT DISPI AV. 

Nevada COBOI reguires lf.K RAM. two 
live-inch single density drives, or one eight-inch 
single density drive. 

Including a run lime package, sample 
COBOL program and terminal configuration 
program, ihe compiler is supplied on a CP'M 
data diskette. The cost, including a manual, is 
S99. Documeniaiion is available separately for 
$25. 

Reader Service y^ 166. 



Software for Dentists 



Dcnialware. a package combining patient 
ireaimeni plans with patient billing, is being 
.sold by Caldata Systems, P.O. Box 178446, 
San Diego, CA 92117. Caldala explains that 



"complete v*ord processing capability" is 
thrown into the bargain. 

Besides keeping track of past and planned 
treatment for each patient, the package can 
lake care of all patient accounts. Fees arc set by 
the package user, then the package will issue 
itemized statements and tally balances. Dental- 
ware can also be used to fill and file insurance 
forms. 

Designed for the Model II. Ihc complete 
package costs $2600. (From what Caldata says, 
you get the impression that pulling lecth will be 
just about the only thing left for the dental staff 
to do.) The instruction manual may be pur- 
chased separately for $35. The word processor. 
Word Magic 11, costs $100 when purchased 
separately. 

Reader Service *-■ 181 . 



Dectric Pencil Products 



Several new Electric Pencil products are 
available from Michael Shrayer Software, Inc., 
1198 Los Robles Drive, Palm Springs, CA 
92262. 

The Electric Pencil M is beijig shipped for 
TKS-SO Model II users who have CP/M, It is 
available with three print packages: 
Standard Prim Package runs with serial or par- 
allel interlaced primers. It costs $275. 
Diablo/Qume Print Package works with serial 
versions of the Diablo and Qume Micro Sprint 
5 printers, ll is priced at $300. 
NFC Print Package works with serial interface 
NFCs onlv. The price is $300. 

.Ml ihese packages contain fractional charac- 
ter spacing (pseudo propctrlional), bidirectional 
printing, boldface and automaiic negative line- 
feeds. 

The TRS-80 Model II TRSIXiS version of 
the Electric Pencil II lor non CP/M users is 
alsti available. Additional features in this ver- 
sion are word left, word right, word delete and 
page numbering at the bottom. 

Standard Printer Package retails for $325 
and the Diablo/QumcNEC Printer Packages 
retail for $350. The company makes no up- 
grades or exchanges between CP/M Model II 
and TRSDOS versions. 

Converi is a conversion utility program 
which converts files crcaied b> the Electric Pen- 
cil II to CP M. Files mav be created in assem- 
bly language, BASIC. I-"orlran, elc, using the 
Meciric Pencil and then converted into CP/M 
files for further processing. Convert is available 
for $35. 

Reader Service k^ 16'?. 



Personal Finance Package 



Investment Portfolio System, a data base 
management program with a broad range of 
applications, is available from Personal Fi- 
nance Systems, 1446 Durham Rd., Madison 
CT 06443. 

The program will store and report data on as 
many as 72 securities and review items in the 
portfolio by price, yield, percent gain or loss. It 



provides four special reports: complete sum- 
mary data on the portfolio; current value and 
return; long and short term gain and a security 
analysis report. This latter report provides in- 
formation about return on investment, annual- 
ized yield and earnings and yield gain compared 
10 market index. 

Personal Finance Systems is developing 
other data base management programs, which 
will record sales as well as purchases, issue tax 
reports and Security Exchange Commission re- 
ports and update the data base via a telephone 
modem. 

Investment Portfolio System is available in a 
disk version for TRS-80 32K Lll single drive 
computers, and in a tape version for I6K Lll. 
Both programs are supplied on a single tape. 
The package, including documentation, costs 
$39.95. Documentation is available separately 
for$7..';o. 

Reader Service ** 165. 



^ 



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iti.at.ti 

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Sample gain on value reports 



Mediamix Typesetter 



Mediamix, PO Box 8775, Universal City, 
CA 91608. IS selling PSRJ + 2.0 for use with 
their IBM Model 50Typewriler/TRS-80 Inter- 
face. This machine language program prints 
out an Electric Pencil text file (or any ASCII 
Hie) using the IBM 50's proptirtional spacing 
lype elements, with full right justification. 

The user can imbed codes in ihe text for cen- 
tering of titles, indenting paragraphs, underlin- 
ing, typing special characters and pauses during 
priming to allow changing lypc fonts for lilies. 
italics, etc. 

Reader Service t^ 174. 



36 • 50 Microcomputing. Jur}o 19^ 



%»4»0 






. this ttigh-po*?,^ that puts It all togeu ^^g 

'mm 



^ Reader Service — see page 1S2 



,404)939-6031 



ao Mtcrocomputtng. June 1980 • 37 



The Game 
Of Life 




Dennis Bathory Kilsz 
Roxbury. VT 



Classic among challenges in computer 
programming is the Game ot Life, con- 
ceived and developed in the early 1970's by 
British mathematician John Conway. Life is 
not exactly a game, it is more than a pastime. 
and most ot all, it is a stunning display of video 
graphics for the TRS-80. 

The Game of Life is based on a few very simple 
rules. A universe of beings is created to live, give 
birth, and die. An infinite, random universe of these 
beings //ould be most interesting. On the other hand, 
a limited, regularly-ordered universe is the only reason- 
able way Life can be programmed on a computer, particu- 
larly on a computer of the TRS-80's size. 

Conway's original universe consisted of a regular grid. Any 
being on this grid is surrounded by eight immediate neighbors. 
Conway provided only three rules to determine the fate of these be- 
ings. 

1. A potential being, surrounded by three, and only three, immediate 
neighbors, is given birth. 

2. A being, once born, stays alive if bordered by two or three such immediate 
neighbors. With less than two, it dies of loneliness; with more than three, it succumbs 
to overpopulation. 

3. Every generation of births and deaths is commanded simultaneously. 
This is an ideal computer problem: Examine the current occupancy of each grid location, check the 

number of its neighbors, and readjust the grid next lime around. 

What follows is an assembly listingof the Life program itself, as well as a BASIC listing of a program for generating 
"seed" populations, I call it Playing "God" with Life, 



38 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 




Complete Assembly Code 
Listing Begins on Page 54 



About this Version 

This version of Life was created with cer- 
tain of llie frustrating aspects of real life in 
mind. In the beginning, when the screen 
clears and the introductory text is presented, 
a long delay ensues. Each letter appears sep- 
arately, and the text builds on the screen. The 
machine is taKen from the hands ot the user 
until the text iscomplete, and, even then, will ac- 
cept only the requested input, with no help from 
the ENTER or BREAK keys. 
Take a look at the actions of the program a step 
at a time. The assembly program. Listing 7, gives a 
loading message to the user starting at line 240, The 
following statement is displayed: 



LOADING LIFE9 ■ ' ' WAIT FOR GOOD LOAD" 



THEN ENTER"/" 



Notice, also, that a GOOD LOAD * • * • • message con- 
cludes the process (line 6740), in order to offer a measure of as- 
surance that the program made it. 

The first action of the Life machine program is at line 5190. These 

instructions transfer the opening monologue to the screen a character 

at a time. A call to a screen-clearing subroutine is made, which is held for a 

few seconds. At that point, the first two lines of text are displayed, followed by 

the introductory sentences. 

During this time (approximately 15 seconds), the keyboard is disabled, and the user 

IS forced to summon patience. A final delay holds the message on the screen, followed by 

"another clearing of the monitor. The starting address of BASIC'S "USR" call is put in place (line 

&860), and the user is presented with a message that asks whether a count of the passing generations 

is desired; the keyboard is scanned for a or a i . 

Another delay is ended by a "return to BASIC" message. When the user enters a zero (the program responds only to 

this character), the machine is returned to Level II BASIC control. The main Life pro- continued to page 44 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 39 




In the Game of Life, the pattern of growth 
should be fluid -although (or theoreti- 
cal purposes, this fluidity is not impor- 
tant - the beauty of tho changes is often 
the most important reason tor programm 
ing Lite- But the larger the gnd of beings, 
the slower these changes can be calculat- 
ed by the computer. 

A small (and certainly uninteresting) 
total universe of four cells by (our cells 
demands 16 checks on each cell and its 
Qight neighbors, or 144 examinations in 
all A 20 by 20 grid is still small, hardly two 
square inches on the video monitor, but 
demands about 3.600 distinct cell checks. 

The TRS-80 video graphics system of- 
fers an irresistible arrangement of 48cells 
deep by 128 cells wide-6,144 in all- For 
that large a grid, over 55,000 cell examina- 
tions have to be made to complete each 



generation 

After that introduction, the game may 
sound like a dry process, but the screen 
patterns produced are beautiful designs 
that are often referred to by names such 
as gliders, ponds, space ships, flashers, 
trafhc lights, and by more poetic terms 
such as civilizations, gypsy troupes, 
marauding bands, hermits, and so forth. 
Take a look at the (irst series of photo- 
graphs, 1-6. 

A simple group o( seven beings formed 
In the shape of an arch (sometimes called 
pi) develops over the course ol 1 73 genera- 
tions, producing fascinating symmetrical 
patterns. Through its life, this ctvittzation 
grows larger. 

One interesting pattern, dubbed a glider 
in Conway's original description, is 
among tho group of pentommoes, or pat- 



terns built from five characters. The glider 
goes through a few permutations, eventu- 
ally cloning itself after four generations, 
but moves in an angular path with each 
seUduplication See photos A-D. 

Another of the (amiliar Lite patterns is 
the spaceship, photos E-H. which repli- 
cates Itself in four generations as well, but 
appears in mitrot image every two genera- 
tions. 

The tall bar presented in photos 7-13 
reaches stability much earlier, but during 
that time offers dozens of designs remi- 
niscent of art deco, or. at the very least, 
like an old Wurlitzer juKe twx! 

The third series of photos. 14-6. shows 
three points in the long lite of a random in- 
itial population, which reaches stability 
only after hundreds o( generations. Some 
random patterns will continue for thou- 



»n ktiftn. 



itmn hint' IQRn 




1 1 



u 



II 



1 1 



Photos 1-6: The Lite of the arch pentomino. at binh; generations 18,90. 113, 159, and 
stability at gene/ation 173- 

Photos 7-13: A tall bar created of several hundrea cells, at birth; generations 1, 2, 3, 4, 
12, and stability at generation 31. 

Photos A-D: Life cycle of two -gliders". The glider returns to its original configura- 
tion at a new position in four generations. 

Photos E-H: Life cycle of the "spaceship". Like the gilder, this figure returns to its 
original configuration in four generations. 



PTwiot by D*nnl8 KKsz 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 41 



sands of generations, as a small group o( 
beings might develop m one corner, even- 
tually traveling and overtaking another 
portion of the screen in what could be 
called a battle or perhaps i[Tipenalistic ex- 
ploration or merely Iho mixing of great 
cultures. 

Lite atficionados will talk about Garden 
of Eden pattorns. Tt>ese are groups which 
must be created to exist, that Is. they can- 
not t>G given birth by any other known 
combination of cells. But the greater en- 
loyment tor me Is becoming an observer in 
an ageless master plan - a sort o( limited 
deity with control over a Garden of Eden, 
possessing the power to commit the uni- 
verse to oblivion or make it grow full 

You can create and destroy at will, but 
to change the master plan is lieyond your 
power. We can only observe as the gener- 
ations march by. suspending time to save 
a lew friends, 

II is a programming challenge to 
develop a Game ot Life that makes meta- 
phors like these possible To understand 
this challenge, it is worthwhile to attempt 
to produce a single generation from a 
seed pattern by hand. Let's take a look at 
throe ways of programming Life on the 
TRS-80. 

The first method of programming Is to 
use an entire memory location for each 
cell This means, unlortunateiy, that agrid 
ol only 64 characters across by 16 char- 
acters deep can be used. Nevertheless, 



this IS the easiest choice, and can be pro- 
grammed In BASIC (List mg 1), Each gener 
ation of blocks takes two minutes and 10 
seconds to produce. 

The second method of programming 
Life is to use all the graphics cells that 
make up the THS-80 video system. Each 
character location has been broken up In- 
to SIX graphics points, which are accessi- 
ble through the SET and RESET functions 
in Level II BASIC. However, the SET and 
RESET commands are very slow In order 
to demonstrate quickly the speed at 
which the built-in graphics of the TRS 80 
function, enter the three short BASIC pro- 
grams presented in Listings 2. 3 and 4 

The first of these executes in 60 
seconds, the second, in 10 seconds, and 
the third, fastest of the BASIC options, in 
two seconds, Now, enter the program in 
Listing 5. which POKES into place a pro- 
gram to perform the identical function ex- 
ecuted by the previous BASIC programs: it 
returns to BASIC after a short delay 

The speed of machine language 
changes is considerably faster, because 
once we have put a cycle ot instructions to 
the machmo s central processing unit, we 
can avoid making the dozens of compari- 
sons and calculations necessary to use 
the Level II BASIC interpreter in ROM, 

This Game of Life has been written in 
machine or assembly language. ■ 

by Dennis Kiisz 



10 CLS 

21) DFFINT X,N.O.A.B.C.D.F.G.M.I,J.K,LM 

3U DIMM'U:^'*) U = 191 K K 1S35S 

40 GOSUB JOO 

•M FOHM 1MW) in ll>;i20SrEr'fl4 P0KEMJ2 NEXT M 

FOH X ISJtjO lO IbJHS H 

A = PttMXKn H - PtEK(XMl C = PEEK (X.63| D - PEEK (X 11 

F - PEEKJX. li O r PEEK (X. 63) H = PEEK [X« 64) 1 = P€EK(X + 66| 

IF A = Q THEN N = N t 1 
♦ 1 
-^ I 



W 

A) 

80 

90 

100 IF B ■. QTHENN = N 

1I0IFC = QTHENN = N 

tZOIFD Q IHENN = N ♦ 1 

IX IFF = orHEN N = N > 1 

140 IF G ^ OTHCNN :: N + I 

150IFH - QTHENN ^ N ♦ 1 

160 IF I - OTHLNN ~ N + 1 

170 UXK) ' N 

180 NEXT X 

200 FOR X = 1&360 TO 16383 

210 IF UXK) = 2 THEN 240 

2X IF UX-Kl := 3 THEN POKE X.t91 GOTO 240 

230 POKE X,32 

240 NEXT X 

2» GOTO 50 

300 FOR X 1W60 TO 16383 

310 J -- HNDlT) IF J 1 THEN POKE X.191 

320 NEXT X 

330 HETURN 



Program Listing 1. Simplified Life in BASIC. 



10 CIS 

mrOHX = OTOAF 

-WFORV = OTO 127 

40SET|Y.Xt 

•M NEXT rjt 

tiUGOIOW) 

Program Listing2. Screen wtiite-out 
using SET and RESET functions 



10 CLS 

.-11 FOH X = 15360 TO 163B3 

JOPOKfc X.IHI 

40NFXTX 

MGOIO** 

Program Listings. Screen while-out 
using POKE commands. 



iocls 

X CLtAH 100 
30FOHX = I TO 15 
40 PRINT STHING*64,19'} 
50 NEXT X 
60 GOTO 60 

Program Listing 4 Screen whiteout 
usmg PRINT STRINGS tunclion 



10 CLS 

Ht IXU A(30l 

10 l-OHX = I 10 27 

40 HLAUAIX) 

'jO next X 

60 l)AIAJ3.0.b0,1 7,1,60.1.236.3.54.191.237. 

1 76,6.^ 
rx) 0AIA33.255,25b43,l24,1«l, 194,18.127. 

16,245,201 
80 FORX = 32612 TO 32M8 
10 POKE X.A(X 32511) 
UXJ NIXI X 

1 10 (>OKf 1652(>.0 ; POKE 1652M27 
120 M % = USH(Ol 
130 CLS 

Program Listing 5. Screen wfjite-out 
in machine language lumping from 
BASIC. 



Photos 14-16: A large random 
universe, at hirih. at generation 306. 
and finding stability at generation 
696. 



42 • 80 Microcomputmg, June 1980 




for the T1iS-80 from Micro- Wlega 



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80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 43 



From page 39 

gram has not yet been activated. 

At this point, a set of "seed" civilizations can be created. This arti- 
cle includes a BASIC listing that will create 20 seed populations. 
(See Listing 6.) 

TRS-80'5 video system has two kinds of blanks, represented by 
decimal values 32 (a character space) and 128 (a graphics blank). 
Both these characters appear the same to the eye, but have entirely 
different results in the Life program. When clearing the screen for 
use with Life, it is essential that character 126 (hexadecimal 80) be 
used. The following subroutine will produce the desired effect: 



10CLS 

20 FOR X = 1536010 16363 

30 POKEX.128 

40 NEXT X 

Program Listing 8. Clears the screen before jumping to Lite. 



Now a seed population can be created on this blank field. Here is 
a section of Listing 6: 



2300 GOSUB 9999: REM " CLEARS SCREEN WITH CHAR 128 
2310 FOR X ^ 15817 TO 15860 
2320 POKE X,19) 
2330 NEXT X 
2340 M% = USR(0| 



Following the screen-clearing, these lines will POKE a graphics 
pattern into place that looks like this: 




It is created from a dense bar of graphics cells, and will eventually 
tollow the pattern shown in photos 18-21. Through the USR(O) com- 
mand, the program now jumps to the machine language Game of 
Life routines. 

The Action ol the Program 

The first action of the program is to save the BASIC stack pointer 
(line 280). The reason for this is that the program as a whole (the seed 
program and the Life program) will be using two stacks — one for the 
video display work area, and the other for the BASIC seed programs. 

Next, the generation count is set to zero, and the upper and lower 
borders of the video workspace are blanked. This blanking is 
necessary because unwanted neighbors to cells in our real popula- 
tion may intrude upon the territory of our universe and produce mu- 
tant births. 

Now the pattern on the screen is transferred to a scratchpad, or 
workspace, elsewhere in memory. Have you ever noticed the black 
s\reaks that detract trom the continuity of the screen display when 
graphics are being drawn? There is a very short period of time when 
the video memory circuits must be taken over by the rest of the com- 
puter system in order to place intormation on the video screen, or, 



less often, to read Information that is there. 

The memory Is taken out of the video scanning circuit for a very 
brief moment, so the display blanks out. The more times we need to 
dip into the video, the more black streaks there will be. In order to 
prevent our Life display from becoming a jittery mess, you can 
remove the information displayed as a block and place it elsewhere, 
whereyoucanplunderit at will. The screen then remains passive un- 
til the altered block is transferred back to the monitor. 

Two very important instructions appear in lines 610 and 760. 
These commands, which appear early in the program, load values in- 
to each of the two index registers available in the Z-BO microproces- 
sor chip. In fact, without these two registers, you could not attain the 
speed of this game. 



Program Listing 6. BASIC Seed Populations 

II CLS 

15 - SPACESHIP 

20 PHINT?46B, "PLAYING GOD KITH LIFE: 
•STARTS* 

30 FOflX-lTO20fl0;NEXT 

4B PRINT'ENTER 1 FOR INSTRUCTIONS 

ENTER 2 FOB GRAPHICS CHARACTER LIST 

ENTER 3 FOR LIST OF SEED CHARACTER PROGRAMS* 

50 PRINT; INPUT-ENTER 1, I OB 3-;A 

60 !FA"lCOTO10e 

70 IFA-2GOTO1000 

Si IFA.3GOTO20B0 

100 CLS 

110 PBINT'PLAYINC GOD WITH LIFE MUST START WITH A BASE 

CIVILIZATION CREATED BY A SEED PROGRAM, THIS PROGRAM 
USES TBE-BB'S GRAPHICS CHARACTERS SET, WHICH IS 
PRESENTED A BIT LATF.R IN THIS PROGRAM." 

121 PRINTiPRINT-ASCII CHARACTER 128 -- CHRS(12ai -- IS A 
GRAPHICS BLANK. ALL THE SEED PROGRAMS FIRST CLEAB THE 
SCREEN WITH THESE BLANKS, THEN PBODUCE A STARTING 
CIVILIZATION USING THE TBS-B0 GRAPHICS "( 

121 PRINT'CHARACTERS. FINALLY, THE SEED PROGRAMS JUMP INTO 
THE MACHINE LANGUAGE *LIFE* PROGRAM." 

130 PflINT:PRINT"REMEMBER, YOU MUST HAVE ALREADY ENTERED THE 
•LIFE9' SYSTEMTAPE THAT PRECEDES THIS ";CHRS(34)j 
■STARTS";CHRS 134) ;" SECTION, OR A FC EHROR?WILL BE 
GENERATED.' 

UB FORX.1TO10000:NEXT:CLS:GOTO40 

10 00 CLS 

1010 FCRX-128T0155STEP4 

1020 PRINTX;CHRS(X) , X*l ;CHRS IX* 1) , Xt2 ;CHRS (X*2 ) ,X'3 ; CHRS (X-'3) 

1025 PRINT 

1030 NEXTX 

104B INPVT-PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE";X 

1045 CLS 

1B5B F0BX-156TO163STEP* 

106 B PRINTX,-CHRS 1X1 ,X*1;CHRS(X*1) ,X-2;CHRS(X*2) ,Xi-3i 
CHRS(X*3) iPRINT 

107B NEXTX 

1B8B INPIIT'PRESS LNTEK TO COIJT I NUE " ; X 

1B90 FORX-la4T0191 

1100 PR1NTX;CHRS(X1 :PWINT 

1110 NhXTX 

112B INPUT'ENTER 1 TO Rl'.VIKW, 2 TO RETUHN";B 

113B IFB-1GOTO1000 

1140 IFB«2GOTO40 

2B00 CI.S:PRINT"ENTER THE NUHBER OF THE SEED PATTERK DESIRED:' 



11 - ARCH IPI) 

12 - LONG BARGE 

13 - tnHGi. BLOCK 

14 - GLIDF.BS 

16 - TALL RANDOM 

17 - TV.-0 ARCHES 90 DEG. 



2B1B PRINT" 1 - RANDOM 

2 - BOX 

3 - LONG BAR 

4 - SMALL RANDOM GROUP 

5 - TALL IlAJf 
2020 PRINT" 6 - KIXED SEEDS 

7-4 RANDOM GROUPS 

B - FLASHERS & GLIDERS 18-2 DIAGONAL RAKDOMS 

9 - THIS SQUARES 19 - THICK SOUAFES 

2030 PRINT" 10 - SPARSf RANDOM 20 - E:JRPRIEE" 

204B PRINT: INPUT'ENTER 1 THROUGH 20',-C 

2050 ONCGOTO210B,220B, 2300, 240B,250B,26BB, 27 BB.2B0B. 2900,3000, 
3100, 3200,3300, 3400,3510, 3600,3700, 3809, 3900, 4000 

21B0 GOSUB9999 

2110 FOHX-15360TO163e3 

2120 Y-1274RND(64) 

2130 POKEX,Y 

2140 NEXTX 

2190 Mt-USR(0) ;GOTO200B 

2200 COSUB9999 

2210 POKEl5B29,le3:POKE15a30,149 

2290 Mt-USR10) :GOTO2B00 

2300 GOSUB9999 

2310 FORX-15B17TO15a60 

2320 P0KEX,191 

2330 NEXTX 

2390 Kt-U5R(0; :GOTO2000 

2400 GOSUB9999 

2410 FORX-15700TO15716:V-127-.RND:6 4) : POKEX, Y : NEXTX 

24 20 FORX-15764TO157B0:Y-127*RND(6 4) : POKEX , Y : NEXTX 

24 3 FORX.15B2BT015844:Y-127tRND16 4; : POKEX , Y : NEXTX 

244 FORX-15892TOlS90e:Y-127tRND(64) : POKEX, Y ! NEXTX 

2490 Ht-USR(0) :GOTO20B0 

2500 GOSUB9999 

2510 F0RX-61TO67 

2520 FOBV-3T042 



44 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



Load the first index register (IX) with the first memory cell in the 
workspace. Index register lY is crucial: its value is the same as that 
of the new stack pointer. Initialize the stack at 7AEF (recall line 320), 
and now push six fresh zero bytes onto it (lines 710 to 740). In this 
way you can manipulate individual bytes near the top of the stack at 
will. These bytes are left on the stack, and the stack grows as the 
program progresses, but you still retain control over the contents 
without digging through the stack and piling heaps of bytes all 
about. 

This extensive manipulation of data is necessary because of the 
crude but serviceable graphics in the TRS-80. A byte of data is eight 
bits wide; bits through 5 normally define ASCII characters and con- 
trol codes (carriage returns, etc.), and bits 6 and 7 are ignored. But in 



iPOKEX.YiNEXTX 
iPOKEX.YiNEXTX 
:POKEX,yiNEXTX 



:POKEX,Y:NEXTX 
:POKEX,Y:NEXTX 
iPOKEX.YiNEXTX 



:HEXTX 
:NEXTY 



3111 
3120 
3131 
ia4B 
3B9I 



2S3I SET(X,y) 

254fl KEXTY,X 

259B NI-USR(fl] iCDTC2iae 

26a> GOSUB99S9 

2filB FOHX-15«BflT01B4»B:V-127+BMD(64) : POKEX, Y :NEXTX 

26 2 B E'ORX-lS4fi4T01S47 2:Y-127'fRND(e41 : POKEX , Y iNEXTX 

26 31 FORX-lG3BBT0163niY-127+RNQ;6 4| 
264fl F'ORX>16 364TOle37Biy-127»RNn(G4) 
Ub9 r0RX-l^B2BTOlbB4S;Y-127*RND(6 4) I 
269B M%-USB(e) :GOT02BBB 
27Ha aOSUB9999 

27 IB FORX-1536BT01537B!Y-127*RND(S4) 
27 2a FORX-lS424T015434:Y.127*MJD(641 
27 3a F0BX-15413T01S423:Y-127*R1JD(64I 
27 4a FOHX-lS477T015«a7:Y-I27+RND(6 4) : POKEX , Y : NEXTX 
375fl rORX-16373T0163B3:Y-127+RND[S4) : POKEX , Y : HEXTX 
27 SB FOHX-16 3B9TOi6319:Y-127*RHD(6 4 1 : POKEX , V : NEXTX 
277fl FORX-1632aT01633a:Y-127*RHD(S41 : POKEX , Y : NEXTX 
27 BB F0RX-lfi2S6TO1626fi:Y<127'>RHD(64] i POKRX , Y : NEXTX 
2798 M»-USfilB) :G0T02Befl 

2BBB C05l)B9999 

28 IB POKE1S99],130:POXE15994,1^5:POKE15857,1B2:POK!:15B5B,144: 

POKE163e9,16 7 :P0XE1G31B,129 
2B2B POKE1S570,183:POKE15571 , 149 : POKEIGBSB , 1 B 3 : POKE16B61 , 1 4 9 : 

POXElS364,ie3:POKE1^3«5,149 
2B3B POKEieieB,183:POKr.lfil61,149 
289a Ht-USRie) :GOT02eBB 
29aB GOSUB9999 

291 a FORX-2BT04a:SE:T(X,^) : SET (X, 171 
29 2B FOBY-5T017 :SET(2fl,Y) :SET(4B,Y) 
293B rORX-77T095:SET!X,2B) :SET[X,41) iNEXTX 
294« FORY-2BT041:SETm,Y) :SET(95,Y) iNEXTY 
2991 KI-USRIB) !COT02BflB 
3BBB aosUB9999 

FORX-1536BT0163BJSTEP3 
.127*RND(25) 

POKEX, Y 

NEXTX 

Kt-USR(B1 :C0T02BBe 
311B POKElSB39,lSl :POKE1584B,149 
312a H(-USR[a) :COTO20Be 
32aB GOSI1B9999 

321B POXElS83B,15B:PaKE158 31,14B:POKE:l5B94,137iPORE1589S,129 
3I9fl «»-L'SR(B) :GOT02flBfl 
3310 C05U59999 

331B FORX-45T085irORY-9TO29;SETa,Y) iNEXTY,X 
339B Ht-USRIB] iG0T02BBa 
34BB GOSUB9999 

341fl PDXE1549B,16B;POKE15499,lH5iPOKElS95e,lG7iPOKE15951,129 
349a Ht-USR(B) :G0T02BBB 
3SBB GOSUB9999 
35 IB POKE157 4 6,144:POKE157 47,lGa:POKEIS81B,16 4 i POKEISSI 1 , 17 6 : 

POKE15812,149 
1S9§ K»-USR(B) :C0T02BBB 
3eBa GOSUB9999 

36la FORX-lS392T01G3B3STepe4 
362a Y-127*RND(G4) :POKEX,Y:NEXTX 
363a FORX-15393T016383STEF64 
364B y-127*RND(64) :POXEX,yiNEXTX 
3G9a Nt-USR(a) !GOTa2BBa 
37afl GOSUB9999 

3710 POKElSB20,151iPOKF:l5821,14 9iPOXE15B59,ie3iPOKE15860,145 
3790 H%-USF10| :GOTO200e 
3800 GOSUB9999 

381B r0RXcl536BTO16383STEPe9:Y-127*RND(G4) : POKEX ,Y:NEXTX 
382 B FORX<1S424T01G3195TEPS9:Y-127*RND(64) : POKEX, Y: NEXTX 
3890 M*=USRI0) :G0TO26B» 
39B0 GOSUB9999 

3910 F0RX-16TO36:F0RY-2T05!SET[X,Y) jHEXTY.X 
3920 FORX-16TOaB:FORY-6T09!SET(X,t) :HEXTY,X 
3 9 30 F0RX-32TO36:FOR¥-6TO9:SETfX,yi :NEXTY,X 
3940 FORX-16T036:FOR1(-1BT013:SET(X,V1 iNEXTY.X 
3950 F0RX-4 8TO57:FORY-24TO3 8:SET(X,Y) :HEXTY,X 
3960 F0RX-SflTO55:F0RY-28TO34!RESET(X,Y) iNEXTY.X 
3998 Ht-USR(B) iC0T02flaa 
4000 GOSUB9999 

4010 FORX-lS3GBTOie383iy-RNI}[255) : POKEX, Y : NEXTX 
4B90 Ht-lISR(a) :GOT02aaB 

9998 GOT09998 

9999 FOBX-1536BT016J83: POKEX, llBiNEXTXiRETURN 
READY 



the TRS-80, these most significant bits cause the video circuit to 
switch from ASCII mode to graphics mode. 

A zero in both bits 6 and 7 will produce the expected letters and 
numbers; but if either or both of these bits goes high, the computer 
triggers a group of circuits which switch out of ASCII mode, and pro- 
duce a small graphics block for each of bits through 5 which is also 
high. It is a simple, functional video system, certainly not high-reso- 
lution, but assuredly better than an entire block per character. 

A diagram of a video memory cell and the bits responsible for 
each "hexant" is given in Fig. 1. 



2 3 

4 5 



Fig. 1. 



Recall that the Game of Life rule requires that we look at each 
neighbor of a cell. If each block were a single byte-sized entity, we 
could evaluate its neightwrs quickly and easily: The one above, the 
one below, left and right, and the four corners. But this TRS-80 bit 
system makes things quite nasty. If we label a cell X, and it lives in 
memory location A, what are its eight immediate neighbors? Well, 
there's more to know. What bit position does this upstart X occupy 
in a byte? Okay, let's arbitrarily say X resides comfortably in bit posi- 
tion zero, thus: 



A 
X 1 
2 3 
4 S 



Okay, seems easy. First neighbor, to the right, is bit 1; clockwise. 
the next is bit 3; then clockwise again it is bit 2. Pretty safe so far. 
Next neighbor clockwise is . . . hmmmm . . . memory location A 
minus one, uh .... bit 3. Better draw that: 



1 
23 
45 



« 1 
23 
45 



Yes. fine. Next neighbor further clockwise is memory location A 
minus 1. bit 1. Still safe. But then, what about the next neighbor 
clockwise? It's a line above on the screen, and back a space. Since 
our screen is 64 characters wide, this is back 64 and back one more. 
Now we've got to look at bits in A minus 65 and probably, if intuition 
serves, in location A minus 64 too. We'd better draw it. 



A-65 


A 64 


1 


01 


23 


33 


45 


45 


01 


I 1 


23 


23 


46 


45 



Yes, intuition is correct. We've got to check A minus 65. bit 5. and 

Continue to page 46 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 ■ 45 



adjust data within a certain geography of the register's base value. 
You may, for example, change the contents of memory location IX, 
IX-32, IX + 17 and so forth. The relative jump instruclion is one byte 
shorter than an absolute jump, saving considerable time in this pro- 
gram requiring thousands of jumps. 

Finally, we need to preserve not only the BASIC stack (which is 
fairly large) for use with the seed programs, but also maintain an ex- 
tensive stack of values analogous to the video pattern we are ad- 
justing. 

We know further that a check of all the cells in a given memory 
location must be made; thus, our algorithm for cell checking should 
probably be done within the context of one memory address at a 
time. If there are six cells in a video memory location with eight 

Continue to page 48 



A minus 64, bits 4 and 5. That's quite a lot of manipulation there, and 
there are six different bit possibilities tor every memory location! 
And to make matters worse in terms of speed, a machine operation 
to check the presence of a bit is itself four bytes long. 

Get a Cup of Coffee 

)f this were in my living room and not a magazine article, I would 
invite you to have a cup of coffee, sit back, and clear your mind. It 
took me three months and eight versions of the program to discover 
the key to speedy operation. 

My solution to the fast Game of Life algorithm would not have 
been possible if the designers of the TRS-80 had chosen another of 
the popular microprocessor chips. The two index registers— 16-bits 
wide—are needed, so also are relative jump instructions, bit test 
and manipulation, and an extensive stack movable anywhere in 
memory. The index register, you may recall, allows you to store and 




Photos 18-21: A long bar universe created from several hundred 
cells, at birth; generations 2, 6, 13, and 14. 



AB * 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 




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neighbors each, that comes to a total of 48 evaluations. 

Before your cup of coffee, we were attempting to test a cell and all 
of its neighbors. It we test cell X in bit of memory location A, then 
bit 1 is among its neighbors. Later, we will need to know, for exam- 
ple, the neighbors of bit 2 in memory location A. Or the neighbors of 
bit 3. Or the neighbors of bit 5 in memory location A minus 64. If we 
make our eel I checks independent of each other, we will be engaging 
in enormous redundancy. If cell X has eight neightwrs, then doesn't 
it follow that cell X is itself the neighbor ot eight other cells, in- 
cluding the ones just mentioned? Aha! 

Examine the diagram below. 

5 4 5 4 

10 10 
3 2 3 2 

6 4 5 4 

10 10 

Here we have a video memory address together with all the in- 
dividual cells that can be considered its immediate neighbors. In all, 
only 20 cells need to be examined to determine the fate of all six be- 
ings in that memory address. Let us now assign this memory ad- 
dress to register IX: all the needed addresses are well within the 
relative addressing range o1 IX: IX-65, IX - 64, IX-63, IX-1, tX. 
IX -H. IX + 63, IX + 64 and IX + 65. 

Return again to the assembly listing, t>eginning at line 800. This is 
the test for bit 5 in address IX -4t (the listing uses hexadecimal 
notation since the screen is numbered in even blocks of 40 hex). 
Twenty bit tests are made, identical to the pattern described above. 

What is done with the result of each bit test? You could store the 
result, using standard instructions, elsewhere in memory, in- 
crementng to the next or decrementing to the previous address as 
necessary. But this process consumes considerable time, and re- 
quires that flag resisters be saved, addition or subtraction be per- 
formed and so forth. 

Instead, look at lines 710 through 760. Here, you may recall, six 
empty bytes were pushed onto the stack, and the lY register was 
given to the top {actually, to the bottom, as the Z-80 stack moves 
downward in memory) stack value. If each byte in the stack 
represents one bit or being, then lY can sum the neighbors of being 
(bit) 5. lY -t- 1 can hold the total neighbors for bit 4. and so on. This is a 
terrible waste of memory, you may insist; I agree. It Is, however, the 
fastest way of completing the Game of Life computations using the 
80's complex graphic bit system. 

Is Your Neighbor Alive? 

Let's follow this process through. Bit 5 of IX -41 is tested. If the 
neighbor is alive (result of the bit test equals one), increment the 
value stored in lY -t-5. If not, skip It. going on to test bit 4 of IY-40. If 
this neighbor Is alive, increment the value stored in lY-f Sand lY -f 4. 
Why in two locations? Because bit 4 of IY-40 is neighbor to two 
cells in our memory location, cell and cell 1. If this neighbor is not 
alive, skip to the next test. 

Time for more coffee. Just to be sure, follow each bit test in lines 
800 through 1670 of the assembly listing. Test a bit. Is it alive? If so. 
add one to the stack byte representing the memory cells to which it 
is a neighbor. If not. go on. Make 20 tests. When all the checks ar 
complete, the six-byte stack will contain the total number of 
neighbors for each bit in the memory address under observation. 
Finally (line 1680). the memory address under test is advanced. The 
jump to HOLD shown in line 1700 is one of the special features of 
Playing "God" with Life, so for the moment, ignore this command. 

At line 1740, the BC register is decremented and tested; if all 1 ,024 




bytes (400 hex) video memory locations have been checked, the pro- 
cess ends. If not. we go back to line 670 and PUSH six more zero 
bytes onto the stack, each representing a bit in our next universe 
location. Earlier I mentioned that an extensive movable stack is im- 
portant to the operation of this Life algorithm; with six bytes as- 
signed to each universe location, and 1,024 locations to examine. 
this results in a fairly monumental stack more than 6K bytes deep! 

When the examination process is complete, how do we make our 
changes? First, let's see where we are. You have the initial genera- 
tion on the screen, a duplicate of it in a workspace, and 6,144 bytes 
of stack. Your object is to evaluate the stack values, a byte at a time, 
and alter their corresponding cells according to the result. 

At the top of the stack is the last cell evaluated. We begin the 
generation change process at the last memory address in 
workspace, STORE -t-3FF (line 1830). POP a register oft the stack, 
and compare the first byte to 2. If it is 2, remembering Conway's rule. 

Continue to page 50 



48 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



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the current contents of a cell remain unaltered — no birlh, no death. 
If it is not 2. compare it to a 3. If it is a three, then a cell must be given 
birth, as in line 1920. (If a live cell is already in place, this action has 
no effect, but still satisfies the Life rule.) A more exhaustive test is 
only redundant. 

Finally, if our byte is neither 2 nor 3 (the numt>er of neighbors), 
then of course it must be less than 2 (lonely) or greater than 3 (over- 
populated) and Conway's rule stipulates that in such a cir- 
cumstance, the cell cannot live. Line 1900 resets (turns off, or kills) 
this bit. 

Line 1930 examines the next byte in the same terms. Although the 
POP-and-test pattern is identical for all three byte pairs, a CALL to 
subroutine is not used in the interest of speed. In fact, in the entire 
Playing "God" with Life program, memory is almost always sacri- 
ficed in the interest of speed. This program uses six times the 

Continue to page 52 




SO • 80 Microcomputing. June 1980 



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80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 51 



memory that a slower program would. But for advanced games, the 
Level II 16KTRS-80IS fairly standard. Were this program a utility, the 
space would be crucial, but tor Lite, it's whatever makes the game 
most effective. 

When six byte evaluations are completed, you have altered one 
n^mory address \q your workspace. At line 2350, decrement the 
workspace value, and decrement the loop counter. When this pro- 
cess is complete (1,024 evaluations), it is just about time to restore 
the ndWIy derived generation to the screen. 

This Is a flat world, this video screen, yet the memory itself is not 
set up that way. The display wraps around contiguous memory loca- 
tions: 3C3F (the last location In the first row) Is neighbor to 3C40 (the 
first location in the second row). Lines 2480through 2550 reset a thin 
lineof memory cells on one side of the screen (actually, at this point. 
In the workspace). This action provides the remainder of the "border 
of pestilence" set up earlier for the top and bottom rows of the 
display. Finally, at lines 2590 to 2620, the workspace Is restored to 
the video monitor, and the new generation comes into view. 

The balance of this program Is taken up with the special features, 
Including display hold, a generation count, return to the BASIC pro- 
gram, and the "god" control, in actuality only a cursor, flashing on 
and oft over the lop ot the current contents of four contiguous video 
positions. 

A check ot the generation status flag is made beginning at line 
2660. It the user selects a generation count display when the ques- 
tion is posed in the original instructions, the generation counter is 
incremented, converted to decimal, and finally to ASCII characters 
(lines 2710 through 3020). Since the numerals themselves can in- 
fluence future generations, it is necessary to sweep clear a path 
around them. This is done in lines 3070 to 3180, where the bordering 
bits are reset. 



4 SPEED OPTIONS FOR YOUR TRS— 80! 



tuulr ciatk moJiticMiop hhUMv tvr 1»if TVS- V< SfVAl^ m, 
>r a Vt\, rvdiKlton kfWfta^lr II JUV hit* i*hHh^' tntrntipMn^ r 



Li>rtftHurnl hv rtwuttff in chatip ^pmJ wirh i i<>KX'' ^wictho* 4*1 tohwHr (oninund It wtij MirwnaruaJlv T^urn to (hPTm 
tl-enl in% Time* dllil H KT«V* --sjuirr* r*sP ^hinuc Tn "Vr n^naliAq iv>1n>1 and ^m prnviHnn« lof a^mfl Ifl ltI>lnpfV»H4 
■m/tifT, int •.'yr^jmttri 1* mri U ihk«4. «fvni jI n^xuniti-i^i^ihrkry^nMil imiiI «ith ooly 4n«in>Arvcnftn«iriH]Ai »ur rKF«*i{' 
.tpiHtn iiHi([ti fiar iMcludciii iM <*f»i'v Fcntovnf tt rtw comprtfr fvn •w^Aa trrvnf Tht'^K - 1 fomn hiKt j»»rrti^in] mi 



PROGRAM INDEX FOR DISK BASIC 

* I p>*4K<T L* rt indf" "f v"oFcnrirrprimr*in hhrjrv ^rrMTi Jttk iliF^cTnnr^ fruNrdm ndmruPid ^rr -.pKr jrr rrjd 
, nrt^l n<4 tf-rYTwr m . and mjy b< jlphatfllEn] t>% OitV UF prL«rJm TKr liiE ma-, ilhi be vFiich<«4 loi jns (t]fk 
r>lnitH>n Jl<ti« or -p^'wrAinf wddn) nr ddf-Ird And iKf wMr llU 4T iny [kin KflF m ihr pMrrrvr FlfiaJtv ihr \,*t 
iiwH mj> br irrupd 4H1 lii^k^ t^i rtJiurr «(■-«« vid iipdjfr Krvirwrd m rKr I anyarv i»uf ot W) Mk rurampurriiK (Mrdn^nnd 

i:k rnjuirrd INDEX. JIV.M 

DUPLICATE SYSTEM TAPES WITH "'CLONE" 

n^i* m.hini- iiFLji^ijif p-fiHr-nk m-kn dupluifr L.>p,t* ,iF AN> up* -nurti Icr 1 rvrl || rSf> m^ ^ ''V^-IEM uprt 

itntmiMy. and ihri 



P'^W 



,[Tv Ji pF.klLitn] CLONE llA.H 



rdiipUyrd tin iht vi^i 1 



EDIT BASIC PROGRAMS WITH ELECTRIC PENCIL 

Famine Lki l.n. nanbro irmvt- or duf!«»ir pr.,i.rr wimm^. .nd .f.r.h Iim rhK.r.irii<. ij .nv i^tiMjol rlufKim 
Ont itflinin^ trofn TXIS qipttlv iiiadit.n i-ii.nni hlr- to Pn-iii (..rrnji riNPATCH.. ..M.iJ 

SPfXJLER FOR PARALLEL PRINTERS 

^"►"W" "•'nil IrwuiT'-ii li"i"»ii>n« [*iiB iMiunnii uH-T s^'fii-jWr l^nnoj pvii Imttt .1I^ linrtrr* inwitrt 

4»if ttvn, ««k rqpuy^^ h\,ltri mit»vi*-»t ihr L PRINT nf LLI^T command rmi'm 4<Airt,J to ihr utcr wliiif pnnnn^ i* 
Krif^H S'^r-f [lirtJ Tor ^rJftl'K fT f^iKfr «^ow piinirit Allowi pnniii^ii tn4 pFocn^iPM to run lontvrifnziv 
SPOOLER .11 it) 

RAM TEST FOR LEVEL II 

Tn,i mai^jp' .a-inLLi^ p"j(r*r?i mr* mrrnor> iKip» lur ■jpcri or ^^.Lrrrrci^rnt nr iIih ]pnn» wWI » EnTrr-fniEtrnrt Ieev«i 
rach Vir toi vsLidfTV aivd rvh B>TT in ihpnrcuTKVi c^ ^n ktuae u^r^tricMt u ip r«j pro^iam nr-rtiuon B*d ^dtnm jcr 
dhf4i>cd aloi^ »Lth rhr b*dda'a and prapn ^« OvcnmpWtc mi ut 4HH rakn phttr 14 wmidi Alto trnlu^ i ttv foi 
rrton ind\fctd by pnwrr linr (hftWi tinfn nTFTru! Fquipmri*r KAlflTEST.....SV.M 

INSIDE LEVEL II 

Ini^ Lnd N ii a ci>mfithrn.,i> r.nim.i Ku-Jt to Tin Lnri II HOM. »*i.ch illowi itif TKictiirf Iinjgujft profrunmri ID 
milf uTllurftirHfhitKsn^FrKinrmthrvcDntjin LofTfiwJs ttplaintitf- bpi (■!bn(i ,r.iL.fTi.t* viT.AtlF pAtu|r andlO 
tounim iftotl matdrrmar i> |i>n w dlib lyMdni Piit 11 prn»"It Hi fntiwly ttt* .ompciiir pTOH(»rT> ttiuilure whidl 
b.* uiMlfi p»i. -lYvriM .ommiiid liid (TKiiwim bnrti »mH iiid iiKhiBfii* -ith TM .(«il ii>J r11iiif«5 ol 1 iDitiplIn 
Jr a^iann ttt* ]* .h^ptrTi m^-.uJr t Ufwt bpdv fl orhiT inlwm»fiii^ ywly] 'o Tft* efiiirirtTntr 
INSIDCLIVEL M.. tl).« 



ABptstnini 



t umaUy ihippvd ofi catHTTf A^ M CC Ear dn^ Complrfr ifhitHnon ( 



MUMFORD MICRO SYSTEMS 

Boa 4SS~E Summcrlaod. Callfoniu 9S06T (M5) 969—45^7 



^^144 



Earlier, we ignored a command to jump to the HOLD routine 
before re-evaluating the generation. You can depress letter H on the 
keyboard to freeze the current display on the screen (lines 3220 
through 3250); or you can return to BASIC by depressing letter X. 
after first restoring its original stack pointer (lines 3260 through 
3300). Finally, you can "play god" by pressing the G. and the pro- 
gram is diverted to a series ot routines beginning at line 3430. 

This controlling cursor is initiated at the top left of the screen 
(lines 3430 through 3520). A short delay allows a comfortable 
flashing rate. The keyboard is then scanned for three groups ot com- 
mands; motion commands (the four keytraard arrows): activity com- 
mands (bear or kill, letters B or K); and the cancel command (return 
to mortality, letter M). 




Photos 22 - 27: A symmetrical block (the 4:3 ratio of graphics blocks 
in the TRS-80 accourits for the vertical elongation), at birth; genera- 
tion I, 4. 7. 8. and 9. 



52 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 
Scanned by Ira Goldklang - vvvvw.trs-80.com 



Upon the choice of bear or kill, an asterisk appears, isolating the 
six points in one memory location. Pressing the appropriate number 
(0 through 5) will set or reset that bit (lines 4090 through 4770). 
changing one ceii on the screen. Pressing M (mortality) returns to 
the start of the generation checks, so that any change wrought by 
the cursor will be incorporated into the next generation of beings. 

Flaws, Frustrations arid Bsdavllfiwit 

The Individual graphics block visible on the screen is actually a 
matrix of three dots by four dots. Because of this, symmetrical im- 
ages will appear vertically elongated. Also, the universe is nearly 
twice as wide as it is high. Both these flaws are inherent to the 
TRS-80's video graphics system. 

One additional game variable is that the controlling cursor can 
march omnipotently through any part ot memory. Holding the down 
arrow causes the cursor to disappear off the bottom of the video 
screen. This little bedevilment will allow "god" to be marched 
through any part of memory, and the bear or kill commands can be 
used in any part of RAM (or even on the memory-addressed ports). 
This invisible action can crash a program or wreak any kind of 
havoc — something I consider a nice touch. 

If your preference is speed over size, it is easy to revise this pro- 
gram to use the 32-character mode. Remember, of course, that alter- 
nate, even-numbered memory locations are addressed in this video 
format, and that the location of the large-character flag Is port 255, 
bit 3(1= on, = off). Normal video is always restored whenever the 
Life program returns to BASIC. With these alternatives, the 
program's speed will be doubled to nearly 150 generations per 
minute. 

Another modification, not to the software, but to the hardware, 
yields something I have found very pleasant to watch: Surplus 
monitors with the slow green phosphor are available in the $40 
range, and although It is nearly impossible to read normal (64 
character per line) text with them, the Life displays appear with high 
resolution, and the slow phosphor imparts an eerie, organic ap- 
pearance. 

Acknowledgments and Conclusion 

Thanks are due to Philip K. Hooper, a programmer and 
mathematician, for his inspiring version of Life and Serpent for the 
KIM, and to Claire Manfredonia, who suggested that a deity could 
visit this electronic universe of beings to intervene with fate. 

I have received a few comments regarding my use of the "god" 
cursor. No offense was intended; rather. 1 feel that control even 
when playing a game, should be approached with caution and even 
fear, it is surprising to consider the amount of violence embedded 
and assumed a part of computer games.! 

Bibliography 

The subject of Conway's Game of Life has been covered well in 
other sources over the past decade. The following articles are 
selected from among the dozens published since the game's intro- 
duction: 

"Mathematical Games; The Fantastic Combinations of John Con- 
ways New Solitaire Game. 'Life'", Martin Gardner. Scientific 
American. October 1970. pp. 120ff. 

"Mathematical Games: On Cellular Automata. Self-Reproduction, 
the Garden of Eden and the Game 'Life'", Martin Gardner. Scientific 
American. February 1971, pp. 112ff. 

The following references are from Byte, Decemtwr 1978: 
"Life with Your Computer". Justin Milliun. pp. 45-50; "Some Facts of 
Life". David J. Buckingham, pp. 54-67; "Programming Quickies: 
Life", William Englander. pp. 76-82; "One-Dimensional Life". 
Jonathan K. Millen, pp. 68-74. 
"Life Algorithms", Mark D. Niemiec, Byte, January 1979, pp. 90-97. 



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HANDLING 

80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 53 



3cia 
ion 



7BII 
TB>I 
TB>4 



TB*7 
TBI A 

7B»C 

TB»D 



7BtF 
7B12 
TBI* 
7B1S 
7B1' 
TBI 9 
7B1C 
7B1E 
7B2« 
7B21 



7B23 
7B26 
7B29 
7B2C 
7B2E 



7R)) 
7BJ1 
7B36 



7B37 
7B)A 
7B1B 
7BJC 
7B1D 
7H«1 



7B4i 
1B*9 
7B4B 
7B4e 
7bM 
7B54 
7B57 
7B5A 
7B5E 
7B«I 
7B«1 
7B«t 
7B«A 
7B*C 
7BSF 
7B7 3 
7B7 5 
JB7g 
7B7B 
7B7F 
7Bei 
7B84 
7BB7 
7BaA 
7B8E 
7B9I 
7B93 
7B9( 
7B9A 
7B9C 
7B9P 
7BA] 
7BA5 
7BA9 
7BAB 
7BAE 
7BB1 
7BB4 
TBSe 
TBBA 
7BBD 
TBCI 
7BC] 
7BC« 
TBC9 
7 BCD 
7BCF 
7BDI 
7 BOS 
7 BOB 
7 BOB 
7BDE 
7 BE] 



EDTJFETF 
3JEF7A 



2ir27A 
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23 
3«l« 



21CBSC 
06 41 

3681 
23 

ISFB 
2 1 1 ?« 1 
Hit 

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IIBBIB 

DS 
D5 
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2S>3 
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FD34I4 

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2819 

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PD34B] 

FD34B1 

[>[>CBFP«E 

2816 

rD34B3 

FD3401 

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28)9 

FD34I4 

rD34l3 

FD34I2 

DDCB0>4E 

28*9 

FD34«S 

PD3403 

FD34I2 

DDCBBISi 

2e«F 

FD34B5 

FD34B4 

rc34e; 

FD34ai 

FD34I* 

DDCBtlSE 

2«tF 

FD34IS 

FD34a4 

PD34a3 

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2819 



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01130 

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; PLAYING GOD WITH LIFE 

i BY DENNIS BATHOHY dlTSZ 

i VERSION 1.9.3, 5 DECEHBEF 1979 

I 

1 SPECIAL THANHS TO 

J PHILIP K. HOOPrB 

; CLAIBE MANFBEDONIA 



VIDEO 
STORE 



EQC 
EQU 



3C00K 
5D0aH 



i PfilHT LOAD MESSAGE ON SCREEN 

ORG vinso 

'LIST OFF 
•LIST ON 



SAVE STACR , 
ORG 



SET UP NEW STACK 

7n01H 
{7FFEH) ,SP 
SP.JAEFH 



; SET c;enehation coi'nt to t 
t 

LD HL,7AF2H 

LD IHL),0 

INC HL 

LD (HLl.l 

I BLANK UPPER AND LOUER BORDERS 
I 

LD HL,STORK-40h 

LD B,40H 

BLANK LD (HL1 , 80H 



IMC 
DJNJ 



IMC 

EXJNI 



HL 

BLANK 

HL.STOPE»40BH 

B. 40H 

'HLl ,80H 

HL 

BLIHK 



TRANSFER VIDEO TO WORKSPACE 

THIS ACTION PREVENTS SCREEN "HASH" 



LP 

LD 

LOIR 

LD 



HL, VIDEO 
DE, STORE 
BC, 400N 

IX, STORE 



i SET UP SCREEN POSITIONS TO CHECK 

J 

LIFE EXX 

LD 
START EXX 



RC,4)IH 



J START WITH FRESH BYTE FIELD 



PUSH 


DE 


PUSH 


DE 


PUSH 


DE 


LD 


[TFFCH) ,SP 


LD 


lY, 17FFCH) 


CHECK 


OF 20 CELL Pt 


BIT 


^. ax-4iH) 


JB 


I,CL81 


INC 


IIYtS) 


BIT 


4, nX-40HI 


JR 


Z,CL02 


IMC 


(IY.5I 


INC 


(1Y»41 


BIT 


5, (IX-40H) 


JR 


Z,CL8 3 


ISC 


(IY»5) 


IMC 


(IY*4I 


BIT 


4, IIX-3FH1 


JR 


I,CL)4 


INC 


(IY»41 


BIT 


1, IIX-U 


JR 


Z,CLI5 


IMC 


IIY»5) 


IMC 


IIY*31 


BIT 


3,fl)(-l| 


JR 


i.cLas 


INC 


IIY45) 


INC 


IIY+31 


INC 


IIYtl) 


BIT 


5,(IK-1| 


JR 


I,CL87 


INC 


11**3) 


INC 


1IY*U 


BIT 


1. IIX} 


JR 


I,CL0S 


[HC 


IIY*4I 


IMC 


(lY.l) 


INC 


(IY*J) 


BIT 


1,(IX) 


JR 


I,CL09 


IMC 


IIY*S) 


IMC 


II**3) 


mc 


(IY*I1 


BIT 


2, (IXl 


JR 


1,CL18 


INC 


(IY*S) 


INC 


(IY*4) 


INC 


(IY*1) 


INC 


(IY*1) 


INC 


(lY) 


BIT 


3, UK) 


JR 


l.CLll 


IMC 


(IY*S1 


IMC 


(IY*41 


IMC 


IIY'l) 


IHC 


(IY*11 


IHC 


IIYl 


BIT 


4.(1X1 


JH 


I,CL12 



COMPLETE ASSEM 
Playing "God" 



7BE4 


FD3403 






IHC 


(lY.ll 


7ME7 


FDJ402 






IHC 




7BEA 


FD34i8 






IHC 




7BED 


DDCBIICE 




CL12 


BIT 


5,(1X1 


7BF1 


2819 






JR 


Z.CLll 


7BF3 


FD34I3 






IHC 


(IY+3) 


7BF( 


FD1402 






INC 


(lYtl) 


7BF9 


FD3401 






INC 


(IY*1) 


7BFC 


DDCB0146 




CL13 


BIT 


0,(IX*1| 


7C00 


2BI6 






JR 


I,CL14 


7C82 


rD3404 






INC 


[1Y*41 


7C05 


rD3403 






IHC 


(IY*2t 


7C88 


DDCBI156 




CL14 


BIT 


2,{IX*I) 


7C0C 


2809 






JR 


Z,CL15 


7CBE 


rD34l4 






INC 


(rY+41 


7C11 


FD3482 






INC 


[IYt2l 


7C14 


FD3480 






INC 


(IVl 


7C17 


DDCB0166 




CL15 


BIT 




7C1B 


2806 






JR 


Z,CL16 


7C1D 


FD3402 






INC 


(IY*2) 



Instructions for Play 

Instructions for Playing "God" with Life 

This listing may be entered using the Radio Shack Edi- 
tor/Assembler in order to produce the Life object code. A 
machine with 16K memory is sufficient to hold this source 
listing. 

After entry of this listing is complete, an object code may 
be produced; owners of EDTASM 1.1 will get seven FIELD 
OVERFLOW error messages on lines 800, 830, 870, 910, 940, 
980 and 1030 indicating a negative offset for IX. However, the 
line will assemblecorrectly,andthiserror message may be ig- 
nored; later versions of EDTASM have corrected this flaw. 

After the object code has been produced, be sure to save 
several copies of both it and the source code for future 
reference or modifications. 

In order to load and run Playing "God" with Life; 

1 . Power-up the TRS-80, or type SYSTEM [ENTER] 10 [ENTER). 

2. Respond to MEMORY SIZE? with 23700 [ENTER). 

3. Insert the object tape, type SYSTEM [ENTER], and respond 
to the *? prompt with the name you used to assemble the ob- 
ject code. (I use "LIFE9"). 

4. It all is well, the screen will read: 

" LOADING LIFE9 '" WAIT FOR -GOOD LOAD" "-TMEN ENTER T " 

5. When the tape has finished loading, the screen will display: 



GOOD LOAD 



6. Type a slash (0 and [ENTER]. 

The screen will clear, followed by the introductory text. 
When you have finished reading the text, you have the oppor- 
tunity to call for an on-screen generation count: 

GENERATION (X3UNT? ENTER 1 FOR ON-SCREEN COUNT, FOR NO COUNT 

Press 1 or (ENTER not necessary), then: 

ENTER TO RETURN TO BASIC. THEN LOAD OR PROGRAM CIVIUZATtONS. 

Press [ENTER] 
Now you may either: 



54 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



BLY LISTING FOR 
with Life 



7C2I 


FD34(« 


01^31 




IHC 


lit) 


7c:3 


DDCB3F*E 


«154l 


CLIS 


BIT 


1, (ix*ir«i 


7cn 


2ea] 


IISS* 




JR 


J.CL17 


7C29 


FD3«il 


«i;«* 




INC 


1 lY-l) 


TCJC 


DDCB4B4« 


Sl^Tf 


CL17 


BIT 


e, (IX'4BH) 


7C3i 


!a>« 


•ua« 




JR 


I.CLIB 


TCJ2 


FD34I1 


fl59B 




INC 


|[V*1) 


7CJ5 


FDnat 


ei6Be 




INC 


(lYI 


7C18 


DDCB4I4E 


iieif 


CI. IB 


BIT 


1. ([X''4IH) 


7C1C 


;ee6 


ei62B 




JR 


Z,CL19 


7C3E 


FD34ei 


ti.ii9 




IKC 


(IY-11 


7C«1 


FD34Be 


tm» 




INC 


(lYl 


7C4t 


DDCB41te 


»m§ 


CL11 


BIT 


B, ( IX>41H) 


7CtB 


28*3 


eisci 




.T» 


Z,CL2B 


7CtA 


PD34I( 


ei67B 




INC 


IIYI 


7C*D 


0023 


eieaa 


CI.2B 


INC 


IX 


IQtV 


D5 


BUin 




EKX 




7CSB 


C33C7D 


Bnae 

B171B 




JP 


HOLD 






ei72B 


; SFE 


If Al,l. 


pnSITIONS CHE 






ei7]B 









1) Enter your own program in BASIC, or 

2) Enter the STARTS program (Listing 6). 

Notes on Writing Your Own Program: 

1. Use POKE statements lor graphics, never PRINT or 
PRINT®. You may POKE graphics on the video display from 
locations 15360 to 16383. For example. POKE 15392.191. will 
give a graphics block (191) a seat halfway into the top line. 
SET and RESET may also be used, 

2. Use ASCII character 128 for a space, not CLS. (Listing 8), 
3 The last program statement before Life must tie M% - 

USR(O). although any variable may be used in place of M%. 
The correct starting address (or Lite has been put in place by 
the Life system program (see text). 

Summary of using the god cursor control; 

1. Press G: Mortal time is suspended and GOD -* flashes on the 
screen. 

2. Move GOD — up, down, left or right by using the four 
keyboard arrows; be careful if you go off the screen (see text). 

3. When GOD — is pointed at a block of cells: Press B to enter 
the BIRTH mode, or Press K to enter the KILL mode. An 
asterisk (*) will appear as a prompt. 

4. Press 0, 1,2. 3, 4. or 5 to BEAR or KILL a cell. (Fig. 2.) 

5. You may: 

Press B Of K plus through 5 again 

Move GOD— with the 4 arrows, or 

Press M to return to mortal time; Life con- 

tinues 




1 

2 3 

4 5 



Fig.2. Note that cells 4 and 5 are below the baseline at the word. 



7CS3 SB 


817 48 FATSO 


DEC 


BC 


7C54 78 


81758 




U> 


A,B 


7C5i Bl 


81768 




ns 


C 


7C56 C2367B 


81778 




JP 


N I, START 


7C59 B1BBB4 


81788 




LD 


BC,*B8H 


7C^C D9 


817 98 
81880 1 




EXX 






81SI8 t 


MKE 


GENERATIONAL CHA.IGES 




81^28 1 








TCSD 21FF6e 


81638 




LD 


HL,STORE«3FFH 


7CtB Dl 


81848 SCRN 


POP 


DE 


7C61 7A 


818^8 




U) 


h.D 


7C62 FEa2 


01868 




CP 


3 


7Ct4 IBBA 


81878 




JR 


i.incTi 


7C66 FEB3 


81888 




CP 


J 


7CtS 2824 


81898 




JB 


Z.S-6 


^C6^ CBA6 


81988 




PES 


4, (HLl 


7C6C 18B2 


81918 




JP 


S«4 


7C6E CBE6 


ei92B 




SET 


4,(HL) 


7C7B 7B 


■1931 NKTl 


LD 


A,E 


7C71 FEB3 


• 1946 




CP 


2 


7C73 ZBBA 


B195B 




JR 


Z . NXT2 


7C75 FEti 


81968 




CP 


3 


7C77 2604 


81978 




JR 


r,s-6 


7C7 9 C8*E 


81988 




BEE 


5. (HLl 


7C7B 168 2 


81998 




JR 


S-4 


7C7D CBEE 


82888 




SET 


5, (HL) 


7C7F Dl 


8^818 NXT2 


POF 


DE 


7CSf 7* 


82828 




[,D 


A,D 


7CB1 FEfl2 


82838 




CP 


2 


7Ca3 2BBA 


B2etB 




JR 


Z.NXTJ 


ICBb FEB3 


82058 




CP 


3 


7CB7 2Bfl4 


82068 




JR 


Z,$t6 


7CB9 CB96 


82B78 




REE 


2.1HL) 


7CBB 1BB2 


B2B8B 




JR 


S<4 


7C8D CBD6 


82898 




EET 


2, (HL) 


7C8F 7B 


82108 NXT3 


r,D 


A,E 


7C9e FEB2 


82118 




CP 


2 


7C»2 2BeA 


02128 




JR 


t,NXT4 


7C»4 FEBl 


82138 




CP 


3 


7Cȣ 28^4 


82148 




JR 


I.StS 


7C98 CB9E 


B21S0 




RES 


3. (HL) 


7C9A 1BB2 


82168 




JR 


S-4 


7C9C CBDE 


82178 




SET 


3. IHLl 


7C9E Dl 


82198 NXT4 


POP 


OE 


7C9r 7A 


0219B 




LD 


A,D 


7CAe FEB 2 


82208 




CP 


2 


7CA2 2BBfl 


82218 




JR 


I.HXT^ 


7CA4 FEB3 


82228 




CP 


3 


7CA6 2884 


02238 




JR 


Z,$*6 


7CA8 CB66 


82248 




RES 


■,(HL) 


7CAA 1682 


022S8 




JR 


S-4 


7CAC CBC6 


82268 




SET 


0, (ML) 


7CAE 7B 


82278 NXT? 


LD 


A.E 


7CAF FEB2 


82268 




CF 


2 


7CB1 28BA 


82298 




JR 


i.iniTt 


7CB3 FEB3 


82380 




CP 


3 


7CB5 2884 


82318 




JR 


l.»*t 


7CB7 CESE 


02320 




RES 


1,(HL1 


7CB9 1BB2 


B233B 




JR 


S** 


7CBB CBCE 


02340 




SET 


I.IHL) 


7CBC 2B 


ili'iB NXTft 


DEC 


HL 


7CBE D9 


02368 




EXX 




7CBF BB 


02378 




DEC 


BC 


7CCB 79 


82368 




LD 


A,B 


7CC1 Bl 


82398 




OR 


C 


7CC2 2BB2 


82480 




JR 


m.i** 


7CC4 1BB4 


82418 




JR 


Ml LB 


7CC6 09 


82428 




KXX 




7CC7 C3Sa7C 


82438 
82440 




JP 


SCREW 




02458 


BLANK 0»E BORDER OF BITS 




02468 


THIS 


PREVENTS WRAPAROL'ND Ef 




82478 








7CCft BSBF 


02488 


n.B 


I.D 


B, BFH 


7CCC 114BBB 


82498 




LD 


DE, 4BH 


7CCF DD21FF^C B2^flB 




LD 


IX.5CFFR 


7CD3 DDCBBBBE 8251B 


AAZ 


RES 


I.(IX) 


7CD7 DDCBBB9F B252B 




RES 


3, (IX) 


7CDB DDCBBBAE B2S3B 




RFS 


5, IIX) 


7CDF DD19 


82548 




ADD 


IX, DE 


7Cri ItFB 


02558 

e25e« 




ajsi 


:aaz 




• 2S7t 


RESTORE VIDFf) FROM WORKSPAC 




02508 








7CE3 I1«I5D 


02598 




LD 


HL , STORE 


7CE6 llBfl3C 


82680 




LD 


DE, VIDEO 


7CE9 B1BBB4 


8 2618 




LD 


BC,488H 


7CEC E3BB 


02628 
82630 




I,D1P 






82648 


CHECK CEHERATION COUNT STA 




82650 








7CEE 21F47A 


82668 




LD 


HL,7Ar4ll 


7Cri 7£ 


82678 




LD 


A,(HL) 


7CF2 FE»1 


826 80 




CP 


1 


7cr4 C13 87D 


■ 26 90 

■ 27Ba 




JP 


NJ.-JOCWT 




■ 271B 


COUWT AMr CONVERT TC ASCII 




■ 2728 








7CF7 leBZ 


B273B 




LD 


B,2 


7CF9 11FF3F 


■ 27 4^ 




LD 


DE,3FrFB 


7CFC 21F27A 


■ 2758 




LD 


HL,7AF2H 


"JCFF 7E 


■ 2768 




LD 


A, (ML) 


7Dee 3c 


■ 2778 




I tic 


n 


7DB1 27 


82788 




DAA 




7DB2 77 


827 98 




LD 


!hl; ,a 


7DB3 3887 


82888 




JR 


NC, S-*9 


7DB5 3F 


82818 




CCF 




7DB6 23 


82B28 




INC 


IIL 


7DB7 7E 


02830 




LD 


A. IHLl 


7DB8 3C 


02848 




INC 


A 


7pe9 27 


82858 




DAA 




7DeA 77 


02660 




I,D 


(HL) ,ft 


7DeB 2B 


02878 




DEC 


HL 


7DBC Af 


02668 




XOR 


A 


7DBD EDe7 


8269B 




HRD 




7DBF C63B 


829BB 




ADD 


A,3BH 


7D11 12 


82910 




I.D 


(DEI ,A 


7D12 DS38 


82928 




sun 


3 0M 


7DH ED67 


82938 




RRD 




7D16 CE3B 


82948 




ADO 


A,38H 


7D1B IB 


82958 




DFC 


DK 


7D19 i: 


82968 




[,D 


(DFl ,A 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 55 



TDIA oeii 


82978 


SUB 


38H 


7DE1 BE 


84288 


CP 


(HL) 


7D1C EM7 


82988 


RRD 




7DE2 2847 


84218 


JR 


I,BIT3 


TDIE IB 


82998 


DEC 


DE 


7DE4 07 


04228 


RLCA 




TDIF 23 


8388I 


INC 


HL 


7DE5 BE 


84238 


CP 


(HL) 


TD2I IS 


81ili 


DEC 


B 


7DE6 28S3 


04248 


JR 


1,BIT4 


TD21 2IE9 


B3I2I 


JB 


NZ,S-15H 


7DEB 07 


94258 


RLCA 






■3B3i 1 






7DE9 BE 


B4 26 8 


CP 


(KLl 




■3 Hi ; CLEAR 


BLANKS 


ABOUND NUMERALS TO AVOID 


7DEA 285 F 


84278 


JR 


I,BIT5 




nut 1 llfTERACTION WITH GRAPHICS BITS 


7DEC lli33a 


84180 


LD 


HL,3B82H 




83868 1 






7 DBF BE 


•4218 


CP 


(HL) 


7D13 2irB)r 


83870 


LD 


llL,VIDE0t3rBa 


7DF8 38DE 


84388 


JR 


NZjPOOO 


7DJ6 CBBE 


83888 


RES 


l.fHL) 


7DF2 2AFB7A 


84319 


LD 


HL, l7AFeH) 


7D2S CB9E 


83898 


RES 


3,(HL) 


7DF5 DD7585 


84320 


LD 


lIX+51 ,L 


7D3A CBAE 


83180 


RES 


5,(HL) 


7DF8 C3AB7E 


04338 


JP 


HELD 


7D2C ee*4 


83110 


LD 


B.4 




04349 1 






7D2E 21BP3F 


03120 


LD 


HL,VI0EO+3BFH 




94358 ; START 


ROUTINES TO KILL OR BEAR BITS | 


7D31 CBAe 


03130 BCUNK 


RES 


4, IHLl 




84368 ; 






7D33 CBAE 


03148 


RES 


5,[HL1 


7DFB AF 


84378 BITB 


XOR 


A 


7D3S 3B 


83158 


DEC 


HL 


7DFC B8 


84388 


OR 


B 


7D3fi 1BP9 


83168 


ItJHZ 


BLUNK 


7DFD 2886 


84398 


JR 


NZ,$4^8 


7D3S D$ 


8317 8 MOCm 


EXX 




7DFF DDCB0486 


04488 


RES 


e,(ix+4} 


7D39 C3237B 


03188 


JP 


PHIL 


7E83 1B54 


04418 


JR 


STAR 




83190 1 






7E85 DDCBB4C6 


84428 


SET 


8,lIXt4) 




03288 : KEYBOARD SCAN 


FOR HOLO, GOD, BASIC 


7189 184E 


84430 


JR 


STAR 




83218 ) 






7E8B AF 


84448 BITl 


XOR 


A 


IDJC 11I238 


83220 HOLO 


LD 


HL,3B82N 


7E8C Bl 


84458 


OR 


B 


7D3P IMl 


83211 


LD 


A,l 


7EBD 2806 


84 468 


JR 


NZ,$''a 


7D41 W 


03348 


CF 


IKLl 


7EBF DDCBB48E 


84478 


RES 


1, (IX*41 


7D43 2aPI 


0iaS0 


JR 


I.t-6 


7E13 1844 


84488 


JR 


STAR 


7D44 21IS38 


83268 


U) 


KL,3B88H 


7E15 DDCB04CE 


94 4 90 


SET 


1,(IX*41 


7D47 BE 


83278 


CV 


IHLl 


7E19 183E 


84588 


JR 


STAR 


7D4S 2IIS 


83280 


JR 


NZ,!+7 


7E1B AF 


84518 BIT2 


XOR 


A 


7D4A ED7BrE7F 


03290 


LD 


SP, (7FFEH) 


7E1C BB 


84528 


OB 


B 


7D4E C9 


83388 


RET 




7E1D 2BB6 


84530 


JR 


NZ,S+8 


7D4F 218138 


83318 


LD 


HL, 38811! 


7E1F DDCBe496 


84548 


RES 


2, (IX+41 


7D52 3Eea 


83320 


LD 


A,80H 


7E23 1834 


84550 


JR 


STAR 


7D54 BE 


03338 


CP 


(HL) 


7E25 DDCBe4De 


84568 


SET 


2, (IX+41 


7D55 2Bfl7 


83340 


JR 


Z,S*9 


7E29 182E 


84578 


JR 


STAB 


7D57 C3537C 


83350 


JP 


FATSO 


7E2B AF 


84580 BIT3 


XOR 


A 


7 OS A 23 


83368 CARRY 


INC 


HL 


7E2C Be 


84590 


OR 


B 


TDSI 34 


83378 


INC 


(HL) 


7E2D 2806 


84688 


JR 


NZ,$»6 


TDK » 


833S0 


□ EC 


HL 


7E2F ODCB849E 


84618 


RES 


3, IIX''4) 


TDSD C) 


■31» 


RET 




7E33 1824 


84628 


JR 


STAR 




13481 1 






7E35 DDCB84DE 


84638 


SET 


3.1IX*4I 




•1418 I TLASHING 'GOD 


■ SEQUENCE STARTS 


7E39 181E 


84648 


JR 


STAR 




03428 i 






7E3B AF 


84658 BIT4 


XOR 


A 


7D5E DD21II3C 


03438 


LD 


IX, VIDEO 


7E3C 68 


B466B 


OR 


B 


7D6 2 DDES 


83448 GODB 


PUSH 


IX 


7E3D 2086 


B467B 


JR 


NZ,S-8 


7D«4 El 


83450 


POP 


HL 


7E3F DDCBB4A6 


84688 


RES 


4, (IXt4) 


7M5 11F87A 


83460 


LD 


DE,7AP8H 


7E43 1814 


84698 


JR 


STAR 


7D6S •1I4II 


83470 


LD 


BC,4 


7E45 DDCB84E6 


84780 


SET 


4, (IXt4) 


7D6B EDBI 


83480 


LOIR 




7E49 188E 


84718 


JR 


STAR 


7MD DD36II47 


03490 


u> 


(IXl ,47H 


7E4B AF 


04728 BIT5 


XOR 


A 


TD71 DD36I14P 


03580 


LD 


(ix+i),4rii 


7E4C B0 


84738 


OR 


B 


7D7S DD3ei244 


83510 


LD 


(IX*2) ,44H 


7E4D 2886 


84748 


JR 


Nt,S*8 


7D79 DD3fil35E 


03528 


LD 


(IX*3) ,5EH 


7E4F DDCB04AE 


04758 


RES 


5, IIX + 4) 


7D7D CD827D 


03538 


CALL 


OELA'^ 


7E53 1884 


84768 


JR 


STAR 


7D8« ISIS 


03548 
03558 ; 


JR 


SCANA 


TE55 DDCB04EE 


04770 
94768 1 


SET 


5, (IX»4) 




83568 1 DELA^ 


ROUTINE 


PLACED BEFORE ACTIOH 




0479B ; ROUTINES TO 


DELETE STAR AND 




83579 ; PRODUCES DELIBERATE FRUSTRATION 




84898 ,- RESTORE ORIGINAL IHAGE HIDDEN BY "GOD" | 




03588 ; 








84818 ; 






7082 2ia81A 


83590 DELAV 


LD 


HL,1A88M 


7E59 2AFe7A 


04 828 STAR 


LD 


HL, (7AF8H1 


7085 2B 


e3fiei 


DEC 


HL 


7E5C DD75a5 


04838 


LD 


UX+51,L 


7086 7C 


03618 


LO 


A,H 


7ESF C3A37D 


04848 


JP 


EDIT 


7D87 B5 


83628 


OR 


L 


7E62 ED4BF87A 


B4B50 ONCE 


LD 


BC, (7AFBH) 


7088 2IPB 


83638 


JR 


NI,S-3 


7E66 DD7188 


84868 


LD 


(tX) ,C 


7D«A C» 


03648 


RET 




7Ee9 DD78 81 


84878 


LD 


(IX*11,B 




03658 ; 






7E6C ED4BFA7A 


04888 


LO 


BC,{7AFAB1 




8366 8 ; SCAN 


FOT MOTION OF -COD" COimOL 


7 67 8 DD7102 


04898 


LD 


IIX*1),C 




0367 8 ,' 






7E73 DD7803 


04 988 


LO 


IIX<]1 ,B 


7DIB I14I3B 


83880 8CAKA 


LD 


HL,384SH 


7E76 C9 


•4910 


RET 




7DIE lEII 


■ »H 


LD 


A, 8 




•4918 I 






7DSI BE 


83788 


CP 


IHL] 




0493B 1 nOUTINES TO 


PRODUCE HOTIOM OF *GOD* 


7D91 CAfl27E 


83718 


JP 


l.UPAR 




84948 : 






7D94 07 


03728 


RLCA 




7E77 CDG37E 


84950 FRTAR 


CALL 


ONCE 


7D95 BE 


03738 


CP 


IHLl 


7E7A DDI3 


84968 


INC 


IX 


7096 CA917E 


83749 


JP 


l.DNAR 


7E7C CD827D 


84 978 


CALL 


DELAY 


7D99 97 


83758 


RLCA 




7E7F C3627D 


84980 


JP 


GODB 


709A BE 


83769 


CP 


(HL) 


7E82 CD627E 


84 990 UPAR 


CALL 


ONCE 


7D9B CAAB7E 


0377B 


JP 


Z,BCKAR 


7EBS 8640 


05088 


LD 


B,4eH 


7D9E 87 


03768 


RLCA 




7EB7 DD2B 


05818 


DEC 


IX 


7D9F BE 


03793 


CP 


(HL) 


7EB9 18FC 


95828 


DJUl 


S-2 


7DAe CA777E 


93808 


JP 


Z.FHTAR 


7EBB CDB27D 


05030 


CALL 


DELAY 




03818 1 






7EBE C3627D 


05848 


JP 


GODB 




93820 ,- SCAN 


KEYBOARD 


FOR HILL, BEAR, MORTALITY 


7E91 CD627E 


05058 DNAR 


CALL 


ONCE 




83830 1 






7E94 8648 


85868 


LD 


B,40H 


7DA3 211238 


83840 EDIT 


LD 


HL,38B2H 


7E96 DD23 


85878 


INC 


IX 


7I»6 3E(* 


83858 


LO 


A, 8 


7E98 IBFC 


85880 


DON! 


S-2 


7 DAS BE 


• 3868 


CP 


(HLl 


7E9A CD827D 


05890 


CALL 


DELAY 


70A9 3114 


03870 


JR 


Z,S*16H 


7E9D C3627D 


05188 


JP 


GODB 


7DAI ID 


• 180fl 


DEC 


L 


7EA8 CD627E 


85110 BCKAR 


CALL 


ONCE 


7DAC tr 


83898 


RRCA 




7EA3 DD2B 


8S120 


DEC 


IX 


7 DAD BE 


83988 


CP 


(HL) 


7EA5 CDB27D 


85130 


CALL 


DELAY 


7 0Ae 2813 


03916 


JR 


I, t-15H 


7EA8 C3627D 


85140 


JP 


GODB 


7DBI 23 


93928 


IHC 


HL 


7EAB CD627E 


85158 HELD 


CALL 


ONCE 


7DB1 3E2* 


83938 


LD 


A,3BH 


7EAE 31EF7A 


85168 


LD 


SP,7AEPH 


7DB3 BE 


83948 


CP 


IHLl 


7EB1 C3237B 


05178 


JP 


PHIL 


7DB4 CAAB7E 


83958 


JP 


t.HELD 




85168 1 






7DB7 CD627E 


83968 


CALL 


OttCE 




05198 ; ROUTINES TO 


DISPLAY SCREEN TEXT 


70BA CDe27D 


83978 


CALL 


DELAY 




85288 i AT BEGINNING OF PROGRAM, INCLUDING 1 


7DBD ieA3 


83988 


JR 


GODB 




85210 I DELAYS, GENERATION COUNT CHOICE, | 


7DBF seee 


93998 


LD 


B,0 




85228 ; AND 


RETURN 


TO BASIC CONTROL 


7DC1 1882 


84080 


JR 


St4 




85238 1 






7DC3 86 81 


04818 


LD 


B,l 


«3U 


85148 


ORG 


62B8H 


7IX;5 21F87A 


04828 


LD 


HL.7AF8H 




•S15< 1 






7DCa DI}7Et5 


84838 


LD 


A,(IXt5) 




85368 1 CLEAR SCREEN AND HOLD CLEAR | 


7DCB 77 


84048 


LD 


[KLl ,A 




•527^ 1 






7KC IXI}(I52A •48S* 


LD 


1IX*51 ,2AH 


•2ii CD5Cfi3 


85288 


CALL 


PLOP 




■4MI 1 






8283 8618 


• 5298 


LD 


B,18H 




Hi7i 1 SCAN 


FOR BIT 


TO KILL OR BEAR 


(215 CDS27D 


•5388 STAYl 


CALL 


DEL AT 




•4li> t 






6208 10FB 


85318 


DJHl 


STAYl 


7D08 2118)8 


04890 POOO 


LD 


KL,3818K 




85328 ; 






70D3 3EI1 


84188 


LD 


A,l 




85338 I DISPLAX PIMT WO LIKES Or TEXT | 


7DDJ BE 


84118 


CP 


(HLl 




85348 1 






7006 2823 


84138 


JR 


1,BITI 


I28A 21F762 


85358 


LD 


HL , PLAY 


7008 87 


04138 


RLCA 




6280 11153C 


85368 


LD 


DE,VIDE0+15H 


7DD9 BE 


84148 


CP 


(HLl 


6210 81I5B8 


85378 


LD 


BC,15H 


7DDA 2e2F 


84158 


JR 


I,B1T1 


6213 EDB8 


85388 


LOIR 




IDDC n 


I416S 


MXA 




(215 21S23C 


BS39I 


LD 


HL,VIDEO+52H 


7DDD BE 


84178 


CP 


(HLl 


• 218 0eiB 


B540B 


LD 


B, IBH 


70DE 2838 


84188 


JB 


1,BIT2 


(21A 363D 


85418 0L8E 


LO 


1HL1,3DH 


7 DEB 17 


84198 


RLCA 




621C 23 


85420 


INC 


HL 



S6 • 80 Microcomputing. June 1930 



INPIIIITI BAIIC 

For MOD I TRS-SO"" Tape and Disk Systems 



Extvnstona to Laval II and Disk BASIC $49.95 

Full MATRIX Functions — 30 BASIC commands!! 

Mathematical and common matrix functions. Change arrays In 

mid-program. Complete array handling. Tape array read and write, 

including strings. Common subroutine calls. 

Over 50 more STRING Functions as BASIC commands!! String 

manipulation, translation, compression, copying, search, screen 

control, pointer manipulation and utility functions. Includes 

multikey multivarlable machine language sorts. Load only machine 

language functions that you want! Where you want in memory! 

Relocating linking loader! More than you ever expected!! 

» BUSINESS (Requlraa Inflnlla BASIC) S29.95 

20 Business oriented functions Including: 

Printer Automatic Pagination with headers and footers] 

Packed Decimal Arithmetic ( + ,-,',/) 127 digits! 

Binary array searches and hash code generator! 

COMPROC Command Procaasor for Disk Systama S19.95 

Auto your disk to perform any sequence of DOS commands, 
machine language loads, BASIC, memory size, run program, 
respond to Input statements, etc. Single BASIC command file 
defines execution! Includes auto key-debounce, screen print and 
lower case software driver. 

REMODEL + PROLOAD SpKlty 16, 32, or 4SK HUamory t34J6 

REnumber any portion or all of BASIC program. MOve any portion 

of program from one location to another. DELete program lines. 

MERGE all or any portion from tape. Save and verify portion or 

all of combined merged programs to tape. 

QSF (Spacify 16, 32, or 4aK) S24.95 

18 Machine language routines. Includes RACET sorts. 

St'^.9*^^'!!.*' "*'^^^°.-°- DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

■r . .. calll.Raaldantiadd6/B when ordering please 

Talaphona Ordari Accaptad (714) 637-5016 advise publication source 

TRS40 IS A aEQlSTERED TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORPORATION 



DISK SORT MERSi 'DSM' 

For MOD I and MOD II TRS-SO'" 

r.oT '*"* Vu can sort an 85K diskette __ ._ 

FAST — jn less than 3 minutes' - rAST 

Perfect tor your multi-diskette RANDOM file mailing lists. Inven- 
tory, etc. Ideal for specialized report generation. Sort, merge or 
combination. All machine language stand-alone package — 
Efficient and easy to use. No separate key files required! Physical 
records are rearranged on diskette! Supports multiple sub records 
per sector including optional sector spanning. Sorts on one or 
more fields — ascending or descending. Sort fields within records 
may be character, integer, and floating-point binary. Provides 
optional output field deletion, rearrangement, and padding. 
'Sort timings shown below are nominal times. Times will vary 
based on sort and system configurations. Nominal times based 
on Mod I 48K 4-drlve configuration, 64 byte records, and 5 sort keys. 

TYPE FILE SIZE SORT TIME TYPE FILE SIZE SORT TIME 





(BytH) 


(Sec) 




SORT 


16K 


33 


SORT 


SORT 


32K 


49 


SORT 


SORT 


85K 


173 


SORT and 


SORT 


170K 


445 


MERGE 



(BytMl (Ski 

340K 1081 

680 K 2569 

85KSORT + 1757 

1275K Merge 

DSM for Mod I (Minimum 32K, 2-drlves) $75 On- Disk 
DSM lor Mod II (Minimum 64K. 1-drive) S150 On-Dltl( 

Mod II Devalopmant PackagaSlOO 

Machine Language SUPERZAP, plus Editor/Assembler and 
Disassembler patches. 
Mod II Qeneralized Subroutine Facility 'QSF $50 



^^^ E" RACET COMPUTES "^ 
7lt Pelm6ali, OnnH CA 92US 





EDITOR ASSEMBLER 

TRS-80 - Model II 

from GALACTIC SOFTWARE 

EDAS 4.0 is the first user oriented Editor Assembler and was designed to utilize all the 
features of your Model II and TRSDOS operating system. EDAS 4.0 includes innovative 
features for ease of coding and debuging. EDAS 4.0 package includes complete, accurate 
documentation (over 120 pages). - (lyr%rkf\ f\i\ 

onlyCt)ZZ!^.UU 

also from Galactic . . . 

MAIL/FILE — A true name, address & phone number data base management system. The most versatile 
system of its kmd. Up to 2,500 records per file. $199.00 

HOST I/O — Make full use of your Model H's communications ability. Your "BASIC" programs can now 
make use of the Model H's RS232 channels, with this full-featured "KSR" system. $199.00 



I GALAC 



GALACTIC SOFTWARE LTD. Dept. 8A. l l 520 N. Port Washington Rd.. Mequon. Wl 53092 
^254 (414) 241-8030 

COD & Money Orders - Shipped Immediatel]^ Check Orders - Allow two u^eeks. 



•'fiMiitfSenict—fpagm 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 * 57 



tiiD lira 


•5431 




DJHl 


OLSE 




8(688 


DEFH 'THEN LOAD OR FROCRAH CIVILIIATIOHS. ' 


S3ir 2iice3 


■5441 




LO 


HL.COPT 




l((98 > 








(131 IICIIC 


15458 




LD 


De,VIDEO*MH 




84788 1 


DISPLAY "GOOD LOAD 


■ AT END OF LOAD 




fills I14III 


854(8 




LD 


BC,48H 




H718 1 


TO ASSURE USER OP 


GOOD LOAD (HHAT ELSC?] 




6238 EDM 


85478 




LOIR 






M738 1 










8S4BI 










86738 


ORG 3C56H 






85498 


D I SPLAT NEXT 


GROUP OF LimS MITH 




•(7 48 


DEFM "•• 








85581 


DELAY FXOn LETTER TO LETTER 




8(7 58 


END 638IH 






85M8 


















612A 314CI] 


85518 




LD 


HL.IIISTR 












fillD 1I4I1D 


85538 




LD 


DE .VIDEO* 14 8H 


DOLC 


(lAF 


HELD 


7EAB CLIB 7C3B 1 


«I3I HFF 


B554B 




LD 


B.IFPB 


BASC 


(5CB 


EDIT 


7DA3 CL17 7C3C 


£313 CDlCtl 


85558 




CALL 


mos 


CLID 


(19C 


FRTAR 7E77 CLK 7C23 1 


il3« HCl 


855(8 




LO 


B.BCIH 


CLOD 


(39A 


BCRAR 7EAB CL15 7C17 \ 


«117 CDSCtl 


B5S7B 




CALL 


mos 


GEN 


(2BA 


DKAR 


7E91 CLK 7C8B 1 


tl3A IMC 


B5SB8 




JR 


HERE 


POKE 


(3(A 


UPAR 


7EB2 CL13 7BrC 1 


t33C 7E 


B5S98 


MXDB 


LO 


A, (HLl 


STAT 2 


(155 


SCAHA 7088 CLIZ 7BED 1 


S33D 13 


B5(Bt 




LO 


(DE),A 


PLUS 


(58C 


DELAY 7D82 CLll 7B0E | 


Glie Zb 


85418 




PUSH 


HL 


REHE 


(341 


CODB 


7D«1 CL18 7BC9 1 


613r CDI17D 


85(28 




CALL 


DELAY 


WRDS 


«23C 


CARRY 7D5A CL89 7BB4 


tl43 El 


85(38 




POP 


HL 


INSTR 


634C 


BLUNR 7031 CL8S 7BAS 


(343 13 


85(48 




INC 


HL 


COPY 


(3»C 


MOCNT 7038 CL87 7B94 


«144 11 


85<5f 




IKC 


DE 


OLSE 


621A 


lAAI 


7CD3 CL8( 7BBA 


C14S iirs 


8S((8 




DJHI 


WRDS 


PLAY 


(1F7 


HI LB 


7CCA CL85 7B7B 


(347 C9 


85478 




RET 




BTATl 


(385 


XXTC 


7CBD CL14 7MF 


634* 31KCS 


854 88 


HERE 


LD 


HL.PLUS 


PLOP 


(25C 


M1T5 


7CAI CLB3 7M6 


t34B 114l3r 


85(98 




U> 


DE,VIDE04l48H 


■TAR 


7E59 


HXT4 


7C9E CLB3 7B5A 


C34e KBP 


85788 




LD 


B, 8BPH 


BITS 


7E4a 


HXT3 


7CBP CL81 7B4E 


(2M CD3Ce3 


85718 




CALL 


MRDS 


BIT4 


7E3B 


HXT3 


7C7F START 7B3( 


(153 H5I 


85718 




LD 


H, S8H 


BlTl 


7E3B 


HXTl 


7C78 I-IPE 7B31 


(355 CDB37D 


85738 


STAY 3 


CALL 


DELAY 


SIT2 


7E1B 


SCtEN 7C(8 PHIL 7B23 | 


(351 iirs 


857 48 




DJNl 


STAY 3 


BITl 


7 EBB 


FATSO 7C53 BLINK 7B1E | 


filbA I ME 


85758 




JH 


POKE 


BIT8 


7DFB 


HOLD 


7D3C BLANK 7B14 




8S7i8 


I 






POOO 


7DDB 


CLll 


7C4D STORE 5D88 




BS77t 


t CLBAX SCREn 


SUBROUTINE 


OHCE 


7E(3 


CL19 


7C44 VIDEO 3C88 




857 88 


1 
















(3^ IIFFII 


85798 


PLOP 


LD 


ac,3FFH 












(35F 3III1C 


85888 




LO 


HL, VIDEO 












i2t2 1II13C 


85S18 




LD 


DE,VIDEO+l 










1 


(K^ 1«8* 


85828 




LD 


(HL} ,88K 










-^^^^^^""^^S 


(3(7 EDBI 


85838 




LDIR 










^^^^^ 


— ^^Mk 


(3(9 C9 


05848 
F^B58 
85B6B 
eS878 


1 

1 PUT 

1 


RET 

■OSRIBl" 


ADDRESS IN PLACE 








^^^^^ 


y^k 


(ISA 318E4I 


85888 


POKE 


LD 


HL,48BEH 








y"^ J 


Jti 


616D ](■• 


85898 




LD 


(HL),8 






j^ 


' ' X 


^*Li 


e3«F 23 


85988 




INC 


HL 






>^ 


/ 


If^m 


627B 3i7B 


85918 




LD 


(HL) ,7BH 






^r 


. / 


niD 


(171 CDSCd 


85938 
85938 


1 


CALL 


PLOP 






/ 


ll / 


HSi 




85948 


1 DISPLAY CEHCRATION COUNT PROMPT 






^r 


II / '■■ 


lini 




85958 


1 










X\^ 


11/ 






m\^* 


(37 5 11BA«1 


859(8 




LD 


IIL.CEN 






/\ 


Ir 






mvfi 


6178 llteiD 


85978 




LO 


Dt,VlDEO+188H 






/ X 


\F 






rv^jf 


617B illDSI 


8S988 




LO 


Br,3DH 






f X 


J 






lilri'« 


(17E EDBH 


8^998 
86880 


1 


LOIR 






/ 


\ 








/y*i 




ReeiR 


; SCAN 


XEV BOARD FOR RESPONSE 




/ 


\ 










06828 


I 








/ 


^ 


^ 






iw^'if 


(188 11183B 


86 8 38 




LD 


HL, 381811 




/ 




^"^w / 






Ml .■ i U 


&1B3 3C81 


86848 




LD 


A,l 




/ _ 




^^j|L^ 






61B5 BE 
fiiefi 2886 
(388 3C 
(389 BE 


86858 
86868 
8687 8 
8(888 




CP 
JR 
INC 
CP 


IHL) 

A 
(XL) 


y 


fC 




/ "^^s^ 






fm 




/ 


o: 




^/ ' ^*'***^ 


•m. 




Jfi'liF 


filBA 1889 
(38C 1BF3 


86898 
86188 




JR 
JR 


Z,$*8BK 

S-8CH 


/ 




^y 111 


lii 


•"^JT-* 'r *g 


p^"^ 








8(118 


1 






/ 






•^ f 




8(138 


I SET 


UP GENERATION COUNT STATUS FLAG 


/ 




#L 


11 


<2BE I1F4TK 
6391 3(88 


•C138 
8414 8 
8(158 


1 


LO 
LD 


HL,7AF4H 

(HL],8 


/• 


^ ^ 






a 


^■C 




6193 1885 


8616 8 




JR 


CLOD 


/ 


i 


\ ) 


lA^^H 


6195 11F47A 


8(178 




LD 


KL,TAF4H 


/ 


'i 




IM ^^^^ 


639B 3(81 


86188 




LD 


!HL),1 




/ 


|v jm 




86198 


I 










t s 






86188 


I DELAY FOLLOWED BY RETURN TO BASIC 






\ i 


^^^^^^H 




86 218 


; PROMPT AND KEYBOARD SCAN 






) i 


^^i^m 




8(328 


I 












\ > 




619A 8C1B 
(19C CDB17D 


8(338 
8(148 


CLOD 
CLID 


LO 
CALL 


B.IBH 
DELAY 
















^^^^^^^^^ 


A-' ,".'\ 


^HH 


fi39F 18FB 


8(258 




DJHt 


CLID 






^^^^^^^1 


(3A1 CDSC61 


861(8 




CALL 


PLOP 






^^^^^^^* 1 


^^^^^^^■j 


61A4 IICBGS 


8(178 




LO 


HL.BASC 




1 


^^^^^^^H 






(3A7 IIMID 


8(188 




LD 


DE,VIDBatl88H 




1 1 


^S' I 






(3AA (llFta 


8(198 




LD 


BC,81FH 


\ 


1 






G3AD EDBI 


8(388 




LDIR 




\ 




H^^l 






G2AF 211838 


8(318 


DOLC 


LD 


HL,3818H 


\ 


.■ . 


^£.'-1 






62B2 3EB1 


86 328 




LD 


A,l 


\ 


• J 


^^r.' \'\f 




62B4 BE 


86311 




CP 


(HL) 


\ 


■■f 


^^^^■« 




62B5 IIFB 


86 348 




JR 


NZ.DOLC 


\ 


■III 


llli 






86358 
84368 


I 

; RETURN TO BASIC COKTROL 


\ 


■III 


nil 


\ r •, 


^^^ 


(IBT C3191A 


8(378 
8«1B8 
Hlf8 
M488 
88418 
K41B 
•6438 


1 

; THE 

t 

GEM 


JP 

LINES or 

DEFB 
OEFN 


IA19H 

TEXT FOLLOW AS A BLOCK 

■CDIERATIOH C0UKT7 ENTER 1 FOR ' 
■ON-SCREEN COOKT, 8 FOR HO COUNT' 


\ 


p 


^ 




m 




8(448 


PLAT 


OePH 


'PLAYING GOD WITH LIFE' 




\ 1 


^^^^^^^^ 8 


yK'f, ^ 


1 1 A* iT ^'' 




H478 


IBSTR 


DEPH 


"PLAYING GOD WITH LIFE' IS A ' 




\ 


^^I^^H 


1 Jfefui ' f 




M4M 




DEFH 


'NAmBKATICAL PASTIME. THERE ARE NO 




\ 


^^^^^^^^^^H 


\ ^ * 


^viH tvNj 




■■4M 




DEFM 


'WIMIERS OH LOSERS. YOU BECOME ' 




\ 


y 


CUayUin 




MM! 




DEPH 


'THE OBSERVER IN AH AGELESS MASTER' 






\ X 


i' 1 '. \ i 


V VftVnr ^Ui 1 




N5U 




DtrH 


•PLAN -- A SORT OF LIMITED DEITY ' 






\ X 


+ \ i 1 1 


r ^^^^^f V 




MSH 




DEPH 


■WITH COWTROL OVER TOUR GASOD) Of 






\ / 


Li \%j^ P 1 




NHt 




DEPH 


'EOar, POSSESSING THE POWER TO ' 






\ / 


\ 1 


lupftT ft 




MMt 




DEPH 


'COMMIT THE UNIVERSE TO OBLIVION OR' 






\X 


■I'T Lnr 




MSM 




DEPH 


■TO CREATE OR DESTROY INDIVIDUALS ' 






X 


^L 


■ ws,: 




HSH 




DEPM 


'AT WILL. BUT POR YOU TO CHANCE' 






X 


^W * 




N9TI 




DEPH 


'THE MASTER FLAM IS OUTSIDE ' 






X 


^W 




K9M 




DEFR 


'YOUR POWER. YOU ONLY OBSERVE AS T 


HE' 




\ 


^W 


\^f^ 




K9M 




OEFN 


'CDIERATIOHS MARCH BY, SUSPENDING ■ 






\ 


Xl 


m Ijfl \M 




M<ffl 




OEPH 








X 




' r a IUb^I 




84(18 


PLUS 


DEPH 


'COMTROL HILL BE RETURNED TO YOU ' 








^^^ 


Ss^ Jfyl 




84(38 




DEPH 


'AND BASIC IN TWISTY SECONDS, AND' 








1 




H(3B 




DEPH 


'IF YOU REFER TO YOUR 'PLATING GOD ' 








in^ 




■MU 




DEPH 


■WITH LIFE" INSTRUCTION SHEETS, ■ 








^"'*'^^^^ 


^^W 1 \M 




HfSI 




DEPH 


■YOU HILL BE ABLE TO CREATE ' 








^^'■■- 1 


^^k ^r 




MM! 




DEPH 


'YOUR UNIVERSE AND ITS CIVILIIATtOMB 


, ■ 






^^^^^^ 


~ ^^^ \1 




H(71 


BASC 


DEFH 


'ENTER 8 TO RETURN TO BASIC, ' 













58 • ^ Microcomputing, June 1980 



Instant SoftwarelNew Releases 




CHESSMATE-80 This versatile chess op- 
ponent gives you a choice of ten levels ot 
play, (rom the "blitz" level (the computer 
has three seconds to choose a move) to 
the "infinity" levet (where the computer 
will consider every possible move, which 
could take years). The program is a con- 



servative player and follows all the ac- 
cepted rules of International play. 

You can let Chessmate teach you the 
moves. A single connmand has Chess- 
mate making the move for you. Another 
command can let you watch Chessmate 
deciding on a move. It's fascinating to see 
the computer go through all the alter- 
natives until it either runs out of time or 
finds the perfect move. 

Chessmate allows you to set up the 
board and play end games or special prob- 
lems. 

Watching Chessmate play itself and 
seeing the computer choose the best 
move is a fascinating sight. It will give you 
an excellent insight in the methods com- 
puters use to make decisions. 

Chessmate-60 plays such a good game, 
you might be embarrassed to play it in 
public. This program requires 2 TRS-80 
L^vel I or II 16K. Order No. 0057R S9.95. 




DAREDEVIL The following collection of 
fast-action conleste will test your reac- 
tions, your reflexes and quickness-of-eye 
during high-speed maneuvers: 
•SKI RACER-Hurtllng down the ski- 
slopes, your task is to guide the skier past 
gates all the way down to the finish line. 
•Bob Sted- At high speed, the challenge 
is to avoid taking the curves too "high", 
because if you do, you could go "over-the- 
top" and easily crash! 
lndy-80-You will need all the skill at your 
command, to avoid smashing into the 
other cars on the racetrack, and to steer 
clear of the curves! 
■Aero Target-The aircraft flash by your 



sights, and you get chances to shoot them 

down. 

•Auto Race -You attempt to steer your 

car past the car driven by the computer. 

The course is tricky, so be careful. 

• RACE-Steering a car around this 

course is a real challenge, it has potholes 

and some very tricky curves. But that is 

not all, because the road becomes 

gradually narrower! 

Don't be charmed by these innocent- 
looking titles. None of these contests are 
easy, in fact they all become very difficult, 
and you will be hard-pressed all the way! 
For the TRS-80 Level II 16K. Order 
NO.0082R. $9.95. 



BEGINNER'S RUSSIAN The three pro- 
grams In this package will give you on- 
screen displays of the Cyrillic letters, 
detailed instructions on their proper pro- 
nunciation, and exercises that will have 
you recognizing and speaking simple 
Russian words. 

This package is excellent for students, 
businessmen, scientists, and anyone 
who is interested in learning the Russian 
language. For the TRS-80 Level II 16K. 
OfderNo.013eRS9.95. 



ia6GrAe6>K3 
HMKnMHOn 

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MONEY MADNESS These two programs 

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For a free catalog listing over 200 
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Prices subject to change without notice. 



EVERYDAY RUSSIAN This program will 
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80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 59 



Inslant SoftwarelNew Releases 



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PROGRAMMER'S CONVERTER Have you 
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Training- A dual purpose program. First, 
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SEE INSIDE BACK COVER 

FOR LIST OF DEALERS 

NEAR YOU. 



60 • so Microcomputing, June 1980 



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80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 61 




GENERAL 



Adventures 
In Roseland 




AUan S. Jotfe W3KBM 
1005 Twining Road 
Dresher, PA 19025 



3.115 

1 


1 

-144 

1 . ' . 

1 1 

."IS ; \ 


■ 
1 









Adventures in Roseland 
62 • 00 Microcomputing, June 1980 



This general equation J = a 
SIN X, If properly translated 
into a program that your TRS-60 
can digest, paints a three leafed 
rose onto your monitor screen. 
Program Listing 1 gives a pro- 
gramming possibility. After you 
have run the program and ex- 
amined the scenery, the ques- 
tion "Why bother?" may conne 
up. 

Pattern After Pattern 

For a partial answer, make 
the following changes and addi- 
tions to Listing 1. 



5 G=0 
15 G = Q-f 1: PRINT Ia]50,G 

30 n = 35-SIN(Q.J) 
BO INPUT ZJ 
90 GOTO 10 



You now have a program that 
produces pattern after pattern, 
t>ecause of the changing value 
of G, each time the program 
runs. Line 80 is merely a way to 
put In a controlled pause. 

When one pattern has been 
generated, you may examine it 
for as long as you wish, hitting 
ENTER to get the next one. 

The print statement In line 15 
ts an index that will help you 
make a record of any pattern 



that happens to strike your fan- 
cy. 

Running the revised listing, 
you will see that when G Is an 
even number, the rose has pet- 
als equal to 2-G, and when G Is 
odd, the petal count equals G. 
Note also that when G is odd, 
the figure Is first traced and then 
retraced by the program. 

If you are going to run any 
numljer of these patterns, I sug- 
gest you alter the STEP in line 20 
to read .035. This cuts the print 
time in halt without too much 
damage to the Image. 

After you have played with the 
program for a bit, jump past the 
rose petal section by changing 
line 5 to read G = 29. Remember 
that as the patterns form, you 
can stop them as desired using 
SHIFT lA]. 

You will notice that some of 
the patterns are predominantly 
circular, while others are spirals. 
Some are cluttered looking and 
others quite sharply defined. 

You can expand them by set- 
ting the value in tine 5 to such 
constants as 99. 199 or 299 to 
find new patterns. For more 
visual fun with your TRS-80, set 



10CLS 

20 FOH J ^ TO 6.28 STEP 0175 

XR = 35.SIN|3>J) 

40X = (H.COS(J)r64 

50Y = (fl.SIN(J»U7 

60SET{X,47I(Yra» 

70 NEXT J 



Program Listing 1. 



unPRINTROLur> 



for rh« TRS-BO' LINE PRINTER - 1 

> FIVE SELECTABLE PRINT DENSITIES 

On* variable, from 10/in to 22/in (approximata) 
Four conslont, u*«r adjuitabic 

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80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 63 



the value of G in line 5 to 29. Line 
20 should read: 

20 FOR J =0 TO 3.14 STEP 035 

This tine eliminates some of 
the clutter you may have noticed 
in the patterns and also speeds 
up the printing of the Image. 

When G=35 you see an Im- 
age of five tangent circles. If 
G = 44 you have a gaggle of four 
circles. When G = 36 you see a 
stylized eagle Inside a spiral 
segment. 

We already have index G as a 
guide. Add another index so you 
can see what I see in the follow- 
ing examples. 



Change tine 30 to read: 

30 R = 35.S1N(G.J1: PBINT«0, J 

Start the program running 
again by setting G in Line 5 to 
equal 28. The first time you run 
the program G will equal 29. If 
you stop the pattern when 
J = 1,12. you should see what 
might be interpreted as a barbell 
weight. 

If G=33 and J = 1.575, you 
may see a dinosaur. 

tfG=63 and J=1.47, you will 
hopefully see Snoopy the dog. 

If G = 116 and J = 1.435. you 
will see a running dog. 

Here are some other fanta- 
sies available by altering G. 



G = 143, is a stylized Darth 
Vadar, and G = 144 gives you a 
close approximation of the hu- 
man eye as shown In a cross 
section of an anatomy book. 

Negative ValuM 

You can also use negative 
values for G, In this last Image, 
let G=-144. The pattern Is 
Identical except it has been 
rotated so that it is now the mir- 
ror image of the posttiveG input. 

Since we are dealing with cir- 
cular functions, this displace- 
ment can be left to right as in 
this example, or top to bottom 
(G= andG= -1). 

You can also get a combina- 
tion of shifts, such as both right 



to left and top to bottom, as 
when G = 36 or G = - 36. There 
are times when altering the sym- 
metry makes the image more 
realistic. For example, if G = 33 
and J =1.115, you see what 
looks like a running horse. If you 
alter line 30 to read, 

30 R = 4S-Slt4<Q.J) 

the running horse becomes 
more realistic. 

This program is a nice way to 
Introduce some imaginative 
people to the TRS-80. It is one 
sure way to get rid of the com- 
ment, "Shucks, I can do that 
with my calculator". ■ 



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cat«losua [frea «ith order) to: .^iig 

NCWIY SOFTWAHC DCVKt-OPMCNT CO 
ZM DAWLIIH AVE TOnONTO CANADA M4N Ua 



For Canadian-^! 
* OwnersT^ 

Lower Cats Modlflcallon ,, S65.00 
Cauette Load Modification ■ S20.00 
Kadlo Shack Numeric Keyboard 

IntUllation S50.00 

(You lupply numeric pad] 

RS232C Serial 1/0 Port for Printer 
etc. (Complete with connecton) 
For Uie With or Without Expansion 
Box Sie9.95 

For a complete catalo| and credit 
vouchera worth S2S.00 on future 
purchases send S5.00 to: 

1*11 



ORTHON SPiL^P 



K'loe 



12411 Stony Plain Rd.. 
Edmonton, Alta, T5N 3N3 



64 • 80 Microcomputing, June 19W) 
Scanned by Ira Goldklang - vvvvw.trs-80.com 



GENERAL 



Is your random really random? 
Try this Level I program to plot a bar graph. 

Randomness 



Todd L. Carpenter 

6660 Washington 
St Louis. MO 63130 



\ the heart of most game 
^programs is a statement of 



chance, the RANDOM state- 
ment. Having ihe ability to look 
at the shape of the RANDOM 
distribution, can give you the 
power of shaping the distribu- 
tion to suit your purposes. 

Graphics displays on the 
TRS-80 certainly have their 



limitations, but there is one type 

of display the TRS-80 handles 
rather nicely— the bar graph. If 
you are interested in the state- 
ment Y = RND(X}, it is important 
for you to understand the dis- 
tribution characteristics of Y 
over its range (1 to X). A bar 



graph can display this with a 
touch of elegance. 

Is RANDOM RMlly Random 

I had written a custom Star 
Trek program (hasn't everyone?) 
for my Level I, 16K machine. 
After playing with it for several 



Program 


Listing. 




IBB REM •* RAHDOH DISTRIBUTIOH GRAPHICS PROGRAM •• 






IIB REM •* «« 


870 NEXT I 




12B REM •• TODD 1. CARPENTER •• 


680 : 




130 REM *• lB/Bl/79 •• 


690 : 




14B REM •• •• 


1000 REM •■ PLOT X-AXIS '• 




ISB : 


1010 CLS 




308 CLS 


1020 J-INT(K/32)+l 




318 P.! P. "INPUT X fOR Tilt: RND(X) STATEME 


1B3B FOR I-ie TO 123 




NT. IT" 


1040 SET (1,38) 




32fl P. " MUST BE A POSITIVE NUM 


1058 IF INT(I/1B)-I/10 THEN SET (1.39) 




BER:" 


1066 NEXT I 




330 P.: P." <= RND[X) <= X" 


1070 : 




340 P. A. 74 , "" J : INPUT X 


IBBB : 




400 CLS 


1100 REM •* LABEL X-AXIS *• 




410 P.: P."l OP TRIALS INPUT THE DESIRED NUMB 


1110 FOR I='0 TO 10 




ER OF TRIALS." 


1120 P.A.905*5*I,5*I*N; 




420 P. ■ THE GREATER TEiE NUMBER 


1130 NEXT I 




or TRIALS," 


1140 ; 




4 30 P. ■ THE SMOOTHER THE GRAPH 


115B : 






1200 REM •• LABEL Y-AXIS ■• 




440 P. A. 77,"";: INPUT C 


121B FOR 1-8 TO 5 




450 CLS 


122B P.A. 770-1*128, J+J*6*I; 




460 : 


123B NEXT I 




470 : 


124B : 




500 P. A. 34B, "THINKING'; 


1258 : 




510 K-0: F>50 


13Bfl REM *• PLOT Y-AXIS *• 




520 FOR 1-0 TO 58 


13ie FOR 1-6 TO 3B 




530 A[I]-0 


1320 IF INT({I-2)/6)-(I-2)/6 THEN SET (15,1-1) 




540 NEXT I 


1338 SET (16,1) : SET (17,1) 




550 X-INT(X1 


1348 NEXT I 




560 IF X' =0 TMKN 300 


1350 : 




570 : 


1360 : 




580 ; 


14B0 REM •• HEADING AND LABELS •• 




710 REM *- CALCULATE RND(X) VALUES ** 


1410 P.A. 29 . "RANDOM DISTRIBUTION"; 




720 REM *• MAX VALUE STATEMENT ** 


1420 P.A.83,"X=";X;" "fCf"TRIALS MAX VALUE=" 


;L; 




1430 P.A.64,"* OF TRIALS"; 




730 M-2«X 


1440 P. A. 976, "EACH BAR IS A"iN;"VALUE RNDIX) DIN"; 
1450 : 






760 L-M 


1460 : 




77B IE M<50 THEN M-S0 


2BBB REM '* PLOT GRAPH ■' 




775 IF M>50 THEN M- ( INT( (M-1 )/5B) tl ) 'Sfl 


2010 FOR I-e TO 50 




7Be N-H/5B 


2020 IF A(I!-.J THEN 2060 




790 FOR I-l TO C 


203B FOR H-1 TO INT(A(I)/J) 




800 REM *• RND(X) STATEMENT *• 


2840 SET (28*2*1, 3e-H) 
2050 NEXT H 
2060 NEXT I 




BIB Y-RND(X) +RND(X) 






2070 T 




a3« B-iirnY*^a/Ki 


5000 P. A. 968,""; 




84B IF B<B THEN 870 


6000 INPUT I 




850 A(B)-A(B)+1 


7880 GOTO 308 




860 IF K*A{B) THEN K-AlB) 


9999 REM •• END •• 





80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 65 




TING - 
TONG 

by Ray Daly 



TING-TDNG! 



LmPMV 



RIOTPflau 

- BiwT i»nu t out 



• I SOia Snil (I - 7) ID STVT MC. II 



(C> 1^ cm STME Fmns. ipc. 





Sound effects and fast action combine in this 
old favorite to provide hours of fun for one or 
two players. This machine language version of 
ping-pong has seven levels of play to make it e 
challenge for everyone. 

Each player controls the paddles using two 
keys. Two players compete against each other 
while the single player rebounds the ball off a 
back wall. 

Acorn produces several games for the 
TRS-80'. These include: Codebreaker. Star 
Warp & Lunar Landor. Word ChaUengo. 
Bandito, Block'em, and Ting-Tong priced at 
$9.96. Pigskin. Quad and Star Trek Two are 
available for $14.95. Ask for these and other 
quality Acorn programs at your local computer 
store. 



*TRS-W ii ■ iTKtoniarh ot Tandy Corp. 




DEALER MQURMES MVITID, 




•'• 



n 3. 

Software Products, Inc. 



•M North CaroNna Av*fMM,S.E.,WMMnglon,D.C 20003 



weeks, I noticed that the majori- 
ty of the Klingons were always 
located near the center of the 
galaxy. Rarely did t ever find a 
Klingon in any of the perimeter 
quadrants. I thought I had used 
a simple Y = RND(X) statement 
in distributing the Klingons: but 
it seemed that either my RAN- 
DOM statement was not truly 
random or the Klingons had suc- 
ceeded in outsmarting Captain 
Carpenter. I chose to pursue the 
former suspicion because, after 
all, the Klingons are the bad 
guys and they could not out- 
smart me— could they? 

I set out to write a simple pra 
gram that would show me once 
and for all whether or not the 



ment over 4,000 times in distrib- 
uting the elements of the gal- 
axy As you will see. it was Cap>- 
tain Carpenter who had goofed, 
not Radio Shack. 

Random Shaping 

After a closer examination of 
my Star Trek Program I discov- 
ered that I had inadvertently 
used a combination ot RAN- 
DOM statements. How could I 
test the distribution of this com- 
bination? After a few general- 
izations in my program I was 
ready to run an analysis on any 
combination of RANDOM state- 
ments that could start with 
"Y = ". I proceeded to test my 
Klingon distribution. Sure 



RAHIW1 DISTRiaiTll3H 



J rf TRSiLS X- 36 m TRAILS HfiX VfUU|^^ 




Photo 1 

RANDOM statement really gave 
me a uniform random distribu- 
tion. The purpose of the pro- 
gram was to display in a single 
picture the distribution of the 
RNDfX) statement. The ability to 
see the RANDOM distribution 
would enable me to determine 
immediately the actual ran- 
domness of the statement. 

I was prepared to make a 
shattering discovery that Radio 
Shack had goofed in their 
design of the RND(X) statement. 
But why had no one else discov- 
ered this biased RANDOM state- 
ment? Perhaps, I thought, the 
bias was slight, and I had dis- 
covered it only because my pro- 
gram used the RANDOM state- 



Photos by Vuan Chang lo 



enough, they were doing just 
what I had been telling them to 
do, concentrating in the middle. 
In separate parts of the pro- 
gram, I had mistakenly used 
what amounted to the sum of 
two RANDOM statements and 
gotten a dice-like distribution. 
See Fig. 1. 

As all craps players should 
know, when rolling two dice, 
more sevens turn up than twos 
or twelves. In fact, six times as 
many sevens turn up. 

The advantage of seeing any 
RANDOM distribution before 
ENTERing it, is that the shape of 
a distribution can be selected to 
fit an application. Once you 
know how to generate some 



66 » 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



$ or TRAILS 



F^'0> HISTRIBJilu': 
X= M ]«W- TRAILS W&; v«.it= 58 



IB 15 a £5 36 35 4e 4f !i 
[ftTH Bi» IS ft 1 VhLIC WiBC^) BIN 



PftOfO 2 



simple shapes, the next steps 
seem easier. 

Program Inputs 

The program (See Program 
Listing) starts by asking for the 
value of X in the RND<X) state- 
ment. It can be any number 
greater than zero and preferably 
an integer (although the ma- 
chine will accept a decimal 
value and find the integer value 
itself). For the case of the 
simplest RANDOM statement, 
Y = RND(X), the function Y is 
uniformly distributed from 1 to 
X. This means that for a single 
trial, the probability is the same 



for getting any integer value 
from 1 to X. For example, X = 6 is 
analogous to the case of rotting 
onedie. With six faces, the prob- 
ability that any particular face 
comes up is 1/6. See Fig. 2. 

Next, input the number of 
trials to be made. For our exam- 
ple this would be the number of 
rolls of the single die. 

The greater the number of 
trials performed the more the 
graph will be delineated. The 
number of trials made must he 
large compared to the entered 
value of X. As a rule of thumb I 
make the number of trials at 
least 20 times the maximum 




Photo 3 




Don't b« misl*d by mor* •xpeniiv* tmitations! 

This is the original Photo point light pen pre- 
ferred and supported by some of the leading 
software sources like, "Quality Software"— "In- 
stant Software"— "Level IV "products and so on, 

Just imagine . . . 

In playing backgammon. (Included) when you 
want to move a man. you just point at where you 
want to move from, then point at where you 
want to move to, and your man moves!!! No 
more fumbling with keyboards — YEA! 

Your Photo Point package comes complete; 

• 1 Photo point light pen (of course) 

• Into sheets on how to connect the pen and 
how to write your own programs 

ALL IN BASIC 
" Two apertures 

• AND two sensitivity settings 

• A cassette tape with 4 informative programs 
and games 

• Heady to connect to your TRS-80 System. 
(DOS too!) 

• Does not void any Radio Shack warranties 

Raqulramants: 

' Level It tiasic 

• And a little /mag/naf/on'.' 

For fast real time programming it is your lowest 
cost peripheral at >19.» 



Announcing 



</} 




NEW PEN BASIC by Steve BjorK 

Steve is one of the Best Assembly Lang, pro- 
grammers around, and he has come up with PEN 
BASIC. This low memory routine will add io more com- 
mands to Level It such as PENGET which searches the 
entire screen for the pen and returns a number between 
0-1024 in about 1 sec. Plus 9 other commands Perfect for 
you light ware authors and NEW light pen owners 
tool only»14« 



(COUPON) 

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P.O. Box 938 • Pacifica. CA94044 

Send for yours NOW: (415) 355-4635 



Name __ 
Address 
City 

Zip 



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Photopoint 
[ ! $19.95 

Pen Basic 
n $14,95 



Card# 
Ex, 
Date _ 



Money 
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80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 67 



MARK GORDON 

COMPUTERS 

DIVISION OF MARK GORDON ASSOCIATES, INC. *^270 

15 KENWOOD ST. CAMBRIDOE. MASSACHUSETTS 02130 
(817) 243-27« (617) «1 7505 



COMPGTERS 

Level-ll 4K System 529.00 

Level-ll 1 OK System 659.00 

Mo<lel-ll64K System, , , " J499.00 



DISK DRIVES 



40 Track 5' * inch drive. 
77 Tr^ch 5' « inch drive, 
4 Disk Drive Cable 



319.00 

549.00 

39.00 



PRINTERS 



Centronics 730 . . . 
Centronics 779-2, , , 
Comprint "51 2p . , , . 
Iniesral Dma 440G. 
NEC SSlOw tractor, 
Tl 810 busk. 



MISC HARDWARE 



Expansion jnt TRS 80(Ok) 
Novation Cat mcKlem 

I 6K Memory Kit 

Leedex Monitor 

Printer Cable for above. . . 

ISO-2 Isolator 

ACLINEflLUR 



STORAGE MEDIA 



899.00 
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2679.00 

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Verbatim box 10-5'* 25.00 

Memorex box 10-5'/4 22 JM 

Plastic Storage Box 5.00 



OPERATING SYSTEMS 



NEWDOS by APPARAT INC. . . 
NEWDOS+ byAPPARATINC . 
MMS FORTH DISKETTt-PRlMER 



49.00 
99.00 
.64.95 



DISKETTE TRS-80* 
BUSINESS SOFTWARE BY SBSG 

Free enhancements and upgrades to registered owners for 
the cost of media and mailing. 30 day free telephone sup- 
port User reference on request 
Fully Interactive Accounting Package, General Ledger. 

Accounts Payable. Accounts Receivable and Payroll. 

Report Generating 

Complete Package (requires 3 or 4 drives) $475.00 

Individual Modules (requires Z or 3 drives) Si 25.00 

Inventory II (requires 2 or 3 drives) % 99.00 

Mailing List Name 6. Address II 

(requires 2 drives) S I 29.00 

Intelligent Terminal System ST-80 III. S I 50.00 

The Electric Pencil from Michael Shrayer S I 50.00 

file Management System S 49.00 



FINE PRINT 
TR5-80 IS a Tarxly Corporalion traQsmarK Use ol atKivs operating sys- 
lems may fBquire the use ol Radio Sfiack T US DOS Radio Shack 
BQuipment aubjecl lo trie ivill and whim ol Radio sriack 

ORDERING INFORMATWN 

Me accept Visa ana MaslercMatge V^e will s^ipC O D certified chBCk 
or morwy orde's only All orders must irvclufle 4 percent fo' shipping 
and handling Massacfiuselts residents adO b percent sates lax 

Tha Company canrwl be llabte tor pktorlal or lypogripnical inaccuraclet. 



PROBABILITY 


6 
12 




























f i 




5 

12 


, , 


1 , 




4 
12 








J , 




3 . 

12 


, . 










J . 




2 ^ 
12 


1 . 














1 L 




1 
12 


k 


















, L 































value that Y can be. In this case, 
make Y equal to X or 6. 

You are now ready to take a 
peek at Photo 1 which shows a 
graph of the function. 
Y-RND(5G). There were 1,000 
trials, the minimum rule of 
thumb value, used to determine 
this graph. (Fifty values times 20 
trial outcomes per value, equals 
1,000 total trials,) As you can see 
it yeilds quite an uneven distrib- 
ution, 

I chose to use the number of 
trial outcomes for the vertical 
axis rather than probability in 
this case. But. either way the 
shape of the graph is the same. 

Now consider Photo 2. I ran 
the same distribution, but this 



POSSIBLE ROLLS OF TWO DICE 

lime with 10,000 trials. As you 

would expect, the average num- 
ber of values per "bin" is now 10 
times what it was in the previous 
example, or 200, I have coined 
the word bin to refer to each bar 
of the graph. A bar getting larger 
can be thought of as a bin being 
filled. 

Changing the Distribution 

There are two important 
statements in the program. They 
are the RANDOM statement and 
the MAX VALUE statement. The 
RANDOM statement is at line 
810 and contains the expression 
which determines the shape of 
the distribution. This statement 
must be edited manually when- 



f OF TRAILS 



RfMOl mSTRUUnON 
}{= 25 Sem TMILS NK VfUC= ^ 



6 5 18 15 EB 25 36 35 48 « 

EACH B» IS fl 1 VH.Ue RHD(K) BIN 



Photo 4 



68 • 80 Microcomputing. June 1980 



ever a new expression Is de- 
sired. The MAX VALUE State- 
ment is at line 730, and defines 
the variable M which must be 
set equal to the largest possible 
value Y can be In the RANDOM 
statement. In the listing shown, 
Y = RND(X) + RND(X), SO M = 
X + X. For instance, if line 
810 reads Y = X-RND{X), line 
730 would read M = X - 1 . (When 
a term is subtracted, use Its mlrv 
imum value.) 

Photo 3 shows the distribu- 
tion of the equation In the pro- 
gram listing. I chose to enter 
X =6, so I would be able to ex- 
tend the dice rolling analogy. 
This time I rolled two dice arxl 



approximated by using a large 
sum of simple RND(X) state- 
ments. I used six terms here. 

As more and more sophisti- 
cated functions are used, a 
definite limitation crops up. A 
simple statement like 
Y = RND(X} takes about six 
times as long to execute as a 
FOR-NEXT loop pair, and the 
statement Y = RND(RND(X)) 
takes about 10 times as long. In 
other words, this program can 
take quite a long time to run 
through 30,000 trials. With that 
In mind, it's wise to start testing 
a new function with the mini- 
mum rule of thumb numt)er of 
trials. If Y = RND(RND{X)'2), 





WIWM II?TKllUTI(n 


lOr TMILS 


x= » mm TRfiiis m «ti£= % 


12711 




iee5i 




779 i 




287 , 
41 < 


..I I., 


8 


5 iei5 28253835««9 




EACH Kfi IS A 1 VALUE RN^X) BIN 



Photo 5 



got a distribution such that the 
most likely number to come up, 
seven, was in the center. This is 
essentially how my Kllngons 
were distributing themselves. 

Now, we move on to some 
more complicated distributions. 
Photo 4 shows a graph of the 
distribution, Y = X -f RND 
(RND(X))-RND(RND(X)), where 
M = X -(- X - 1 . This was run with 
30,000 trials and quite a smooth 
graph was obtained. On my 
Level 1, 16K machine, the largest 
number of passes allowable 
through a FOR-NEXT loop is 
32767, so this is the largest 
number q\ trials I can enter. 

Photo 5 shows a normal dis- 
tribution, for those of you in- 
terested in statistics. It can be 



M = X*2, and you enter X=50, 
ttien you should enter the num- 
ber of trials as 2,000 (20 times 
M). This will not produce a very 
smooth graph, but will take only 
about 1/15th as much time to 
run. Usually this is about two to 
three minutes. 



Auto Scaling 

This brings up one last signifi- 
cant feature of the program. You 
have seen how the vertical axis 
scales itself d^wndlng on the 
maximum number of trial out- 
comes per bin. The same thing 
applies to the horizontal axis. 
You are not limited to a max- 
imum value of 50. It can be 51 or 
135 or 1 ,0X or whatever you like. 



DEBUG-S/S 

FOR YOUR TRS-80 



Ki7. navx J n.n? 



5211 on K. 

3UC1 If « . 

S* E» - . 

KTJ f)I* ■■ 

sc» m 



(Ml XX 

m 



INrr «XN 
RX3t rrnr 
9 rip K» 



Ki"' Mr? *. m 
5C» n •'. jt 'k. ' 
:iM. i»rt - jr 'nl 



AT LASTII 

A POWERFUL 

DEBUG MONITOR 

FOR THE 

EXPERT & NOVICE 

PROGRAMMERS 



DEBUG-8/8 to a unlquily pewtrful monltir tor (1) inilyzing, (Z) 
cruting or nwdlfytng. and (3) dtbuoglng michlni-janguiga pro- 
BTMU on ywr Ifvfl II, I6K ayatam. 

EFFICIENT - SIMPLE - FUN 

No longer do you ne«d to keep reaching for your reference card or 
searching through your program listing while debugging your pro- 
gram. — Most all ol this information is at your fingertips with 
DEBUG-S/S. Warning - Debugging your program with DE6UG-S/S is so 
efficient and convenient that you may find yourself wishing that you 
had more bugs to find 

RUN IN SLOW MOTION 

With DEBUG-S/S you may run your program in slow motion or single 
step and observe your Z-80* registers dynamically and/or observe 
your message printing on the screen one-character-at-a-time! 

SPLIT/SCREEN DISPLAY 
DEBUG-5/5 uses a convenient split screen display system The upper 
right section of the screen automatically displays upon entry to 
DEBUG-S/S from the users program This section shows the user's 
next instruction in hexadecimal and disassembled symbolic form, and 
also shows ttie user's major Z-80* registers The left portion of the 
screen is for the user's display or a scratch pad area for memory 
dumps The lower right section of the screen is where DEBUG-S/S 
commands are entered and echoed tor the user's inputs 

TRANSPARENT MODE 
DEBUG-S/S may be operated m a transparent mode which leaves the 
entire screen showing all of the user's display data upon entry to 
DEBUG-S/S. except for the letter displayed on the upper right corner 
of the screen indicating that DEBUG-S/S has been entered. If the user 
now wishes to examine his Z-80* registers, he simply types D (Display). 

"NO CRASH " BREAKPOINTS 

DEBUG-S/S uses a single byle breakpoint which means you may put a 
breakpoint in the first byte of any instruction in your program and not 
cause your program to crash because of the breakpoint insertion. Your 
breakpoint will stay active until you reset it or redefine it This allows 
you to run through loops in your program repeatedly without having to 
redefine your breakpoint each time You may enter any number of one 
byte pseudo breakpoints simultaneously in your program manually 
with ttie Memory command 

POWERFUL COMMANDS 
Examples ot DEBUG-S/S commands are: Jump - Go - Breakpoint - 
Memory examine/ modify - Hex Dump- ASCII Dump -Symbolic Instruc- 
tion Dump - Single Step - Automatic Step start/stop - Increase/ 
Decrease Auto Step rate - Clear Screen and save cursor position - Clear 
Screen and home cursor position, plus other commands. 

YOU WILL RECEIVE 
You will receive a cassette and instruction manual. DEBUG-S/S is 
assembled into lower memory on one side of the cassette and into the 
top of 16K memory on the other side. DEBUG-S/S uses 4K of RAM. 
'TRS-M IS a tradwnarti of tha Tandy Corporatiofl. *Z-flO Is i tradamarlc at Zilofl 



Send check or money order payable to: 

CALSOFT 

4421 Gilbert St «303 
Oakland, CA 94611 

California Residents add 6.5% Sales Tax. 

(PRINT) 

NAME 



$3995 



AOOflESS. 

avt 



STATE 



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•/•n»admrSmnlct — afp*gm )ftZ 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 69 



PROBABILITY 



If the graph shape is all that is 
desired, this can generally be 
accomplished with 50 as a maxi- 
mum value. 

If you decide that some larger 
number is more convenient, 
then the axis will be automati- 
cally scaled. There will never be 
more than 50 bins in which to ac- 
cumulate trial points, but if the 
maximum value Is 64, for exam- 
ple, the axis will be scaled down 



POSSIBLE ROLLS OF ONE OtE 



by a factor of two. This makes 
each bin a two-value, rather than 
single-value bin. 

Now you have an elegantly 
simple program that lets you 
see what the RANDOM state- 
ment can do. Thanks to this pro- 
gram, my Klingons have been 
controlled, the galaxy has been 
saved, and Starfleet Command 
will not have to give me a desk 
job.H 



II 



DATA ENTRY 
SOLUTIONS 



II 



- ■ ■ IN FOUR SIMPLE STEPS - - - 

( 1 1 Dfflw the Data Enlry Form on irie VIDEO 

SCREEN 
(2] Specify Checking (or Each Field 

Options 
■Lengtti Chech 'V N Check 

• Numeric Type Check "No Field Checking 

• Alpha Type Check 

[3| Store Data Entry Control Form on Diskette 
[4] Use DATAENTR Subroutines in 

Application 10 COMPLETELV Control 

all Data Entry 

* BUSINESS APPLICATION ADVANTAGES * 

standard Automalic Operator Error Prompts 

- SimpMied Operator Training 

- Reduced Program Development Ttme 

- Eliminate Garbage In Garbage Out Problems 

DISTRIBUTED ON DISKETTE - - - INCLUDES: 

• Screen Prep Utility "DATAENTR Subroutines 

■ Sample DE Screen •Example Program 

■Complete Documentation 



DE 200 MODEL I 
DE 200 MODEL II 



REQUIRES 32K + 1 DISK 
REQUIRES 64K * 1 DISK 



$40.00 
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Modem 
pickup 




$19^0 



USED FANS 




MulHn-8.00 
Spnte-4 00 




NEW 

POWER 

SUPPLY 

S25.00 

t>V at J Atrip 
12V al 6 AfT>p 
UV at 3 Amp 



MICRO SWITCH KEYBOARD 

JSLLibUI LUUKiVLKY Ni!;h 




ASC II 



$40.00 

(Willi W'I'it) 




USED 

POWER 

SUPPLY 

$15.00 

SV ai 12 Amp 
I6\/ al 6 Amp 
6^ al ! Amp 




USED 
OMNITEK 

OHIU. 
15 00 



OROeRii^a INFORMATION! 

Vne W^ip ir>t »rr« dav a* tac^iu* a co'lihod chack u> mutiey o'Cer. 
Tvxai f«ii(Mri|s tnM i% m<«( tja. Pimm tail It you naw« ■ auciKon. 
Mrtta I in (jut CAT A I oc". of maity pdrlt. t*»i"lt«ls. p»Ht«'». »tc. 
AH ilarM iub|«it lo avaliauillly. Vour money rttJrnad t' w« ar« 

>Mt (if llci<.h , 



^HiPPiNO INFORMATION. 

Modem. 12,50 «aci^ , K«y Boards 13. SO, Puwsr Supply »$.00. 

Larq* lt«mi l. Padi, Sp«c<ty ^ra^iM at Air Frai^nt ColitcT. 

F orti^n Urdati. Add aoiiropflata ffslgnt or pcKagt. 

W« noM iaK« MaMar Charoe and VHa ota*'t. Spiclty fuli riuritf*i 

baitk niimbB« diid aKplrallon a«t«. 



70 • 80 Microcomputing. June 1980 



^17 



^^ PROGRAM STORE 



(202) 337-4691 



4 200 Wisconsin AveNW PQBox9609 Woshmgfon DC 20016 



08bome& 

Associates 

Accounting 

Programs 

for 

TRS-80 

For two ysara we have looked for 
good bualnesH accounting programs. 
Aftec reviewing many over-priced or 
non-functioning packages , we have 
finally found some excellent 
software. And it is available at a 
reasonable price - $25.00 per 
package. 

These programs are the Osborne i 
Associates systems, originally 
designed for the f30,0Q0 Wang 
computer. Several C.P.A.'s at Full 
Service Accounting and Processing 
have made a few minor modifications 
to the programs . Now, the 4Bk 
Hodel 1 TRS-BO with two disk drives 
is a business computer 1 

These programs are not games . 
They are meant to adapt to your 
accounting system. You should not 
expect us or this software to be 



your accountant, 
used , you will 
valuable business time. 
All Osborne L 



But, if properly 
save hours of 



Associates 



programs are fully-documented by 
their three extensive books 
"General Ledger,' "Accounts Payable 
£ Accounts Receivalbe , " and 
"Payroll with Cost Accounting.' 
(These THS-BO programs do not 
include the cost accounting 
system.) These books are available 
for t2D each. Please include *3.00 
per book for first class shipping 
(otherwise sent book rate). 

Act today I These are special 
programs at a special price. 

General Ledger -$25.00 

Accounts Receivable -f 25, QO 

Accounts Payable -125.00 

Payroll -(25.00 

Any book -(20,00 



Ting-Tong 

by Ray^Daly frorir? 



Acorn 
Ping-pong for the TRS-80. The gam> 
is for one or two players with 
eight speeds and includes sound 
effects. In machine language. 
Only 4k needed. $9.95. 



TING-TDNG! 






I- IWlWCffll»«™S«lV 111. 



Graphic Map 
Adventure 

from Computer Simula tione 

These may not be a true 
"adventure" since they use maps, 
combat screens and merchant charts, 
but they are beyond words. 
1 . Dark Kingdom has four maps 
where your goal is to defeat the 
roving monsters, collect gold and 
silver plus enough fame to combat 
the evil lord in real life. 

2 . Lunar Encounter pits you as the 
protector of the moon colony 
against the alien force and their 
leader. 

3. Jedi Knight requires you to 
seek fame and fortune starting as a 
lowly knight in the last days of 
the Republic. Struggle with the 
Lord Vader with your light saber. 

4. Mercenary Commander has you as 
a soldier of Maximillian, the 
Mexican King. Try to keep the 
villages under French rule and put 
down the rebellion, 

$14.95 each. 



from Adventure 



Scott 
ninth 



Adams has 
adventure. 



by Scott Adams 

International 

At long last 
released his 
$14.95 

Galactic Revolution 

by Doug Carlston 

This is the third in the trilogy 
which started with "Galactic 
Empire" and then "Galactic Trader." 
In the time of revolution you must 
use diplomacy to make alliances, 
implement social change and fight 
the bureaucracy if you want to 
conquer the galaxy. 

Sound effects and graphics 
including bar graphs, tables, 
charts and other displays make this 
a great game for one to three 
players. $14. 95 
Galactic Empire 114.95 
Galactic Trader $14.95 



Astro-Word Search 

from Program Design, Inc. 

Look for words imbedded 
horizontally, vertically or 
diagonally in the puzzles. Words 
may be backwards or forwards. Three 
puzzles per tape i three different 
tapes are available; 

SPANISH $14.95 FRENCH (14.95 
GEOGRAPHY (14.95 



Typing Tutor 



Ainsworth 



Baker 



from 



■■osoft 
efore this program, we were 
re I I. cant to advertise any other 
ty^iincj program. But this one was 
worth the wait. 

The program adjusts to your 
skill level. There are two 
sections. In the Tutor section you 
learn new keys. The program 
continuously adjusts to help you 
learn those you don't know and adds 
new ones as you progress. The 
Practice Paragraph section gives 
you an accuracy and words per 
minute rate. It tells you which 
keys were missed and where you were 
slow. 

One of the most practical 
programs for the TRS-BO. (14.95 



Editor/ Assembler PLUS 

by Chamberlin and Yates from Microsoft 

The "PLUS" in assembly language 
programming has arrived. If you have 
reached the limits of editor/assembler 
or were always a little awed by 
assembly , then Microsoft ' s version is 
for you. You not only get the features 
found in their Radio Shack version, but 
also included are the debugging features 
of T8UG and more. This will make your 
programming , editing and debugging 
easier , more efficient and more 
enjoyable. 

The 80 page reference manualdescribes 
all the features. These include the 
macro facility, assembly directly into 
memory, conditional assembly, the 
additional expression evaluators , 
automatic origin, alphabetic symbol 
table and the quash command. Additional 
editor commands and the new debugger are 
also fully explained. 

For 16k tape system (29,95 

Electra Draw 

from The Programmers Guild 

This disk-based, graphic generating 
program produces lines of BASIC code for 
you to merge into any program. It 
produces low speed, full screen 
displays. it adds a nice touch to any 
program. $19.95 



^om Mumfor?rTlltTO 



■lumtora Mrcro Systems 
Organize your disk program library. 
This program reads multiple disk 
directories to produce an index of disk 
files. You can sort, search, delete, 
add, or print the index of filenames. 
You can also save it to disk, "The best 
thing since sliced bread" said 
80-Microcomputing. Requires 32k and one 
disk drive. (19,95 



Structured 
BASIC Translator 

by Gene Bellinger from Acorn 
Try structured programming . You can 
write programs using PROCEDURES, CALLS, 
CASE-CALLS, IF-THEN-ELSE , WHILE and 
UNTIL. Once written, SET will quickly 
translate the structured code into an 
efficient BASIC program. Speeds up 
program development and documentation. 
The program is both fast (a 20k BASIC 
program in less than 4 minutes) and 
compact. Requires 32k and one disk 
drive. Supplied on disk for (29.95. 



Credit card callers may phone 
2t^-H0URS A DAY AT (202) 337-^691, 



us 



aooDDooDnQQDonoooaDoaoanuaaaoDQoooooannD 
THE PPOQWl STOFE 
4200 HiBocnain Ave NW 
PO Best 9609 Dept K 1 
Washington, D.C. 20016 



/^ 



D 



please send me these TRS-BO progrsn: 



title 



price 



poetage; 
total; 



9 I.OO 



address: 
city, state 

& ccx te 

D C3)eck payable to Itie Program Store 



O MAS1T30IAICE mc bank code: 
DVISA ejtp date: 

card nurber: 

signature: 



'flMder Service — seepage 163 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 71 



GENERAL 



Forget pen and paper, use your 80 for doodling— 
interesting resuits can be saved on cassette or cf/s/c. 



Doodle Bug 



R. Daniel Bishop 
Department of Chemistry 
The School of the Ozarks 
Point Lookout MO 65726 



Some people are habitual 
doodlers. Give them a pen 
or pencil and, without being 
aware of their actions, they be- 
gin sketching or scribbiing on 
anything that might be handy. 
Their addiction seems to be 
uncontrollable in certain loca- 
tions, such as near telephones, 
and at specific times, such as 
during long business meetings 
or conferences. Some even doo- 
dle on napkins in restaurants! I 
know these things because i, 
too, am a compulsive doodler. 
Long ago I gave up ail hope of 
ever reforming myself. 

It thus should come as no sur- 
prise that one of the programs I 
just had to complete for my 
TRS-80 was Doodle, a program 
designed to promote uninhib- 
ited doodling using the graphics 
capability of the microcom- 



■V 


1 




n 




"^ r 


^ 


R 


T 


k 


U 




1 


11 


» 






1 


■ 


(( 


3) 


H 





C 


' ^ 


■ ^ 

B 


N 



Fig. 1. Eight direction keys used 
to control development of the 
sketch via keyboard input. 



puter. Furthermore, in the event 
that a productive sketch were to 
take birth during the doodle pro- 
cess, I derived two subroutines 
to permit saving the video dis- 
play, either on disk or on cas- 
sette tape, and two correspond- 
ing subroutines to permit re- 
calling the stored data and re- 
cast the video display In Its en- 
tirety. Thus, a building floor 
plan, a circuit diagram or styl- 
ized drawings of equipment or 
building architecture can be 
stored for future redesign or 
viewing. 

Once a design has been com- 
pleted and stored, some simple 
program statements that 
employ the PRINT @ XXX, 
feature can be written temporar- 
ily into the redisplay subroutine. 
Then, when this subroutine Is 
run, not only does the original 
sketch reappear on the screen, 
but also the alphanumeric infor- 
mation shows up. This new dis- 
play can then be saved using the 
save subroutine, thus allowing 
complex graphics displays with 
accompanying labels and cap- 
tions to be stored. 

The Program 

Two sets of keys are used to 
provide direct keyboard control 
of the sketch and of the pra 
gram. Fig. 1 shows the eight 
direction keys that are used for 
directing the movement of the 
graphics display points. With 
your middle finger on the G key, 
it is then quite natural for you to 
tap the T tor upward movement, 
the H for movement to the right, 
the C for diagonal movement to 



P Pause. Halts the program 
until a new keyboard entry 
is made. 

S SAVE video sketch on 
disk. 

Z CSAVE video sketch on 
cassette. 

G Move cursor without leav- 
ing permanent display. 

L Erase current cursor posi- 
tion and proceed to next 

position (as determined 
by last direction key 
pressed). 

Tafi/e /. Five program control 
keys used to provide pro- 
gram control from the 
keyboard without interrupt- 
ing the video display. 



the lower left, etc. 

The program was initially de- 
signed to produce only one 
point each time a key was 
tapped. I soon decided to let the 
computer handle any repetitive 
functions, so that now each of 
the eight direction keys initiates 
a line drawn in the direction 
chosen. Tapping any of the 
other direction keys once re- 
directs the line. 

In addition to the eight direc- 
tion keys, five control keys were 
chosen to allow program control 
to be initiated from the key- 
board. These five control keys 
are listed In Table 1. Pressing 



the P causes the program to 
pause, thus halting the move- 
ment of the display point and 
stopping the line being gener- 
ated by it. 

The S and Z keys function on- 
ly when the program is in the 
pause mode. Thus the P key 
must first be pressed, followed 
by either S or Z. The S directs the 
program to the save subroutine, 
which saves the video display 
on disk. Similarly, the Z key 
directs the program to the save 
subroutine, which saves the 
video display on cassette. To 
avoid a possible mix-up between 
these two, which would result in 
an error message and destruc- 
tion of the sketch on display, it 
is advisable to incorporate only 
one of these options into your 
program, depending on the par- 
ticular storage method you wish 
to use. 

The G and L keys function on- 
ly after a direction key has been 
depressed. The G key will cause 
the pointer to move in the direc- 
tion determined by the last 
direction key to be pressed, but 
it will not leave a permanent dis- 
play of the points. This allows 
for moving the cursor to any part 
of the screen without leaving a 
trace of its passage. Several 
unconnected figures can be 
sketched using the G key to 
move the cursor from one figure 
to the next. 

The L key is used to erase 
points that have previously been 
set. Erasing is accomplished as 
follows: 

1. Use an appropriate direction 
key and the G control key to 



72-00 Microcomputing, June 1980 



*A ticdcmuk of th* Twidy Coipormtlon 




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your equipment wilh 

CRYSTAL CLEAR 
PIASTIC COVERS 

special offer Buy both covers & sav/t' 



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(/iidiana residents add 4'. safes raxj 



Crown Plastic Co. »^11B 

3746 N. CoBcge 317-925-5566 
IndianapoKs, IN 46225 




SPECIAL 
PRICE 

TRS-80* -I or -II 

MEMORY EXPANSION 

CHIPSET: $6911 

we've done It again ... 8 low power. 2S0 
ns 16K dynamic RAMs at a trend-setting 
price. Expands memorv In Tirs-80*, Apple, 
Heath H89, Exlcty somrar, rwwer PfTi, 
etc. Don't Qe imoressed wtth fancy packag- 
ing or four color adi: our cMp set gives all 
tne performance you want at a price vou 
can afford. Offer good wniie supplies last 
Add $3 for Tl!S-80' compatible DIP snunts 
and complete installation instructions 

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Ctf mt 900 iMM AiJo* 4% m*ii0pi"o «!£«■■ FBitfnoad 
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MC ALSO MAMUFACTURE AN EXTCHSWE 
am OF S-100 products; SK COIII P U I'R D 

s-100 boards in person at fmbi 
computer stores world-wide. 

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SMfl r», OMUnd Aopofl. CA SUK 



^ needer Sennce - see p#0e rs2 




A year ago, when nobody had ever 
heard of me,I said these disks could turn 
aTRS-80'into a serious computer. 

Now they tell me I'm 'the standard 
of the industry." 

I'm Iiwln Tiianta and timm have changed And th* Modvl II programi 

In the first twelve months, almost a thou- Some brand new. highly -sophisticated 

sand businssses put me to the test programs for tha TRS-BO Model II. at $249.95 

You can buy my TRS-BO systems all over the each, plus $20 (or the book where requued 

country —dozens of companies sell them. Some General Ledger /Cash Journal 

are my dealers, some aren't And this creates Accounts Payable /Purchase Order 

a new set of problems. Accounts Receivable /Invoicing 

You see, learning to use a computer — any Payroll/Job Costing 
computer — ia like learning anything else Ii 

takes some getting used to If you ait down For the Model I programs, you can tell ua 

with a computer program and the manual and what you need in a letter or by phone You get 

try to figure it out all by yourielf. you'll piob- the disk and all the instructions you need. Any 

ably just give up and feel you've been had problems, just call me. 

You have to hang in there (or a month, For the Model II programs. I ask you to fill 

make a few phone calls, and have somebody out a questionnaire before I send you any 

who really understands the system help you materials The systems have so much (lexibil- 

work it out. ity we taikii them to your needs 

That's why 1 still answer the phone And That way. I make sure you get a system that 

why. I guess, people say all those nice things works. It you have any doubts about that. I'll 

•PK- M«l«l 1 •»***«* 9'^ y°" **** names o( some people in your area 

1 am tmoomi i aynsiiia whove already been through the process 

So far, I have ant systems (or the Model I, at ^e^ ^^ ^^y „h,ih.t i jeaUy deserve 

$99.95 eacK plus *20 e«:h for the books where ^j^„ „„^ „„ reputation 
required For the Cash Journal option on the 
Oenaral Ledger, add another $50. 

Accounts Payable e^ mmm. ■* #i*%. 

Accounts Receivable t^*i K aXanVO 

Invoicing & ASSOCIATES. INC 

General Ledger (Cash Journal optional) p^ 9m S07i 4iM nutwood H>ohw.y. s«. t^m^ ca M903 

Payroll (4]^] 473 TWO Add S3.fi0 pm oidn Hn handUnu 6% ■*!« 

Inventory Control Wa tn CaUotnu only Manm Chain*, Vma. C O.D 

TRS-80' DISK FILE MESS? 

Find disk files instantly with the most sophisticated disk indexing program available 
Similar Indexing programs exist but none with as many features as FlNDISK-ll! 

AUTOMATICALLY create, sort. pnnl. search a Master Index of all disJt files 

AUTOMATICALLY read file names, disk numbers (no hand entr]/). 

AUTOMATICALLY print disk labels loptionatf 

AUTOMATICALLY update Index from revised disks 

AUTOMATICALLY add optional file descnptions 

AUTOMATICALLY purge disks of unwanted files. 

• FlNDISK-ll fon tape or disk. 32K mm) $20 IXl 

Other powerful programs from Documan available on tape or disk: 

• STRUCT-I beam design and moment transfer w graphics (16K) $15 tX) 

• SOLAR-I essential calculations for passive solar design {32K) $30.1X1 

• RIA-I complex analysis of real estate investmenis (32K) $30.00 

• DEPRECIATE-I cakulale, pnnl 12 facts on depreciable items fI6KJ $10.00 

^sa VISA OR MASTER CHARGE 

DOCUMAN SQI^TWARE BOX 387-A KALAMAZOO, Ml 49005 (b1 b) 344-0805 

80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 



*^^^f ^^^^ ^^^r ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^r ^^^^ ^^^r ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 
■^n ^p* ^^ ^^ '^n ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 

THE 

GREEN 

SCREEN 



■)(■ 
■X- 

Mr 
Mr 
M- 
Mr 
M- 
Mr 
M- 
Mr 
Mr 
Mr 
M 



If you spend more than a few minutae 
with your TR8-80* you will welcome this 
inexpensive accessory. 

First we made it for ourselves. Since we 
spend many houre with our four 
systems, we were looking for e wey to 
gat a better display, mors liks the green 
phosphor of our big brothers. We found 
that a certain optical band-pass filter 
gave excellent results. We were so 
pleased with it that we decided to make 
it available to others. 

ir it ir * ir it 

The GREEN SCREEN will: 

e IMPROVE IMAGE CONTRAST 

• REDUCE EYE FATIGUE 

• DECREASE GLARE 

e ENHANCE SCREEN LEGIBILITY 

• PROVIDE A MORE PLEASING 
DISPLAY 

• GIVE A DISTINCTIVE PROFESSIONAL 
LOOK TO YOUR SYSTEM 

The GREEN SCREEN is custom molded to 
fit nicely over the TRS-BO® picture tube. 
It ingeniously mounts in seconds without 
any tools. 

• ••*** 

The GREEN SCREEN: 

• Can be removed if needed 

• Doesn't void guarantee 

• Won't mar nor mark the unit 

We know from our own experience that 
you wilt be very pleased with your 
GREEN SCREEN. 

TO ORDER: send S12.50+ S2 SfiH to: 

ALPHA product CO. 

BS-71, 7Bth St., Woodhwen, N.Y. 11421 
Phone Orders: (212] 296-5816 



-X- 
Mr 



position the cursor exactly 
where erasing is to begin. 

2. Depress the appropriate 
direction key that would be 
needed to trace over the line to 
be erased. 

3, Immediately press the L key. 
Each tap of the L key moves the 
cursor one point along the line 
to be erased and erases one 
point on that line. Note that the 
direction key is pressed only 
once at the start of the erasing 
sequence. 

Saving Video Displays on Disk 
or Cassette 

The video display may be 
stored on disk using the subrou- 
tine containing statements 
numbered 300-385. This subrou- 
tine is accessed from the main 
program by first pressing the P 
pause command key, then 
pressing the S command key. 
Both alphanumeric and 
graphics characters are stored 
as eight, 255 byte strings. Thus 
two lines are fielded and stored 
at a time. Since two complete 
lines require 256 bytes, the last 
character of every other line is 
deleted. This, however, is a 
small price to pay for the 
simplicity of the SAVE and 
PRINT subroutines and the 
more efficient use of storage. 

Storing the video display on 
cassette can be accomplished 
using the subroutine containing 
statements numbered 500-585. 
This subroutine Is accessed 
from the main program by first 
pressing the P pause command 
key, then pressing the Z com- 



mand key. Be sure that the re- 
corder is in the Record mode 
before pressing the Z key. 

As for the disk, txith alpha- 
numeric and graphics char- 
acters may be stored, although 
here each character code must 
be converted into a 4- byte string, 
which requires each row to 
be entered as a separate data 
string. Thus, the cassette sub- 
routine stores 16 strings. Care 
must be taken to ensure that 
each character code fills tour 
bytes (which includes the in- 
teger's sign): this is accom- 
plished by adding 100 to each 
code. Again, for the sake ot effi- 
ciency, the last two characters 
of each row are deleted from 
this routine. This is more critical 
than the case with the disk sub- 
routine, and should be kept in 
mind when the sketch is drawn. 

In order to reload your sketch 
from disk storage, load the pro- 
gram and then use the com- 
mand RUN 400. Be sure that line 
400 contains the appropriate file 
name for the particular sketch 
you wish to retrieve. Also before 
running the program, you 
should modify line 300, provid- 
ing the name under which the 
new sketch will be tiled. The 
subroutine fills in the video 
screen with the appropriate 
sketch and then transfers con- 
trol to the main program, with 
the cursor's beginning location 
being the bottom right-hand cor- 
ner of the screen. 

Reloading the sketch from 
cassette storage requires the 
command RUN 600. The cas- 



1 ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^K ^^^* ^^^^ ^^^k ^^^k ^^^< ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^* ^^^^ 



Doodlebug program. 



sREK 
:REM 
:REK 
:REH 
:REH 
:REM 
:REH 



LISTING FOR 



DOODLEBUG 



ALL PROGRAM LINES INCREMENT 
CONTINUOUSLY BY S STARTING 
AT LINE 10, ALLOWING USE OF 
"AUTO ID, 5" MODE. 



10 CLSiCLEARieee 

15 PRINT§460,"*** DOODLE ••*" 

20 PRINTe832,"BY R.D. BISHOP' 

25 PBINT:PRINT"CUSTOM COMP" 

3B PRINT'BOX 125, BRANSON, mo 65616" 

35 FOR I-lT0999:NEXTl!CLS 

:REM 

;REH INITIALIZE CURSOR POSITION 

iREM 

40 PRINT'EMTER STARTING X POSITION." 
45 INPUT'(0 TO 127} :';X:IFX>127ORX<0THEN45 
50 PRINT"ENTEB STARTING Y POSITION." 
55 IKPUT"(0 TO 47) :";Y!lFY>470RY<eTHEN55 

60 CLS:SET(X,Y) 

6 1 : REM 
iREM TEST FOR KEYBOARD INPUT. 
:REM XI If YI DEFINE INCREMENTS FOR X 
:REH 

65 A$-INKEYS:IF LEN(ASl>e THEN 65 
70 XI"0:YI"0 



36 

37 
3B 



62 
63 
64 



74 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



71 


:REH 


72 


:REM TEST FOB "PAUSE" COMMAND AND 


73 


:BEM "DIRECTION" COMMANDS. 


M 


sREM 


lb 


IF AS="P" THEN 125 


H0 


IF AS-"H" THEN XI- + l!G0T0H5 


85 


IF AS="F" THEN XI— l!GOT0145 


9li 


IF AS = "T" THEN YI — l:GOT0145 


9b 


IF AS="B" then YI = +1:G0T0H5 


101 


IF AS""R" THEN X I=- 1 ; YI =-1 : G0T014 5 


I9b 


IF AS-"U" THEN XI-+1:YI — 1:G0T0145 



!YI-+l!GOT0145 
THEN XI — l:YI-+l:GOT0145 



110 IF AS""N" THEN XI-+1; 

lis IF AS-'C 

120 GOTO 65 

121 :REH 

122 :REM "PAUSE" SEQUENCE TESTS FOR DISK 

123 :REM OB CASSETTE SAVE COMMANDS. 

124 iREM 

125 AS=INKEYS:IF LEN(AS)=0 THEN 125 
130 IF AS-"S" THEN 26 5 

135 IF AS-"Z" THEN 410 

140 GOTO 7B 

141 :REM 
INCREMENT CURSOR POSITION. 
VERIFY THAT POSITION FITS ON SCREEN. 



142 

143 
144 



:REM 
tREH 
:REM 
145 X=XtXI 

150 IF[X<0 



!Y=YtYI 
OR X>127)THEN X-X-XI 
155 IF(Y<0 OR Y>47) THEN Y-Y-YI 
160 P=POINT(X,Y) :SET(X,Y) 
1d5 GOSUB595 

:REH 

:REH TEST FOR "G" OB "L" COMMANDS AND 

:REM DIRECT PROGRAM TO THE CORRECT MODULE. 
16 9 :REM 
170 AS-INKEYS 

IF LEN(AS1=0 THEN GOT0145 

IFAS-"G"THENBESET(X-Xl,y-YI) :GOT0195 

IFAS="L"THENRESET(X-XI,Y-YI) :GOT023 5 

190 GOTO70 

191 :REM 
;REM "G" MODULE. CURSOR CONTINUES MOVING, BUT LE 

AVES NO 



165 
167 
16B 



175 
180 
185 



192 



193 

194 
195 

200 
205 

210 
215 



:REM 

D. 
!REH 
IF P<0 
X-XtXI 



PERMANENT MARK, UNTIL ANOTHER KEY IS PBESSE 



ELSE RESET{X,Y) 



THEN 200 
Y-Y+YI 

IF{X<0 OB X>127)THEN X-X-XI 
THEN Y=Y-YI 



"L" MODULE. PREVIOUS AND CURRENT CURSOR PO 
ERASED. IF <L> IS TAPPED, CURSOR INCREMENTS 



IF(Y<0 OB Y>471 

P-POINT(X,Y) 
220 SET(X,Y) :GOSUB595 
225 AS-INKEYS:IF LEN{AS)=0 THEN 195 

230 GOTO 7 

231 :REM 

232 jREK 

SITION 

233 :REM 

ONE 

234 iREH STEP AND ERASES NEW POSITION. 

235 IF(X<0 OR X>127)THEN X-X-XI 
240 lF(y<0 OB Y>47) THEN Y-Y-YI 
245 RESET(X,Y) 

250 AS=INKEYS:IF LEN [AS) LOC"ASTOPer50 
255 IF AS="L" THEN X-X+XI : Y-Y+YI : GOT023 5 

260 GOTO 70 

261 :REM SUBROUTINE THAT SAVES DISPLAY ON DISK, 2 LI 

NES AT A TIME. J INCREMENTS ONE FOR EACH CHARACTE 
R POSITION. 

262 :REM Z* RECORDS THE CHARACTER CODE WHICH IS CONV 

ERTED TO STRING DATA AND ADDED TO ZPS. 

263 :REM ZPS ENDS UP WITH 2* (64+63) -254 BYTES. PR IS 

THE PHYSICAL RECORD NUMBER. ZPS IS FIELDED AS ZS 

26 4 : REM 

26 5 CLEAR1000:OPEN"R" ,1, "SKETCH01" 

270 FOR I=0TO15 STEP2 

275 ZPS-"" 

280 FOR K-0TO1 

285 FOB J-0 TO 63-K 

290 Z»-PEEK115360+J+64'I+64*K) 

295 ZZS-MKIS(Z*) 

300 ZPS-ZPS+ZZS 

305 NEXT J 

310 NEXT K 

315 FIELD 1,254 AS ZS : PR-INT [ 1/2+ . 5 ) +1 

320 GET1,PR 

325 LSETZS=ZPS 

330 PUT1,PB 

335 NEXTI 

340 CLSiPRINT'SKETCH IS SAVED ON DISK." 

345 CLOSE 

35 END 

351 :REM SUBROUTINE THAT LOADS DISPLAY FROM DISK. EA 

CH OF THE 8 PHYSICAL RECORDS IS BROUGHT OUT AND DI 
SPLAYED. 

352 :REM THE LAST 3 CHARACTERS ABE DELETED TO PREVEN 

T ROLL-OVER. 

353 :REM STARTING VALUES FOR X AND Y ARE ASSIGNED. T 

HE PROGRAM IS RETURNED TO THE MAIN PROGRAM FOB KEY 
BOARD INPUT, ALLOWING ADDITIONS TO THE SKETCH. 

354 :BEH 

355 CLEAB1000!CLS:PRINT@515, "** INSERT DISK THAT CONTAI 

NS SKETCH AND PRESS <ENTER>. •* " ; : I NPUTZMS : CLS : OP 
EN"R",1, "SKETCH01 " 



ATTENTION 
SOFTWARE 
AUTHORS 

From The Company That 
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by Scott Adams 

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'R*aa»r S»fvlco — S9v pag« 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1960 • 75 



36H FOR I-1T08 

365 FIELD 1, 254 A.S V.S 

370 Gt:r 1, 1 

ilb IF I = B THEN Z S = L.EFTS ( Z S , 25 2 ) 

380 PRINT ZS;" ' ; 

3B5 NEXT : 

390 X = 127:Y = -17 

395 CLOSE 

400 SET(X, Y) 

40 5 GOTO 6 5 

406 :REH SUBROUTINE TO CSAVF DISPLAY ON CASSETTE. 

MIT THE CMD"T" AND CMD"H" COMMANDS IF A DISK-DHIVt: 
la NOT ON-LINE. 

407 [REM EACil ROW IS SAVED SFPARATELY AH A STRING OF 

CHRS CODLS . TO INSURE UNIEOHfl RECORD SIZE OF 4 HY 
TES, 100 IS ADDtD IF TlIF CODE IS LESS THAN 100. 

408 :REM THE CODE IS CONVERTED TO STRING DATA AND ADDE 

D ONTO ZPS. EACH ROW IS THEN RECORDED ON CASSETTE 

409 :REM 

410 CLEAR 100D:CMD"T" 
420 FOR 1 = TO 1"; 

42!i ZPS-"" 

430 rOR J=0TO62 

435 Z%=PFEK( 15360+3+6 4*1) 

440 Z»=Z%+100 

445 ZZS=STRS [Z*) 

450 ZPS=ZPS+ZZS 

455 NEXT J 

460 PRINT»-1,ZPS 

465 NEXTI 

470 CLS:PRINT"VOUR SKETCH IS SAVED" 

475 PRINT'ON CASSETTE AS 16 DATA ITEMS." 

4B0 CMD"R" 

4B5 END 

490 CLt;AR:000 

491 :HEM SU [IROIITI Nt: THAT CLOADS VIDEO DISPLAY INFO F 

ROM CASSt:TTE. OMIT CMp-T" AND CMD"R" INSTRUCTIONS 
IF A DISK SYSTEM IS NOT ON-LINE. 

492 :REH EACH LINE IS READ IN AS ZPS. ZPS IS THEN S 

LICED IN'TO 4 BYTE SECTIONS, EACH BYTE CORRESPONDIN 
G TO A CHRS CODE, Z% . 100 IS SUBTRACTED FROM EACH 
CODE AND THE RESULT IS POKED INTO THE DISPLAY. 

493 :REM THE LAST TWO COLUMNS OF THE DISPLAY DO NOT 

TRANSFER, SO THESE ARE FILLED WITH BLANKS TO ERASE 
"NWANTED CHARACTERS. X AND ¥ ARE ASSIGNED STARTI 
NG VALUES AND PROGRAM RETURNS TO AWAIT INPUT. 

494 iREM 

495 PRINT?515, "INSERT TAPE TO LOAD DOODLE; PLAY MODE; P 

RESS ■;ENTER>. " : INFUTliHS 

500 CMD"T" 

505 CLE 

510 FOR I=0TO15 

515 INPUT#-1,ZPS 

520 ZPS='+"+ZPE 

525 FOR J=0TO61 

530 ZZS=MIDS 1 ZPS, 4*J*1 , 4) 

535 Z*=VAL1ZZS; 

540 Z%=Z*-100 

545 POKE 15360-J+64*I ,Z* 

550 NEXTJ 

555 POKE 15423*64*1,032 

560 POKE 15422-54*1,032 

565 NEXTI 

570 POKE 15422, 032:POKE 15423,032 

575 X-127:Y=47 

.580 SETIX.Y) 

5B5 CMD"R" 

5 90 GOTO 6 5 

59: :RI;M 

592 iREM TIME DELAY SUBROUTINE. LENGTHE;N OR SHORTEN 

AS 

593 :REM DESIRED. 

594 :REM 

595 FOR I=1TO40:NEXTI :RETURN 



sette recorder must be in Play 
mode. Again, the subroutine 
transfers control to the main 
program, with the cursor 
located at the bottom right-hand 
corner of the screen. 

It should be noted that these 
sets of subroutines are entirely 
general in nature and can be 
used with any type of program 
that generates a graphics 
display that you might wish to 
preserve tor future use. The 
following comments relating to 
the program listing need to be 
emphasized; 

1. Only one Clear 1000 instruc- 
tion needs to be used tor the en- 
tire program. 

2. For a system that does not 
have a disk drive, it is not neces- 
sary to include a CMD'T" or 
CMD"R" instruction. 

3. For applications other than 
Doodle, where it is not neces- 
sary to set new data points or 
change the sketch, lines 435, 
445, 660 and 665 are unneces- 
sary. 

Program Modifications 

You may desire to slow down 
the program so the lines do not 
develop so fast. This may De 
especially true it children are to 
be using the program. (And. 
believe me, are kids ever 
fascinated by the sketches they 
can generate!) Just change the 
timing loop in line 999, using a 
number larger than 40. 

On the other hand, you may 
wish to stop the line generation 
function altogether, so that only 
one point is made each time a 
direction key is depressed. This 
is most easily accomplished by 
deleting line 110, changing the 



GOTO statements in lines 116 
and 220 to GOTO 1 15 and GOTO 
220 and changing line 215 to 
SET(X,Y), deleting the 
GOSUB999 instruction. 

The direction keys chosen are 
those conveniently reached us- 
ing the left hand. If you prefer to 
exercise directional control us- 
ing your right hand, you may 
wish to change the U key to Y 
(line number 65). The P and L 
keys may be moved to the left 
side of the keyboard, perhaps 
using 1 in place of P in line 35 
and 3 in place of L in lines 125 
and 260. 

Finally, in order to insert cap- 
tions, titles, labels, etc., first 
complete your sketch and then 
determine just where each of 
these labels should be placed 
on the screen using the PRINT 
@ XXX, statement. Next, save 
the sketch on disk or cassette. 
Now insert your PRINT @ XXX, 
statements into the program be- 
tween lines 430 and 450 (disk) or 
between lines 657 and 680 
{cassette), taking care not to 
erase any other program lines. 
Now a RUN 400 or RUN 600 will 
display the sketch complete 
with titles and labels. This new 
sketch can be saved right over 
the disk or cassette recordings 
of the old sketch, but this time 
all of the alphanumeric infor- 
mation will be included with the 
sketch. 

With this article, I anticipate a 
whole new approach to the 
advertising campaigns of micro- 
computer manufacturers: "Be 
the first in your neighborhood 
with the most elaborate, expen- 
sive and versatile doodle-pad 
ever invented!"H 



UCSD Pascal* for TRS-80^ Model II 



The Standard Package: operating System a Compiler □ Screen Editor □ Filer □ Library a Z-80 Assembler 
n Patch Utility Program □ 280 page User Manual Q Jensen & Wirth Pascal Reference Manual a Bowles' Beginners 
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• Configuration program for serial I/O 



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76 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



PROFESSIONAL 




BUSINESS MICRO LIBRARY 



Professionally developed and field-tested business and accounting software for 
your 'TRS-80 Model I or It from the acknowledged leader in micro-business 
systems. 



169.95 



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219.95 



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CBOOK/80 THE ELECTRONIC BOOKKEEPER 

Single-entry bookkeeping system with a chart of accounts which matches Federai 
Income Tax Schedule C (Profit or Loss from Business or Profession) 

Deveiops standard-format Profit & Loss Statements throughout the year and 
automatically produces a full Schedule C in IRS-approved format at tax-filing time. 

DEPCOMP/80 DEPRECIATION COMPUTATIONS 

Computes depreciation of depreciable assets by any (selected) method. Prints out 
depreciation schedules for asset's life, or for selected years. 

Stores client's entire asset list and prints out his complete yearly depreciation 
schedule. Lfsts are updatable as required. A must for the busy accountant or tax 
practitioner. 

ASSETS/80 ASSET TRANSACTIONS 

Accepts entry of mixed long and short term asset transactions, computes holding 
period from dates bought and sold, and prints out separate long-term and short-term 
transaction lists, ready for inclusion in Schedule D at tax time, or for determination 
of the client's position for any period. 

LOANCOMP/BO LOAN COMPUTATIONS 

Computes interest and principal balance for monthly, annual, and loan total periods. 
Computes payments required to amortize a loan. Makaa tha 'True Annual Parcan- 
taga Rata"computaUon! Has a separate section which analyzes ordinary annuities 
with monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, and annual payments. 

For any of the above, prints out summarizing statements or your choice of three 
types of amortization schedules. 

We recommend this program to anyone In the accounting professions or concerned 
in any way with financing. 

STATEMENT/80 PREPARES ITEMIZED STATEMENTS 

of any desired form (Profit & Loss, Rental Income, etc.) and prints out the form, with 
computations made automatically. 

FORMLET/80 FOR PREPARING FORM LETTERS 

from a selection of pre-written and stored stock paragraphs. Will store up to ten of 
such letters on disk and allow you to select among them at will. You may intermix 
fresh text, of course. 

TYP/PRT/80 SMALL BUT MIGHTY 

Not only permits use of the printer as a typewriter but will allow you to retain any 
display already on the video, make notes from it, or actually copy it on the printer 
automatically. This program will run concurrently with another program you may be 
using and you can go from one to the other at will. Also contains a calculator. So 
useful it is hard to describe here. 

• • • * • FOR DISK BASED SYSTEMS ONLY* • • • • 

Write on letterhead, or call, for free 
brochure and sample outputs. 

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'R9a<t»f S»ivic» — s»0p»ff» 162 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 77 



GENERAL 



A computerized kaleidoscope for your Level II 16K. 



Kaleidopcn 



Robert F. Nicholas 
2-B Lennox Heights 
Lennox, MA 01240 



Remember kaleidoscopes? 
Those little cardboard 
tubes filled with brightly colored 
shapes and mirrors? How we 
Stared into them, twisting them 
around to create dazzling de- 
signs! 

Kaleidoscopic designs can be 
fascinating, and they make 
great patterns for painting, 
needlepoint, fabrics and other 
crafts projects. 

You've probably seen a 
kaleidoscope program running 
on a computer, and you've un- 
doubtedly wished that you 
could create some of those pat- 
terns yourself. Why should the 
computer have all the fun? Well 
now you can jump right in there 
and explore your creative poten- 
tial. 

How rt Works 

Before you begin drawing, 
you need to understand how the 
program works. As you can see 
from Fig. 1, your video screen is 
split into four quadrants. As you 
draw in the upper left-hand 
quadrant, the computer creates 
mirror images of your design in 
the other three. 

Points in quadrant I are de- 
fined as (X,Y) and are printed by 
using the SET command. Re- 
member that your screen is 128 
(0 to 127) by 48 (0 to 47), 
Therefore, points in quadrant II 
must be defined as (127-X,Y) in 
order to produce a mirror image 
to the right. 

Similarly, quadrant III uses 



S3 



\ 


y 




^ 


H 



fig. 1. 



{X,47-Y) to produce a mirror im- 
age looking down. And in quad- 
rant IV, (127-X,47-Y) creates a 
mirror image looking down and 
to the right. The total effect is of 
a kaleidoscopic pattern cen- 
tered on the screen. 

Running Kaleidopen you are 
asked to specify the starting co- 
ordinate for your design. Enter 
the X (0 to 63) and Y (0 to 23) co- 
ordinate as a pair separated by a 
comma. For example, try 20,10, 
This is the only time you will use 
the ENTER key while drawing. 
For the rest of the commands, 
simply press the key you desire. 

Fig, 2 shows the eight direc- 
tions used in the program. Just 
press any key (one-eight) and 
when the line has reached the 
location you want, press the S 
key to stop it. Then press the 
number of the next direction you 
want. Continue until your design 
is finished. 

Notice that you are only draw- 
ing in quadrant I, but that the 
computer is simultaneously 
drawing the appropriate mirror 



images in the other three quad- 
rants. Always remember that 
your directions refer to quadrant 
I only! 

Suppose You Make a Mistake 

Now we all make mistakes 
once in awhile. If you make an 
error, just press B to clear the 
board and begin a new pattern 
from scratch. If, on the other 
hand, it is just a case of having 
drawn a line too long, use the E 
key to erase. 

Suppose I drew a line in direc- 
tion four, but failed to stop In 
time. I simply press E to erase, 
followed by eight. I erase in 
direction eight because, as you 
can see from Fig, 2, eight is the 
direction opposite four. If I drew 
in direction one, I would have to 
erase in direction five. 

You can also use the E key to 
skip to a new position on the 
screen without leaving a trace. 
For instance, pressing E-three 
moves the point up without 
drawing a line. Pressing S stops 
at a new position. 

The only problem is that you 
may pass over a line you want- 
ed. The result is an erasure at 
that point. The trick is to move 
up to the line in the E mode, 
stop, draw one point and then 
go back into the E mode again to 
keep moving without leaving a 
trace. It takes a little practice, 
but really isn't that difficult. 

If you are feeling ambitious, 
you can build a move command 




420 INFUT-EHTER 'iTBRlIKa 


CQOftiaNAlt::, A .'J 1^, ,,T tO-4, 


" i X . Y 


440 IF tX-.0 OK X;127 ) OR 


I y .0 UR T 4/ 1 IHLn 4^a 




1100 IF X(R GR X+R i:7 


DR Y-tUkl OR Y(U.-4; U\LU toO 

Example 1. 





Fig. 2. 

(M) ttnat moves without leaving a 
trace and does not erase any- 
thing already on the screen. 
(Hint: Use the POINT (X,Y) com- 
mand,) 

So what do you do with your 
masterpiece once you've com- 
pleted it? Why save it on tape of 
course! That way you can recall 
your best creations for use in 
projects or for putting on your 
own one man art show. 

Put a blank tape into your 
recorder, position it, note its 
location, be sure your cables are 
all connected and depress both 
the play and record buttons. 
Now press the P key to save 
your design on tape. 

The entire process takes 
about 80 seconds. The screen 
clears when the process is com- 
pleted and you will be told that 
the picture has been saved. 

If you wish to recall a picture 
from tape, respond yes when 
you are asked. Rewind the tape 
to the correct position, plug In 
the cables, depress the play but- 
ton and hit ENTER. Your picture 
prints on the screen in 45 sec- 
onds. 

And that's all there is to it! 
The program includes a brief 
summary of the drawing com- 
mands to refresh your memory. 
So limber up your fingers and 
begin creating with KALEID- 



78 • 80 Microcomputing. June 1980 



FROM PROGR AMMA 

HI-RESOLUTION GRAPHICS FOR THE TRS-80 




LOWER CASE 

ThpflO GHAFIX board inclubes 

two leti of lower caie charatrlers 

>t no addilional con. 



DEMONSTRATION PROGRAMS 

TheBOGRAFIX board is supplied 
witti I CherKtet Generator software 
and several demons trai ion prograrris. 




REAL-TIME GRAPHIC GAMES 

With ihe 80 GRAF IX board you can 

wriie eicitiriQ real-iime gamef using 

BASIC 






FINALLY, AT LAST. .. 

HI RESOLUTION GRAPHICS is available (or your 
THS-80 computer jyilem. The BOGRAFIX board from 
PROGRAMMA International, Inc. gives your TRS-BO high 
resolution capability that is greater than the Commodore 
CBM/PET Of even the revered APPLE I \ 

BOGRAFIX gives the TRS-80 an effective screen of 
384X192 pixels, versus Itie normal 127X193 for the 
TRS80, 80X50 for the CHM'PET. or the 280X192 of an 
APPLE II As an added feature. BOGRAFIX offers you 
lower case characters at no additional cost. Of course, you 
jan also create your own set of up to 64 original characters 
U5ir>g the supplied Character Generator software. 

The 80-GRAFIX board is simole to ir>steli (note that this 
voids your Radio Shack warranty), and programming is 
done through BASIC, BOGRAFIX opens up a whole new 
realm of software development and encitement never 
dreamed of for the TRS 80f 







EASY INSTALLATION 

The BO GRAFIX board is simple to 
install and fits inside the TRS 80 case. 



INVERSE VIDEO 

The BO GRAF IX board allows you to 

do Inverse video to high light your 

screen displays. 






h»B KtWIi'lWS WWtTMtff HKjIIVU'I IB 



CHARACTER GENERATOR 

The supplied character generator 

software allows you to create your 

own character set of vip to 

54 original characters. 



""(•('I'l'i 'PCI «■* 

QMin 

Minr 



GRAPHICS GALORE 

The 80 GRAFIX board ar>d 
the supplied Character Generator 

allow you to became an artist. 



(I nwn 

n niMUM 



miniMMiwa -innrMWD 



tHiuiiiiim«. 





ELECTRONIC DESIGN 

The BOGRAFIX board has unlimited 

application m Electronic design 

and Education. 



BOGRAFIX HI-RESOLUTION 

Finally, the only means to protect 

your computer investment it to order 

an 80 GRAFIX board TODAYI 



Available exclusively through PROGRAMMA at the cost of $149.95 

Please check with us for availabilitv prior to ordering 

VISA and MASTERCHARGE accepted 

TRS-80 is a registered trademark of the Tandy Corp. ^ji 



EXCITEMENT & FUN 

Open up a new realm of software 

develoomeni with the 80 GRAFIX 

board 



PROGRAMMA 
IIMTERIMATiaiMAL, INC. 

3400 Wilshire Blvd. 

Los Angeles, CA 90010 

(213) 384-0579 • 384-1116 ' 384-1117 



OPEN. 

Modlflcatkmt 

You can modify the progfam 
to produce only one mirror im- 
age (bilateral symmetry?) by 
deleting lines 1200, 1210, 1260 
and 1270. Also change lines 420, 



440 and 1100 as indicated in Ex- 
ample 1. 

To create one large drawing 
board (the entire screen), delete 
lines 1190. 1200. 1210, 1250, 
1260 and 1270 and change lines 
420, 440 and 1 100 as indicated in 
Example 2.B 



«20 IMF-UT-LHTLk 'j 1 6K 


iNt, caOFfDINATES X tO-&J*ii ^0-4;' J 


- iXrl 


440 IF > X .0 Uh X 6^ 1 


UR I T [JR y A7 : TlILN *2'J 




1100 IF XtR Q OR *4I-: 


6j Of. I*U t/ uK ItJ *,' IHLfJ 460 

Example 2. 





Program Listing 



KALEIDOPEN 
ROBERT P. NICHOLAS 



IB ■ 

2B ■ 

30 CL5 

40 DEPIHT A-Z 

50 CLEAR 20ti 

60 FRIHTe45G,CHR$t23)'K ALEIDOPE N"i 

70 FOR TI-1 TO 1500 

80 HEXT TI 

90 CLS 

100 DIM PSt5) 

110 PRINT'THIS IS A KALEIDOPEN. 

12B PRINT" PRESS A f FROH 1 TO fl FOR DIRECTICM) OP 

YOUR MOVE. 
130 PRINT- PRESS 'S' TO STOP A LINE. 
140 PRINT' PRESS 'E' TO ERASE {FQLLOHED BY THE DIR 

ECTION 11 . 
150 PRINT" ALSO USE 'E' TO SKIP TO A NEW P 

OSITION WITHOUT 
160 PRINT' LEAVING A TRACE. 

170 PRINT" PRESS 'B< TO CLEAR SCREEN AND GET A NEW 

DRAWING BOARD. 
180 PRINT 

190 PRINT" THE DIRECTIONS ARE AS FOLLOWSl 

1224 PRINTS72B,"+"; 
210 PRINTe736,'l"i 
220 PRIHTe668,"2"t 
230 PRINT«600,"3"| 
240 FRINT06G0,"4"r 
250 PRINT0721,'5"i 
260 PBINT*7B8,"6"i 
270 PRIHT*856,"7'i 
280 PBIKTi796,"B"i 
290 PRINTe96B,' "j 

3B0 INPUT'HIT ENTER TO CONTINUE DIRECTIONS' )X 
310 CLS 
320 PRINT" MOTE THAT YOU DO HOT HIT THE ENTER KEY WHI 

LE YOU ARE 
330 PRINT"DRAWING A PICTURE. JUST PRESS THE KEY YOU DE 

SIRE. 
340 PRINT 
350 PRINT' IF YOU WISH TO SAVE ONE OT YOUR PICTURES, 

DEPRESS BOTH 
360 PRINT'FLAY AND RECORD KEYS OH RECORDER AND THEN PRE 

SS "P". 
370 PRINT 
3BB INPUT'DO YOU WANT TO RECALL A PICTURE PREVIOUSLY SA 

VED (y/N)')Z5 
390 CLS 

400 ZS-LeFT$(Z$,l} 
41B IF ZS-'Y' THEN 1470 
420 INPUT'ENTER STARTING COORDINATES X (0-63), Y (t-23)" 

JX,Y 
430 CLS 

440 IF tX<0 OR X>631 OR (Y<0 OR Y>23) THEM 42f 
450 GOSUB 1170 
460 E-B 
470 AS-"" 
4BB B$-" 
49B U-0 
500 R-0 

510 REH INKEYS ROUTINE TO EMTBR DRAHIMG COHHMIDS 
520 BS-INKEYS 
530 REM STOP DRAWING 
540 IF BSO'S' THEN 5BB 
55B GOSUB 117B 
560 GOTO 460 

570 REM GO INTO ERASE NODE 
5B0 IF BSO'E' THEN 640 
590 E-1 
6B« B$-" 
610 GOSUB 1230 
620 GOTO 520 



630 REH CLEAR THE BOARD AND BEGIN A MEN DBSIOH 
G40 IF BSO'B" THEN 680 

650 CLS 

660 GOTO 420 

670 REN GO SAVE THE DESIGN OH TAPE 

680 IF B$-'P' THEN 130B 

690 A$-A$+B$ 

70B REM DRAW WEST 

710 IF A5<>"S" THEN 760 

7 20 R— 1 

730 U-B 

740 GOTO 110B 

7 50 REH DRAW NORTHWEST 

760 IF A$<>'4' THEN Bll 

770 R— 1 

7BB U— 1 

790 GOTO 1100 

800 REH DRAW EAST 

810 IF ASO'l' THEN 861 

820 R-1 

830 U-B 

840 GOTO 1100 

850 DRAW SOUTHWEST 

860 IF AS<>'6' THEN 91f 

870 R— 1 

880 U-1 

890 GOTO 1101 

900 REH DRAW NORTH 

910 IP AS<>"3" THEN 961 

920 R-0 

930 U— 1 

940 GOTO 1100 

9S0 REH DRAW SOUTHEAST 

960 IF A5<>"8' THEN 1010 

970 R-1 

980 U-1 

990 GOTO 11B0 

1000 REH DRAW SOUTH 

1010 ir AS<>'7' THEN 1060 

1020 R-0 

1030 U-1 

1040 GOTO 110B 

10S0 REH DRAW NORTHEAST 

1060 IF AS<>'2' THEN 520 

1070 R-1 

1B80 U— 1 

1B90 REH CHECK NEW POSITION IS WITHIN SCREEN BOUNDARIES 

110B IF X+R<B OR X+R>63 OR Y+UCB OR Y+023 THEN 46B 

1110 X-X+R 

112B Y-Y+U 

113B GOSUB 1170 

114B IP E-1 THEN G08DB 1231 

1158 BS-" 

116B GOTO 52B 

117B REH SET POINTS IN ALL FOUR QUADRANTS 

118B SET[X,Y} 

119B SET(127-X,Y) 

1200 SET{X,47-Y) 

1210 SET(127-X,47-Y) 

1220 RETURN 

1230 REH RESET POINTS IN ALL FOUR QUADRANTS 

1240 RESET(X,Y) 

1250 RESET{127-X,y) 

1260 RESET(X,47-Y) 

1270 RESET(127-X,47-Y) 

1280 RETURN 

1290 REM SAVE DESIGN OH TAPE 

1300 PS-" 

1310 N-1 

1320 FOR X-15360 TO 16382 

1330 P-PEEK(X) 

1340 IF P-32 THEN P$-P$4CHR$ (128) ELSE P$-P9K:HX$(P) 

1350 H-N41 

136B IF N<250 THEN 140B 

137B N-1 

13BB PRINTI-1,PS 

139B P5-" 

1400 NEXT X 

1410 P-PEER(163B3l 

142B PRINTI-1,P$,P 

1430 CLS 

1440 PRINT'PICTURE HAS BEEN SAVED. 

1450 GOTO 3BB 

1460 REH RECALL DESIGN FROM TAPE 

1470 PRINT' DEPRESS PLAY BUTTON CN RECORDER. AFTER P 

ICTURE HAS BEEN 
1480 FRINT'PRINTED, HIT 'ENTER' TO ERASE SCREEN AND BEG 

IN ANOTHER DESIGN. 
1490 PRIHT'WHEN TAPE RECORDER IS READY, HIT 'EMTBR* . 
1500 INPUTX 
1510 CLS 

1520 FOR J-1 TO 4 
1530 INPUT«-1,FS(J) 
1540 NEXT J 
1550 INPUTI-1,F5(5) ,F 
1560 PRIHTS0,'"! 
1570 FOR J-1 TO 5 
1SB0 PRINT P$(J) I 
1590 NEXT J 
16B8 POKE lv3B3,F 

161B IF INKEYS-^' THEN 1610 ELSE CLS 
162B GOTO 3BB 



80 ■ 80 Microcomputing. June 1930 



the electric pencil II 

^" .t":i980 Mirhiiel Shr^ve-r 

for the TRS-80 Model IP Computer 




The Electric Pencil Is a Character Oriented Word Processing 
System. This means that text is entered as a continuous string 
of chcracters tnd is manipulated as such. This allows the user 
enormous freedom tnd ease in the movement cjid handling of 
text. Since lines are not delineated, ony number of char- 
acters, words, lines or paragraphs may be inserted or deleted 
anywhere in the text. The entirety of the text shifts and 
opens up or closes as needed in full view of the user. Car- 
riage returns as well as word hyphenation are not required 
since each line of text is formatted automatically. 

As text is typed end the end of a screen line is reached, a 
partially completed word is shifted to the beginning of the 
following line. Whenever text is inserted or deleted, existing 
text is pushed down or pulled up in a wrap around fashion. 
Everything appears on the video display screen as it occurs 
thereby eliminating any guesswork. Text may be reviewed at 
will by variable speed or page-at-o-time scrolling both in the 
forward and reverse directions. By using the search or the 
search and replace function, any string of characters may be 
located tnd/or replaced with oiy other string of characters as 
desired. Sfiecific sets of characters within encoded strings 
may also be located. 

When text is printed. The Electric Pencil automatically 
inserts carriage returns where they are needed. Numerous 
combinations of Line Length, Page Length, Character Spacing, 
Line Spocing tnd Page Spacing allow for any form to be 
handled. Right justification gives right-hand margins that 
are even. Pages may be numbered as well as titled. 



the electric pencil 

-a Proven Word Processing System 

The TRSOOS versions of The Electric Pencil II are our best 
ever! You can now type as fast as you like without losing any 
chtrocters. New TRSDOS features include word left, word right, 
word delete, bottom of page numbering as well as extended 
cursor controls for greater user flexibility. BASIC files may 
also be written and simply edited without additional software. 

Our CP/M versions are the same as we hove been distributing 
for several years crd allow the CP/M user to edit CP/M files 
with the oddition of our CONVERT utility for an additional 
$35.00. CONVERT is not required if only quick and easy word 
processing is required. A keyboard buffer permits fast typing 
without character loss. 

CP/M TRSDOS 
Serial Diablo, NEC, Qume $ 300.00 $ 350.00 
All other printers $ 275.00 S 325.00 

The Electric Pencil I is still available for TRS-80 Model 1 
users. Although not as sophisticated as Electric Pencil II, it 
is still an extremely eosy to use and powerful word processing 
system. The software has been designed to be used with both 
Level I (I6K system) and Level II models of the TRS-80. Two 
v«arsicns, one for use with cassette, and one for use with disk, 
ore available on cassette. The TRS-80 disk version is easily 
transferred to disk crd Is fully interactive with the READ, 
WRITE, DIR, and KILL routines of TRSDOS. 




futures 

TRSDOS or CP/M Compatible • Supports Four Disk 
Drives • Dynamic Print Formatting * Diablo, NEC & 
Qume Print Pockoges • Multi-Column Printing * Print 
Value Chaining • Poge-ot-o-time Scrolling * 
Bidirectional Multispeed Scrolling * Subsystem with 
Print Value Scoreboard * Automatic Word & Record 
Number Tally * Globol Search & Replace * Full Margin 
Control • End of Page Control • Non Printing Text 
Commenting • Line & Paragraph Indentation • 
Centering • Underlining * Boldface 




master charge 



"TR&flO >s a togistwed iracJe mafV ol RaOw Sr>acK, a division of Tandy Cocp. 



TRC Cassette $ 100.00 

TRD Disk $ 150.00 



►^255 




MICHAEL SHRAYER SOFTWARE, INC. 

1198 Los Robles Or, 

Palm Springs, CA. 92262 

(714) 323-1400 



• Reader Service- s#9 o«g« 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 81 



GENERAL 

Have fun with PEEK & POKE 

making your game simulations realistic 

Real-time Graphics 



Richard A. Zidonis 
4500 Ardmore Ave. 
Cleveland OH 44144 



If your friends were like mine, 
the first thing they asked 
about your computer was, 
'■What can it do?" Most likely, 
you responded by loading a 
game program. As time went on, 
you became less Impressed 
with the standard Wumpus or 
lander game and struck out on 
your own to develop the ultimate 
game program. And that's where 
we begin! 

PEEKing 

t have a Radio Shack TRS-80, 



16K, Level II system. 

The TRS^ has an available 
command called INKEYS. The IN- 
KEY$ function returns a one- 
character string equal to a 
strobed keytx>ard depression. 
This allows you to Interact with 
the system during real time. 
Visionsof real-time videogames 
came to my mind at once. But as 
often happens, problems came 
Into play. For instance, if you 
had a dot on the screen that you 
wished to move to the left, a 
single keystroke could start it 
moving, but another keystroke 
would be needed to stop It. This 
problem was quite trDublesorr>e 
for awhile, but the solution final- 
ly materialized. 



We will develop a method of 
moving and stopping a game 
paddle with a single keystroke, 
and at computer real time. Not 
only that, but we're also going to 
move It at a speed rivaling a true 
analog-input video game. 

To do this we first need to 
develop a method of deter- 
mining the presence of a single 
depressed key. The TRS-80 
system Is memory mapped. 
Upon looking at the memory 
map, we find that the keyboard 
is located between memory 
locations decimal 14336 and 
decimal 15359. Knowing that, 
let's PEEK some keyboard loca- 
tions. 

The PEEK command in Level 



II requires that a variable be 
assigned to what is found at the 
PEEK location. As in the state- 
ment X = PEEK (14337), the 
decimal value of memory loca- 
tion 14337 Is assigned to the 
variable X. Still with me? Since 
we can only assign variables to 
alpha (A) or alphanumeric (A1) 
characters, we are only inter- 
ested In PEEKing the letters of 
the alphabet. Refer to Table 1. 
Note the first 16 keytmard mem- 
ory locations (for the alphabet) 
and the PEEK value for each tet- 
ter of the alphabet. If you are 
saying to yourself that it looks 
repetitive and long, don't de- 
spair; it's not. 

If we tell the system X = PEEK 





14336 14337 


1433B 


14339 


14340 


14341 


14342 14343 14344 


14345 


14346 


14347 


14348 


14349 


14350 


14351 


A 


Q 


2 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 


B 




4 




4 




4 




4 




4 




4 




4 




4 


C 




a 




8 




8 




8 




8 




8 




8 




8 


n 




16 




16 




16 




16 




16 




16 




16 




16 


¥. 




32 




32 




32 




32 




32 




32 




32 




32 


F 




64 




64 




64 




64 




64 




64 




64 




64 


G 
H 




128 




128 




128 




128 




128 




128 




128 




128 





' 

a 


1 


1 








1 


1 








1 


1 





Q 


1 


1 


1 






2 


2 






2 


2 






2 


2 






2 


2 


J 






4 


4 






4 


4 






4 


4 






4 


4 


K 






8 


8 






8 


8 






8 


8 






8 


8 


1. 






16 


16 






16 


16 






16 


16 






16 


IS 


M 






32 


32 






32 


32 






32 


32 






32 


32 


N 






64 


64 






64 


64 






64 


64 






64 


64 


O 

P 






128 


128 






128 


128 






128 


128 






128 


128 








□ 


D 


1 


1 


1 


1 














1 




1 


1 


Q 










2 


2 


2 


2 










2 




2 


2 


R 










4 


4 


4 


4 










4 




4 


4 


S 










8 


B 


8 


8 










8 




8 


8 


T 










16 


16 


16 


16 










16 


16 


16 


16 


U 










32 


32 


32 


32 










32 


32 


32 


32 


V 










64 


64 


64 


64 










64 


64 


64 


64 


w 

X 










128 


128 


128 


128 










128 


128 


128 


128 





D 


C 

















1 


1 


1 


I 


1 




1 


1 


Y 


















2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




2 


2 


z 


















4 


4 


4 


4 


4 




4 


4 














Table 1. PEEK chart 














• 



82 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 






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80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 83 



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84 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 

Scanned by Ira Goldklang - www.trs-80.com 



1536D 




PLUS 


63 




15423 


15424 










15487 


154B8 










15551 


15552 










15615 


15616 










15679 


156B0 










15743 


15744 










15807 


15808 










15871 


15872 










15935 


15936 










15999 


16000 










16053 


16064 










16127 


16128 










16191 


16192 










16255 


16256 










16319 


16320 










16383 


Position 


15360 


is the 


same hs print 


ocation zcto. 


Position 


15551 


is the 


last 


print position in the | 


ttiird row, etc. 












Table 2 


POKE chart. 





(14337) and then depress an "A" 
key, the variable X will have a 
value of 2. If the above PEEK 
statement Is locked in a loop, 
the variable X will take on the 
PEEK value only during the key 
depression. With the A key de- 
pressed, X returns a decimal 
value of 2; with the key not 
depressed, X returns a decimal 
value of zero. Now if that doesn't 
forward-bias the LED above 
your head, keep reading. Keep 
reading anyway; we're not done. 

POKE 

First let's change the subject 
for a moment. The TRS-80 
graphics character consists of a 
block two bits wide by three bits 
deep. Each of these bits can be 
accessed and turned on by the 
set (X,Y) command and turned 
off by the reset (X,Y) command. 
This method is effective but ter- 
ribly slow. Fortunately, we have 
an alternative. We can POKE the 
graphics positions. Refer to 
Table 2, which shows you the 
POKE locations of all the print 
locations. POKE location 15360 
Is the same as print location 
zero. 

As you can see, the chart is 
self-explanatory. If you know the 
print position you can find the 
POKE position. OK? So now we 
have established places tc 
POKE, but what do we POKE? 
Time to move on again. 

Available Graphics 

Via the TRS-80, we have 
available a number of ASCII 
codes (129-191). If you examine 



these codes, you will see that 
they are different configura- 
tions of the 2 X 3 graphics block. 
To do the examining, the com- 
mand is PRINT CHR$ (X). If X 
equals one of the available 
graphics codes, you will see a 
graphics configuration dis- 
played. 

To see what is available, refer 
to Table 3, which shows the 
ASCII number and the corre- 
sponding display. An X refers to 
a bit turned on, and an O refers 
to a bit not on. For instance, a 
PRINT CHR$ (191) results in all 
six bits turning on. A PRINT 
CHR$ (149) results In the bits on 
the left side of the block being 
turned on, As you can see, we 
have lots of different configura- 
tions available for our use. 

Doing It 

Now that all the preliminaries 
are out of the way, let's get It 
working. Refer to the short pro- 
gram In Listing 1. While referring 
to this program, let's decipher 
each line and see what we have. 

Line 10 Is easy; it's a standard 
clear screen command. Line 20 
sets the Initial value of X to be 
used when we start POKEing. 
Table 2 shows that the location 
of the POKE is on the left side of 
the display about halfway down. 

In line 30 we ae assigning the 
value of PEEK (14337) to the vari- 
able named Y. In line 40 we set 
the stage for moving our paddle. 
The line starts with IF y = 2 
THEN POKE X,128. The only 
time Y can equal 2 is during the 
depression of the A key on the 
keyboard. 



If Y does equal two then we 
POKE X, 128. The format tor 
POKE (in my system) is POKE 
LOCATION, INFORMATION. The 
ASCII character code for a 
space is 128. After POKEing the 
space we increment the value of 
X by 64 (puts us one line down). 
The last portion of line 40 keeps 
the value of X within our video 
POKE positions; otherwise, we 
POKE into places we do not 
need to be. such as the program, 
the stack, etc. This causes all 
kinds of nasty crashes. Line 50 
decreases the value of X during 
a key depression, which pro- 
duces a Y value of 4, which hap- 
pens to be the B key. Line 60 
POKES at our new X value the 
ASCII graphics code 149. Look- 
ing at Table 3, we find 149 to be 
all the bits on the left side of the 



graphics block. Line 70 loops us 
back to our PEEK statement at 
line 30. 

In a nutshell, what we are do- 
ing is quickly lighting a graphics 
position, erasing it and relight- 
ing it at the new location as is 
appropriate. If you have the pro- 
gram in your system, you will 
notice that when you depress 
the A or B key the paddle moves, 
and when you release the key 
the paddle stops. What we have 
is real-time interaction with our 
program with a single key de- 
pression. Use the keyboard 
table to pick where you want to 
PEEK. In the case of the UP, 
DOWN, LEFT and RIGHT com- 
mands, you may use several 
PEEK locations assigned dif- 
ferent variables— for instance, 
U = PEEK (14340). When the U 



1B9 



190 



191 



129 


130 


131 


132 


n3 


134 


xo 


ox 


XX 


oo 


xo 


ox 


oo 


00 


00 


xo 


xo 


xo 


oo 


00 


00 


oo 


oo 


oo 


135 


136 


137 


138 


139 


140 


XX 


oo 


xo 


ox 


XK 


oo 


xo 


ox 


ox 


ox 


ox 


XX 


00 


oo 


DO 


oo 


oo 


oo 


m 


142 


143 


144 


145 


146 


xo 


ox 


XX 


oo 


xo 


ox 


XK 


XX 


XX 


00 


oo 


oo 


00 


00 


oo 


xo 


xo 


xo 


147 


148 


149 


150 


131 


152 


XX 


oo 


xo 


ox 


XX 


oo 


oo 


xo 


KO 


xo 


xo 


ox 


xo 


xo 


XO 


xo 


xo 


xo 


153 


154 


155 


156 


157 


158 


xo 


ox 


KX 


oo 


xo 


ox 


ox 


OK 


OX 


XX 


XX 


x\ 


xo 


xo 


xo 


xo 


xo 


xo 


159 


160 


161 


162 


163 


164 


XX 


00 


xo 


ox 


XX 


00 


XX 


OO 


oo 


oo 


00 


xo 


xo 


ox 


ox 


ox 


ox 


ox 


165 


166 


167 


168 


169 


170 


xo 


ox 


XX 


oo 


xo 


ox 


xo 


xo 


xo 


ox 


ox 


ox 


ox 


ox 


ox 


ox 


ox 


ox 


171 


172 


173 


174 


175 


176 


XX 


oo 


xo 


ox 


XX 


00 


ox 


XX 


XX 


KX 


XX 


00 


ox 


ox 


ox 


ox 


ox 


XX 


177 


178 


179 


180 


181 


182 


xo 


ox 


XX 


oo 


xo 


ox 


00 


oo 


oo 


xo 


xo 


xo 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XX 


183 


184 


18S 


186 


187 


IBS 



Table 3. Graphics chart. 



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The best' Compare and be selective. Form input, 5-digit selection code, zip 
code ext.. sort any field, multiple labels Who else oners a report writer'' 

INVENTORY Mod-I $99 Mod-ll $149 

Fast, key random access. Reports include order into, performance 
summary, E.O Q., and user-specified reports. Many converted their 
inventory to ours! 

PAYROLL. A/R, A/P. and GL available for the fWod-ll DOS and CP/M, 

L216, a cassette package of 10 business programs for Level II 16K 
systems, S59. 

All programs are on-line, interactive, random access, virtually bug free, 
documented and delivered on disks Mod-I programs requite 32KTRSO0S. 
and credit is allowed when you upgrade to Mod-ll. We challenge all 
software vendors to offer low cost manuals so you can compare and 
avoid those high-priced, undocumented, on-memory programs. 
Manuals alone S5 for Mod-I. SIC for Mod-ll Dont let our low prices tool 
you! 

Mod-tt programs are extensively modified, guaranteed to run with 1 year 
newsletter and updates. 10''i) off for ordering more than 1 Mod-ll program. 

MICRO ARCHITECT. INC.. ^^* 

96 Dothan St.. Arlington. MA 02174 




TRS-80*— CONDENSE 

The Ultimata in BASiC 

Comprassion Utiiitias /fl^ 

" HilUM 1.3 Now Avillibli " ^T 



Wrtte BASIC programs using single statement lines (or ease 
ot maintenance. 

Write BASIC programs with unlimited remarks and comments 
to improve program readability and documentation 

— AND STILL GET — 
OPTIMUM USE OF MEMORY — FASTER PROGRAM 
EXECUTION 

Compresses proflrams up to 70% of original size 

Improves execution time by as much as 30% 

Creates multiple-statement program lines 

Blank compression 

Remark and comment deletion 

Renumbers GOTO, GOSUB. THEN. ELSE, and RESUME 

statements which relerence deleted line numbers 

PLUS THESE NEW USER REQUESTED OPTIONS 

- Retention of low numbered remark statements 
Checkpoint / Restart Facilities 

- Phase 1 work file 



Modal I $21.95 

(Diskette) 



Modal II $24.95 

(Diskette) 



iNTERNATIONAL SOFTWARE ASSOCIATES 
P.O. Box 14805 ^.87 
Onilia. No. 68124 



Tandy Corporalion* 



■ ftaatJ9r S»rv'C»—S0« p»g» 162 



80 Microcompulirjg, June 1980 • 85 



key is depressed on the key- 
board, your variable U returns a 
decimal 32. When the U is not 
depressed, you have a zero re- 
turned to your variable. 

In the case of an actual video 
display, use Table 2 to find the 
screen location and Table 3 to 
find your particular graphics 
character. Also— hadn't men- 
tioned it before— you can POKE 
any character, number, symbol 
or control code that you may 
desire by referring to the ap- 
propriate chart in your user's 
manual. 

New Thoughts 

Now that we have all that ac- 
complished, you can start writ- 
ing your ultimate game pro- 



10 


CLS 


20 


X=158D8 


30 


Y=PE1-K(14337) 


40 


IF Y=2 THEN POKE X,128 ; X=X*64 : 




IF X > 16320 THEN X=16320 


50 


IF Y=4 THEN POKE X,128 : X=X-64 : 




IF X < 15360 THEN X = 15360 


60 


POKE X,149 


70 


GOTO 30 


80 


REM "A" FOR UP AND "R" FOR DOWN 




Listing 1. 



gram, either a video game as 
above or the ever-popular 
lander-type program. Use the 
above idea to enter fuel and 
direction during real time. The 
trouble with a lot of present 
lander games is that the pro- 
gram stops and allows you to 



think. With real-time entries you 
become a busy pilot. It will also 
be almost impossible to come 
up with a set routine to land your 
lander. How about running a dot 
through a maze? You could have 
an incrementing counter in your 
control loop that gives a relative 



time readout upon negotiating 
the maze. 

I put this article together to 
demonstrate a function that I 
find convenient. If you find it in- 
teresting, then 1 have accom- 
plished my goal. If you have also 
picked up some general PEEK, 
POKE and graphics information, 
then I have doubly succeeded. 

Conclusions 

Just remember to put your 
PEEK statement in a loop where 
it will be strobed. You can 
branch out when your statement 
is qualified and then return. 
When POKEIng the video sec- 
tion, always put in an upper and 
lower POKE limit to keep from 
crashing through. ■ 







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GUITAR COHOSH • 

Hm 1 1 a chord] thai art diip^ayed witl>qr4]hic, Id teach the 
guitar. ChorctscvltKoddeKi.dAietedjCtianged, placed in any 
ordm, »/id ht made to lail fm eny iBnoth of linw. Sofiwsra 
directarv uid, IKare k a biilllanl ia«3)an() lone n< tNs rnoit 
pfaclleal IdanI havamenfot patHinalcDmpi,jl«nl. S1S.9S 

BARTENDER • 

84 rucipes 8' youi diipoirtl. Pick « ittink by name, or from 
■ rotating list by Jun the touch Qf a kay Showl propar 
glan to UM, nvitli appealing graphicj. Tmi iheniall»nd (ind 
your lavonte, mcludei P)ni ColMa. SU.BS 

SIGNING • 

Learo to tafk with ihaOaat and dumb. Type m any ptwate 
up 10 2,000 character) \anq. It il>ert reads back one letter 
at a tima, ghowing the hand positions for each leitet. You 
hav* conlrpl over the Ipead, and n4iMher or not the phraia 
ihawi on Itic screen^ If eo the taner being signed il high- 
lighted. StS.SB 

FOnMS • 

We »lio carry tormi to aid in all your progremmmg filfom. 
from documenm ion m POKEing and PEE King. You will 
b« mott imprnied witn our CRT map that i| equal m V;« 
to V<XJ' 12" CRT, onelaai ptaiilc. Writs for catoloa iticluda 
S.A.S.E. 



E^'JUV CDflPUTEH PflaDHflnS 



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EDUCATIONAL 

SOFTWARE 

TRS-80* 

80 + Programs Ini 



ELEMENTARY 

SOENU 

GEOGRAPHY 

ECONOMICS 

FOREIGN LANG. 

GAMES 



MATH 
BIOLOGY 
HISTORY 
ACCOUNTING 
BUSINESS ED. 
MAILING LABELS 



Programs are grouped Into pAckages of 
4 to 7 programs priced at $I4.9S per 
I package Including shipping and han- 
I dllng. Available on disk or tape. 

Write for catalog] ^ 89 

MICRO LEARNINGWARE, BOX 2134, 
,MANKATOMNS600I, S07-62S-220* 
rTR5-80 !■ ■ rtglittrKl Iridcmarh of TANDY CORP ' 



MAXELL- 

OR SCOTCH- BRAND DISKS 

Some compulBfists pay less but may nol get 
Shuggart' or IBM' approved disks 

8" SINGLE SIDE ■ DOUBLE DENSITY 

Sox of 10 FOR $50.00 

8" DOUBLE SIDE ■ DOUBLE DENSITY 

Sox of 10 FOR $65.00 

5V«"MINI — Box of 10 FOR $40.00 



^^^DYSAH" DISKS 

5 "• " Mini ■ Box of 5 for 125.00 




COD H 00 A^lditional Specify |8" - 

Sofl or Hard Seclor) l5"Sot1 or Hard Seclor) 

CUSTOM >-^^ 
ELECTRONICS INC. 

238 EXCHANGE STREET 
CHICOPEE, MASS. 01013 
EST 1960 1—413—592-4761 
HOURS: Tues. to Sat. — 9 to 5 

ATARI' • •TI100-4>MATKLL 



CITII 









, hiich'-i---' "■" 

^, ,ljnilJi.t 

^mule '"I 



'ih.-m.iU'^l*"'' ^^.|. IheSt-- 
Ihopi""'"\ ,.„«ly.i"'« "'" „„■ 

t;:^--::: :'.:-- :j:;1i 

"■■'^'•■'""^:; n.^i^""''^''* ' .<|.-' 



I'll"! 






• im dtlJiS fnd umptr prinlciuT Tii ^ 227 



1721 Greenlea Drive 
ClearwalL'i. Flofida 33515 
Tel (8131 446-6283 



B6 • 50 Microcomputing. June 1980 



SOFTWARE - TR$-80 - SOFTWARE 




PACKAGE ONE INCLUDES: ghaphic- 
TREK -'2000" - iriii lull g.aohici. real 
iirnc iidmc is tull ii( fast, exCFtinq action! 
E;>Okjdiii<( Benton to'pcOues ana OfiJseis 
lill tho screoni You niuil aclually na«i()ato 
tne enterprise (o dock uvUn tde giani space 
stations as v«li at to avoid hlingon 
loroodoes' Has snielOs, galactic mamoiy 
readout, damage reports, long lan^e 
serisors, elc! Has 3 levels toi beginntng. 
average, oi expert piayeis' • INVASION 
WORG - Time: 3099. Place: Ear ih's Sola' 
System Mission: As general o' Eaiiri's 
'Orces, your job is to slop the Worg 
Invasion and destroy irieir outposts on 
Marj. Venus, Saturn, Neptune, etc! Ear Ill's 
Forces: Androids Space Fighters - 

Laier Cannon - Neutrino Blasters! Worg 
Forces! Rotiots — Saucers - Disintegrators 

- Proton Destroyerit Mulli levcl game lets 
you advance to a more complicaied uame 
as you gel Detioi! * STAR WARS 
Manuever your space (ignter deep inii> irie 
nucleus ol the Death Star! Drop your 
Domb, than escape via the only e<ii. Tills 
graphics game is really tun! May Ihe Force 
be with you! * SPACE TARGST - 
snoot at enemy Ships vulh youi missiles, 
II Ihey eject in a parachute, capture them 

— or if youVe cruel, destroy them! Full 
giaphics, real lime game! • SAUCERS - 
This fast action graphics game has a lime 
iim.i! Can you be the commander lo win 
the d'Stinguisheo cross' Reauires spht 
second timing to win! Watcli out' 

ONLV SI 2.95 




PACKAGE TWO INCLUDES: CHECK- 
ERS 2.1 - Finally' A checkers program 
that will challenge evervone' ExDerl as 
well as amateur' Uses 3-piy tree search lo 
'ind t>esl possible move, Picks randomly 
between equal moves to assure you o( 
never having identical games. • POKER 
FACE - The computer uses psychology as 
well as logic to try and beat you at poker. 
Cards are displayed using TRS-80's full 
graphics. Computer raises, calls, and 
sometimes even folds' Great practice for 
your Saturday night poker matchi (Plays 5 
card draw). * PSYCHIC — Tell the 
computer a little about yourself and he'll 
predict things about you. you woo'i 
believe! A real mind bender' Great 
amusemenl lor parlies. * TANGLE MAN- 
IA Try and force your opponent into an 
immobile position. But watch out. they're 
doing ttie same to you' This graphics game 
IS for 2 people and has Dean used lo and 
stupid arguments. (And occasionally starts 
them!) • WORD SCRAMBLE — This 
game is 'o' two or more people. One 
oeison inputs a vnord lo the computer 
while the others look away. The computer 
scrambles the word, tben keeps track of 
wrong guesies. 



ONLY $12.95 




PACKAGE THREE INCLUDES: POE- 
TRY This program lets you choose the 
suDfOcl as wed as the mood ii( \he poem 
you want, You give TRS-80 certain nouns 
or names, then Iha mood, and it dt>es the 
re<'' It has a 1000-word • irocaOulary of 
nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs' • 
ELECTRIC ARTIST - Manual: draw, 
erase, move as wen as. Auto: draw, erase 
and move. Uses graphics bits not bytes. 
Saves drawing on tape or disk! • GALAC- 
TIC BATTLE - The Swineus enemy nave 
long range phasers but cannot travel at 
warp speed' You can. but only tiave short 
range phaiers' Can you biiKkneg ttie 
enemy without geltcng destroyed! Full 
graphics - real time' • WORD MANIA 
Can you guess the computer's words using 
your human intuitive and logical abilities' 
You'll need to. lo beat Ihe computerl * 
AIR COMMAND — Battle the KamiMaza 
pilots. Requires split second timing. This is 
a FAST action arcade game. 



ONLY $12.95 




PACKAGE FOUR INCLUDES; LIFE 
This Z-80 machine language program uses 
lull graphics' Over 100 generations per 
minute make it truly animalod! Vou make 
your starting pattern, the computer does 
the rest' Program can be stopped and 
changes made' Watch il grow' • SPACE 
LANDER - Tftis full graphics simulator 
lets you pick what planet, asleroid oi 
moon you wish lo land on' Has 3 skill 
levels that make it tun for everyone. ■ 
GREED II - Multi-level game is fun and 
challenging' Beal the computer at this dice 
garne using your knowledge of odds and 
luck! computer keep: track ol hrs 
winnings and yours. Quick fast action. 
This game IS not easy! • THE PHARAOH 
Rule the ancient city of Alexandna' 
Buy or sell land. Keep your people from 
revoilingi Stop the rampaging rats. Re- 
quires a true political personality lo 
become good! • ROBOT HUNTER - A 
group of renegade robots have escaped and 
are spoiled in an old ghost town on Mars' 
Your |OC as "Robot Hunter" is lo destroy 
Ihe pirate machines before they kill any 
more settlers' Exciting! Challenging' Full 
graphics! 



ONLY $12.95 



HARDWARE- TRS-80 - HARDWARE 



I..'!" fif. 
I :■: <" H't 



JUS ■.:^i; ■. 

<m J,!3ffi 10 
BIK l.iHS to 

m, I.JiJit :■:■ 

aiK !,w:i '" 

'..SK!! •', 



.fit ■»»««'. IwK^.tD' 



PACKAGE FIVE INCLUDES: SUPER 
HORSERACE — Make your bets just like 
at the real racetrack' 8 "orses race m this 
spectacular graphic display! Up lo 9 
people can play! Uses real odds but has 
that element of chance you see in real life' 
Keeps track of everyone's winnings and 
losses. This IS one of the lew computer 
simulations that can aclually get a room ol 
people cheering' * MAZE MOUSE - The 
mouse with a mind' The comouler 
^enerttes random mazes of whatever size 
you specify, then searches for a way out' 
The second time, he'll always go fattest 
route' A true display of artificial intelli- 
gence! Full graphics, mazes S. mouses? • 
AMOEBA KILLEH - You command a 
one man submarine that has Ijeen 
stirunKen to the size o* bacteria in this 
exciting graphic adventure! Injected into 
the president's bloodstream, your mission 
is to destroy the deadly amoeba infection 
ravaging his body' * LOGIC This 

popular game is based on Mastermind but 
utilizes tactics that make it more exciting 
and challenging — has 2 levels of play lo 
make It fun for everyone. * SUBMARIN- 
ER — Shoot torpedoes at me enemy ships 
to get pomls. Fast action graphics, arcade 
type game is exciting and fun for 
everybody' 



ONLY $12.95 



MICRO 
SPEED 

UpgratJe vour "slow" TRS-80 to a 
SUPER FAST MACHINE!! (2.66 
MHZ) over 50% FASTER! Some of 
the features' 

Auto turn-off during cassette or 
disk access. (This means NO lost 
programs EVER!) (Turns back on 
automatically too!) MANUAL con- 
trol. (Unn may be turned on or off 
3t any time. Yes even during 
program execution!) Keyboard 
indicator light "blinks" when mi- 
cro-speed IS on. Stops blinking 
when off! Don't wait for SARGON 
II or any other program!!! Comes 
with oasv 'o follow instructions. 
(Some soldering required.) OR take 
to your local computer store or 
TV-Appliance Center for quick 
installation, (5-10 minutes!!) Works 
with any model, TRS-80. 

ONLY S24.95 complete 



MICRO 
BEEP 

Simple hook up: Just plug cassette 
remote jack into unit. 



EASILY CONTROLLED FROM 
BASIC: 

OUT 255,4 = on 
OUT 255,0 - off 

MICRO-BEEP make games more 
fun as well as provide useful sound 
output for professional applica- 
tions! 

Works with Any Model I TRS 80 



: : < 5 t ? 1 J 18 11 

; d V, » li 19 r ;i i5 ;t 



PACKAGE SEVEN INCLUDES: BACK- 
GAMMON 5.0 - 2 drfferent skill levels 
make this game a challenge to average or 
advanced players FAST (15 second avg) 
Looks tor best possible move to beat you' 
FANTASTIC GRAPHICS, flays Ooubles 
and uses inlemalionai rules * SPEED 
READING - Increases yiiur reading 
speed. Also checks for compreHension o' 
material. Great 'or teenagers and adults to 
iniprovB reading skills • PT 1 09 "" Drop 
depth Charges on moving suDs. Lower 
depths got higher points in this tail act-on 
gtaphics game, • VAHTZEE - Play Vahl- 
zee with the (.omputer. This popular game 
IS even more 'un and challenging against a 
TRS-SO! * WALL STREET - Can you 
turn your (50 000 mlo a million dollars? 
That's tbe oDject of this great game 
Si rnu tales an actual Mock markel? 

ONLY $12.95 



ONLY $9.95 complete 



PACKAGE SIX INCLUDES; 20 home 

FINANCIAL PROGRAMS - Figures am- 
ortization, annuities, deicr lotion rates, 
interest laples, earned interest on savings 
and much, mucti more. Those P'09'ams 
will gel used again and again. A must tor 
Ihe conscientious, inflation minded pei- 
son. 

ONLV S12.95 




^\9 



Master 
Charge 



24 HOUR (7 days) HOTLINE 
(602) 882-3948 

(C.O.D. $3 extra) 



Visa 



Exceptional Products through Research & Imagination 
Send Check, Money Order or Bank Card No. orders to: 



SIMUTEK 
P.O. Box 35298 
Tucson, AZ 85740 



Please Add 2.50 

Per Order For 

Postage & Handling 



Same Day Shipment on Bank Cards, 
Money Orders & C.O.D. 

All Tape Programs Require a Minimum of 16K Level 2 

Packages Available on Diskette (32K System) S4.25 Extra 

3 or More Packages Get 10% Discount 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 
TRS-80 IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP. 



■ Reader Service - soe page 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 87 



LTILITY 



If you don't know your FF from 
your 00 tfien try tfiis program for size 

Hex Display 



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Ot. H. J. Campbell 
Institute ot Psychiatry 
De Crespigny Park 
London SE5 8AF 



The speed of many micro 
applications could be im- 
proved by rapid and accurate 
hexadecimal conversions of 
decimals 0-255. 

Assembly language program- 
ming is tedious without this fa- 
cility and modifying byte data in 
main memory or disk sectors 
can be highly dangerous. 

Although converting numbers 
in this range with a pencil and 
paper is not difficult when done 
as an exercise, it is a source of 
distraction and prone to error 
when carried out while program- 
ming or doing surgery on data 
registers. Yet there appears to 
be no software available specifi- 
cally designed for this purpose. 

Display ASCII as Well 

The program Hexadecimal 
Display, written here in Level II 
BASIC, displays not only hex 
conversions but also the ASCII 
characters and the TRS-80 
graphics characters. The latter, 
of course, appear only as peri- 
ods in the printed RUN. 

Hexadecimals composed on- 
ly of numbers can be displayed 
by using the simple variables A 
and B. Since variables con- 
sisting of a combination of let- 
ters and numbers cannot be as- 
signed or called directly, it is 
necessary to introduce two 
modifications to the simple A-B 
scheme. 



Firstly, the calls for all num- 
ber hexadecimals must be made 
to leapfrog over the alphanu- 
meric ones. This is done with the 
Boolean logic of line 120. having 
initialized the variables in line 
110, 

Secondly, to call the alphanu- 
meric hexadecimals the vari- 
ables are first assigned to 
strings and these are then 
equated with appropriate CHR$ 
functions. This can be seen in 
lines 50, 260, 270, 290 and 300, 

The logic in line 150 ensures 
correct spacing in the display. 
Here, as in all the PRINT lines, 
meticulous care must be talten 
with punctuation. Throughout. 
CHR$(H) provides the hexadeci- 
mal number byte and CHR$(64 
-fC) or CHR$(64-fE) estab- 
lishes the appropriate letter 
byte. 

Calling the ASCII and graph- 
ics characters cannot be done 
as a continuous series because 
many of them are control codes. 
which execute followmg a 
PRINT statement. For example, 
a simple request such as 

FOH I - TO 255:PRINT CHRS(I|:NEXT 

will founder in several places. 
The worst, perhaps, Is when 
CHR${23) is reached. This im- 
mediately converts all subse- 
quent display to 32-character 
format. 

Higher codes will do other un- 
acceptable things such as clear- 
ing the screen and compressing 
in tabular fashion. Still, this 
problem is easily overcome by 



88 • ao Microcomputing, June 1980 



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777 HENDERSON BOULEVARD N-6 ^ 

FOLCROFT INDUSTRIAL PARK 
FOLCROFT. PA 19032 (215) 461-5300 



■V R DATA'S TRS-80^"" 
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OVER $1700.00 in PRIZES 
GRAND PRIZE - 16K Lll TRS-80 
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FOUR THIRD PRIZES - *50.''° cm certificate. 

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1 ALL ENTRIES MUST BE SUBMITTED ON ORIGINAL 

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3 WINNERS SELECTED BY RANDOM DRAWING. 

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4. ENTRIES MUST BE RECEIVED BY 10/31/80. 
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MAIL NOW TO ENTER V. R. DATA'S SWEEPSTAKES 



NAME 

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INTENDED USE 



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SEND FOR CATALOG D 



r-RmaawS^nicw-attprnge 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 ■ 89 



incorporating leapfrogging log- 
ic Into ttie lines ttiat display ttie 
CHR$ equivalent of ttie decimal 
variable, viz. lines 130, 160, 250, 
260 and 270. 

Hexadecimal Categories 

This set of hexadecimals 
comprises several groups ttiat 
fall Into two categories. One 
category Is the groups in which 
the first byte runs from A to F; 
the other category has the num- 
bers 0-9 as the first byte. Each 
of these categories requires a 
distinct FORNEXT loop. 1 to 6 
and 1 to 10 respectively (see 
lines 150, 270, 300 for the first 
category: 120, 260. 290 for the 
second category). 

The values of the variables 
within each loop are changed by 
the accumulator assignments in 
lines 140, 170. 260. 270, 290 and 
300. 

Since each FORNEXT loop 
assigns its own set of values to 
the variables, these must be re- 
set correctly tor the looping that 
follows the GOTO statements in 
lines 230 and 250 Resetting is 
done in lines 180, 280 and 310- 

When the first hexadecimal 
byte is a letter (decimal 160) and 
when both bytes are letters (dec- 
imal 170) variable values must 
be reassigned. Line 240 accom- 
plishes this. The pointer is sent 
here when 9FH Is reached (line 
220). 

As listed, the program scrolls 
page-size displays with pauses 



between each page. Interim 
pages carry the message WAIT 
FOR MORE and the last page 
contains the information END 
OF DISPLAY. These break 
points cannot, of course, occur 
within FORNEXT loops, so lines 
190-210 and 320-330 call the 
delay subroutine in line 360 
(which may be user-modified to 
alter the length of the delay peri- 
od). 

When FFH is reached, line 
340 sends the pointer to the final 
message and END of the pro- 
gram in line 380. 

Headings for the columns are 
provided by the subroutine in 
line 370. which is called at the 
beginning (line 100) and which 
follows the various GOSUB. to 
line 360. 

The program responds to 
BREAK at any time and the RUN 
may be printed in whole or in 
part by using the JKL screen 
printer of NEW[X)S + . In the 
absence of this facility or if hard 
copy is desired, obviously the 
PRINT statements should be 
changed to LPRINTS. 

Deliberate compression of 
the program by avoiding spaces 
and REMs produces a memory 
requirement of only 1.1K. Thus 
the program can usually be 
SAVEd on most disks where 
surgery is to be carried out, pro- 
viding an in situ source of hexa- 
decimals which, unlike print- 
outs, cannot become buried 
under other papers. ■ 







tniT Fce 


MH 








H D RSCll 


H 


D RSCII H 


D fecii 


H 


D flSClI 


£8 X 


61 


97 


62 


98 


63 


99 


64 IBS 


a 


lU 


66 


IK 


67 


IK 


£8 1*4 


69 


IBS 


M 


1B£ 


6E 


187 


K lee 


s> 


1B9 


S 


Ud 


ff 


lU 


78 112 


71 


113 


72 


114 


73 


115 


74 116 


7Z 


117 


76 


118 


77 


119 


78 128 


79 


121 


7ft 


U2 


7B 


123 


7C 124 


7t> 


125 


7E 


126 


7F 


127 


88 126 


91 


129 


82 


IW 


33 


131 


B4 122 


«. 


i:: 


isi 


i;4 


87 


lis 


88 lU 


89 


U7 


m 


138 


36 


139 


8C 148 


SD 


141 

l*IT FOR 


8E 


142 


SF 


143 


H RSCII 


H 


i FECI 


H 


D ASCII 


H 


t) ASCII 


98 144 


91 


145 


92 


146 


93 


147 


94 148 


» 


149 


96 


158 


97 


151 


K 1S3 


99 


151 


9fi 


154 


96 


155 


9C I'* 


» 


15? 


3C 


158 


3F 


159 


ne 168 


U 


161 


K 


162 


U 


163 


M 164 


« 


165 


m 


166 


87 


167 . 


m 168 


R9 


169 


n 


178 


fC 


171 


aC 172 


« 


173 


FE 


174 


ff 


175 


ee 176 


81 


177 


B2 


178 


Bj 


179 


B4 138 


85 


181 


B6 


1S2 


B7 


133 


88 184 


89 


185 


sn 


186 


88 


187 


eC 188 . 


BO 


189 

«IT Ftt 


BE 
HUE 


i9e 


BF 


191 


H C RSCII 


H 


D ftSCI 


H 


D fl5ClI 


M 


D ascii 


Ca 192 


CI 


193 


a 


194 


C3 


135 


C4 13E 


C5 


197 


C6 


138 


C7 


199 


CS 288 


C9 


281 


Cfl 


282 


CS 


283 


CC 284 


0) 


285 


CI 


286 


cr 


2«7 


De 288 


H 


289 


D2 


218 


n 


2U 


D4 212 


K 


213 


06 


21* 


D7 


215 


oe Hi 


09 


a7 


W 


218 


De 


219 


K 228 


W 


221 


DE 


222 


OF 


223 


EB 224 


El 


225 


E2 


226 


E3 


227 


E4 22B 


E5 


229 


E6 


238 


E7 


231 


Ee 212 


ES 


233 


EH 


234 


EB 


235 


EC 236 


ED 


237 
WIT FOB 


EE 

nofE 


238 


U 


239 


H b flSCll 


H 


D fGCII 


H 


J) ASCII 


K 


D RSCII 


F8 248 


Fi 


241 


f; 


242 


F3 


243 


F4 244 


F5 


245 


F£ 


246 


F7 


247 


FS 248 


F9 


249 


Ffl 


258 


F6 


251 


FC 252 


FD 


253 


FE 


254 


FF 


255 






END V OISPUW 








READY 














>_ 


















Program Listing 







LDUCATIONAL SOFTWARJ 

Uval H— Min 4K 
IALFHA For ages 4-7— teaches 
alphabet recognition: 
Reinforcement— a "h^ppy"| 
face 
[SIGMA For Grades 1-3— Arandoml 
series of one-digit addition| 
problems {i.e. 4 + 5 = 9) 
Reinforcement— Push the 
puck through the goal 
I Simple to use— No depressing the ENTEX| 
I key 

Uch $5.95— ftoth for $10.00 



Mercer Systems Inc. 

87 Scttoter L^ne 

HkksvUlc. N.Y. llBOt 



TRS80 q.EVEL H ^ 

and Disk 'TVograms 

MUinni UGUSSION I.O a disk IMIM p^tk^gr or 
chained pro^r^n^s rti^i prrmits fnodrl rslim^tion using 
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noii (•mtp rhfm in BASIC during Fircurion). t Y plols. 
'O'mjftpd lo( strrrn o( pilnlrr * Mt l«iifurc% ol Multi 

pie Regfpsnon 1 S4S DO 

LIVILI I6K PIOCIAMS 

Multiple Regression 10.. 12^05 

Linerti rioji^mmmg ill Q^ 

f rrogiamrnins $29 95 

rr,«ri*porTjrion Algornhm 129 9S 

Heunsfic Line B^liincirig , . 129 gs 

StJI r*£k- rrwdium mode me^n (.ivg . h^rrnonic. 
geome(tic). vMi^ncr. hisiogiitins. Tests (I.X F ) one 
vAd^ble legiession. one jn<l (wo w^y ANOVA 19 9S 
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SECURITY COMTROt CEMTER ' ' 

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odvunca. * Comvi with pfogrofn. control modul* Ontf oc 
txJoptot" "{IJflSO)" 

• • • AUTOMATIC TELEPHONE DIALER ' ' • 

You con tSlol iMvphon* auiomailcally 300 oi mora. Ev*n If 
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Phone (213) 332-2216 or 966-9666 

k — Viid and MaHercharge accepted — ^ 



90 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 




COMPUTER 
PIRATES 

_DflTfl 
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ARE HERE... 

Don't let computer pirates: DIVINE your DATA 

FILCHE your FILES 
PERUSE your PROGRAMS 

Protect them all with CRYPTEXT, the hardware 
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unit will differentially control the medical, 
legal or financial records, mailing lists, and 
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Breaking CRYPTEXT encrypted data is like un- 
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SECURITY SYSTEMS FOR USE WITH : 

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APPLE II 



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ADVANCED BUSINESS 
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(New A«H(sUi FDr Ms4«l 11 Abo) 
- FORECASTING * RISK ANALYSIS * U.S. MACRO MODEL 

It you're sanoui aboul unproviriB ycuf butinets 
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All programs hsied below ate m Basic, lor 32K |or more) dish 
based TRS 80 systems 

BUSINESS PLANNING PACKAGE fir FORE 
CASTING An integrated set of forecasting programs 

to handle a variety of busirwss forecasting needs 
from Trend Analysts to Advanced Multiple Regres- 
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INVESTMENT RISK ANALYSIS The maior ingred- 

ient in any investment is uncertainty This 
program accounts for cost changes, shifting 
revenue streams and interest rate Fluctuations 
Now you can manage risk |3b pg User Manual) 
199 
U.S. SIMULATION MODEL Knowing where Ihe 

economy is going and how it reacts to government 
fiscal and monetary actions can save you a lol of 
money This is a user onented economic situation 
model constructed to prole ssionsi standards (50 
pg User Manual) SI 99 
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Because of the Iremendous i/icrease in recent 
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To order CAU 213/424-MS2. or write to APPUED ECONOMIC 
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• *7 



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^RaaOer Swvic»— s»e page 1S2 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 91 



REVIEW 



Six programs from four companies, 

find out ttie bottom line as Rod Hailen sees it. 



Applications Software 



Rod Hatlen 

State Department- Accra 

Washington. D.C. 20520 



By looking at documenta- 
tion, ease of loading, diffi- 
culty of use and suitabiilty, i wili 
attempt to help the potentiai 
buyer decide whether the pro- 
grams discussed wlli be useful 
to him. At the same time, please 
Keep in mind that your require- 
ments and desires may be dif- 
ferent than mine and that what 
appeals to me may turn you off 
and vice versa. 

The Software 

Vendor: Micro Architect, 96 
Dothan Street, Arlington MA 
02174 

Name: WORD-1 

PiHpose: General -purpose word- 
processing system 
Docurrwntation: Four pages — 
well-written 
Loading: OK— Level 7 
Implementation: Requires a 
printer to be o1 any practical 
value. Also, the TRS-80 should 
be modified for lowercase, User 
should have some BASIC pro- 



gramming bacltground since 
text Is entered into the system 
as data statements. This Is more 
difficult than the method used in 
most word processing systems, 
but they cost at least four times 
as much as WORD-1 . Also, since 
this is written in BASIC rather 
than machine language, it is 
quite slow. 

Suitability: This is not for the 
author or others with high- 
volume requirements. It is, 
however, quite suitable for the 
letter writer or for someone who 
needs many copies of the same 
letter with a different name and 
address on each one. I like word 
processors t)ecause they allow 
me to correct all of my mistakes 
without being committed to 
paper. 

Vendor Micro Architect 
Name: BANK-1 

Purpose: Personal checktxx>k 
accounting system 
Documentation: One page— 
sufficient, mostly self-docu- 
rrwnting 

Loading: OK— Level 7 
Imptomentatton: No hardware 
requirements except the stan- 
dard cassette recorder. This pro- 
gram will process and store 100 
checks in a 4K machine and 
1600 checks if you have 16K. 
Data is input from the keyboard 
and includes check number, 



amount and transaction code. 
Each check is put into one of a 
number of categories depend- 
ing upon the transaction code. 
All checks can be recalled, 
changed or deleted, and a sum- 
mary report can be displayed at 
any time. The summary breaks 
expenses down into categories 
with totals for each one. All 
check data Is stored on cassette 
tor future use. 

Suitability: A simple but effec- 
tive personal accounting system. 
Should be all that most house- 
holds will need. Since it is writ- 
ten in BASIC, the names of cate- 
gories can easily be changed to 
suit your situation. I have al- 
ready entered all of last year's 
checks Into Its data base. 

Vendor Micro Architect 
Name: STOCK- 1 

Purpose: To keep track of the 
value of your stock portfolio 
Documentation: One page— 
sufficent, setf-documenting 
Loading: OK— Level 7 
Implementation: Program 
comes loaded with sample 
stocks so that the user can get 
an idea of what to expect. For 
your own stocks, you enter the 
date, original price, number of 
shares and current dividend. 
The program then computes 
your current worth by asking tor 
the latest price tor each of your 



stocks. It also figures in the pre- 
sent value of your house. As in 
WORD-1, all data is input as 
data statements rather than as 
a response to an input state- 
ment. It is also awkward to use if 
you have blocks of the same 
stock that were purchased at 
different times or for different 
prices. Each block must be input 
as a separate stock entry. Data 
is stored on cassette as part of 
the program which is resaved 
anytime that changes are made. 
Suitability: The speculator will 
want something more sophis- 
ticated than this. For the user 
who buys and holds his stocks 
for a reasonable period of time, 
this program wlli compute his 
net worth and gain or loss posi- 
tion. It will not analyze future 
stock possibilities. 

Other software available from 
Micro Architect: Cassette Data 
Base Manager, Inventory Man- 
agement. Mailing List System, 
Sorting Utility, Key-access Utili- 
ty, Statistics Package, Sales 
Analysis and many more. 

Vendor M, M and S Computer 
Software. 16 Marytyn Lane, 
Westbury NY 11590 
Name: Statistical Package 
Purpose: Designed to compute 
and display mean, variance and 
standard deviation, linear cor- 
relation coefficient, T-test, anal- 



92 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



CHEAP BOOKKEEPER 



A GENERAL LEDGER SYSTEM 



See to Believe 

Sold by Sturdivant and Dunn, Inc. tor Radio Shack TRS-80' 
Model I Level II 32 or 48 K systems with 2 drives and at least 

an 80 character per line printer. 

Send $1.00 for information and sample printouts {14 pages) 
to Sturdivant and Dunn, Inc., Box 277, Conway, NH 03818. 

^M Trice is S175.00. 

TRS-80 is d Trddeuijrt. ol Kddio Shatk, a Divismn nl Tdndy ttTptTdlinn. 





■ ■ 


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TAPE DIGITIZER 




At M) A VAIlABLt WITHtM. T 




CASSeiTt KlMOTt 


Vstd by tht 


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TRS-80*TRS-80»TRS-«0*TRS-80 

Model I sysicm owners 
SYSTEM TCX> SMAl.l? 

N^i-rakiMTjJi' iiK.in Model II 

Wc aKii hui u\cd -NMi-m> oiiiiielii 

t jll ill uritt li>( iiiKMJIiiin 

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Wt >ell used VfvKwrd-, I'vp ini . 
di^k dtHL-*. i-ii 

NEW HARDWARE IN STOCK 

I6K Lctd II tT4«.00 

kdJioShatk di^L diiM-s M4V.W) 

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IDS-UlM'a|v.'i li^t'iVMV.DO 

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Djij ManJ|!i:nii;tn Ssyi-m ^1<>d I ■ 

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\ tirvl r.H MihJcI II tISU.INI 



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I 



FOOTBALL 

{K TRS-80* 

Noit you can play football al /tome on yow Level I 4K 
TRS80' You ana your opponenl plan sirattgies against 
each other The computer ar}alyies the ottensive and 
defensive plays and calculates ya'dege lost or gamed 
S«"c(ir9 95 lo' your football cassette and instructions 

FERIN ENTERPRISES ^252 
6310 Underwood Ave. S.W. 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa 52404 

'TRSaO IS a trademark ot the Tandy Corp 



YOU TOO can 
become a 
successful 
computer 

ENTREPRENEUR! 



>5t 



MOW TO START YOUR OWN SYSTEMS 
HOUSE is a practical step-by-step guide for tf)e 
EDP professional or small businessman wFio 
wants lo entef the micro-computer systems 
business. 

Written by the Founder of a successful systems 
bouse, this fact-lilled 220-paoe manual covers 
virtually all aspects of starting and operaimg a 
small systems company II is abundant with 
useful, real-life samples contracts, proposals, 
agreemer^ls and a complete business plan are 
included m fu<l, and may be used immediately 
by the reader 

Proven, field-lesied solutions to Ihe many 
problems facing the small systems house are 
preser^led 

From Ihe contents. 

• New Generation of Systems Houses ■ The 
SBC Marketplace ■ fvlarkeimg Strategies • 
Vertical fi^arkets & lAPs • Competetive Posi- 
lion/Plansof fi^ajor Vendors • Market 
Segment Selection & Evaluation • Selection of 
Equipment & Manufacturer ■ Make or Buy 
Decision • Becoming a Distributor ■ Getting 
Your Advertising Dollars Worth • Your Sales- 
men Where to Find Them • Product Pricing 

• The Selling Cycle • Handling the 12 Most 
Freguenl Objeciions Raised by Prospects ■ 
Financing tor the Customer ■ Leasing • 
Questions You Will Have to Answer Before the 
Prospect Buys • Producing the System • In- 
stallation. Acceptance. Collection ■ Docu- 
■nenlallon ■ Solutions lo the Service Problem 
■ Protecting Your Product • Should You Start 
Now? • How to Wriie a Good Business Plan • 
Raising Capital 



6in edition, March 1980 



220 pages 



Ess«x Publishing Co. dept 4 

2ft5 BloomOetd Avvniw Caldwall. N.J. 070M 

I would like to order HOW TO START YOUR 
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>• Reader Service — see page 162 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 93 



ysis of variation and analysis of 
covariance from user input. 
Documentation: Five pages- 
excellent 

Loading: OK— Level 6 
Implementation: It I lost you 
reading the purpose of these 
(five) programs, then we're still 
together. Quite frankly, I'm not a 
math major (or math minor 
either!) and this is way over my 
head. 

Suitability: Math students. 
scientists and anyone else who 
understands the terms used 
above can probably put this 
package to good use. 

Other programs available 
from M and S Computer Soft- 
ware: A Dissassembler. 

Vendor: Contract Services 
Associates. 1846 W. Broadway, 
Anaheim CA 92804 
Name: Form 1040A Tax Program 
Purpose: To help the user fill out 
the IRS 1040A income tax form 
Documentation: Two pages- 
complete 

Loading: OK— Level 7 
implementation: You are asked 
to enter from the keyboard the 
information that will be used to 
fill out the 1040A, If you qualify 
for earned income credit (in- 
come under $8000). this is com- 
puted. You are directed to the 
tax tables and asked to enter 
your tax. The information re- 
quired on the form is then dis- 
played on the screen. 
Suitability: Since the form 



1040A is so simple to fill out, It 
would be hard to justify the pur- 
chase of this program for a one- 
time use. There is no guarantee 
that the form will be the same 
next year or that you will qualify 
for it. 

Other software from Contract 
Services Associates: All income 
tax forms and schedules (home 
and professional), Monitor, Cal- 
culator. Loan Payment Com- 
putation, Hex-Dec-Oct Conver- 
sions. Cash Flow Prediction and 
many more. 

Vendor: Circle Enterprises, Inc.. 
PO Box 546. Groton CT 06340 
Name: File Handling 
Purpose: To keep a file of 
names, addresses, telephone 
numbers and birthdays 
Documentation: Self-document- 
ing 

Loading: OK— Level 7 
Implementation: Program is 
self-documented and easy to 
use. Names (last name first) can 
be entered in any sequence and 
will be arranged in alphabetical 
order. Any listing can be recall- 
ed, changed or deleted, and the 
entire block — name, address. 
telephone number and birth- 
day-will be displayed while it is 
being modified. You can step 
your way through the file or 
cause a list of all of the names 
and telephone numbers in the 
file to be displayed. No direct 
provision for hard copy is made, 
but this could easily be added. 



Suitability: This is another one 

that I've put into family service. 
It will handle up to 100 names 
and should be usable by most 
households. It ought to make 
our Christmas card list much 
simpler to generate this year. 

Other software available from 
Circle Enterprises. Inc.; Moving 
Signboard, Loan Payment. 
Prime Numbers, Amway Distrib- 
uter System and more. 

Conclusion 

Note that most programs 
were loaded with the CTR-41 
volume control set between 6 
and 7. In order to get a good 
CLOAD for the first time, I used 
the following procedure: 



10 Se\ the volume conlroi lo 4. 

20 CLOAD 

30 t( CLOAD tails THEN aavance volume 

sUghliy GOTO 20 
40 HUN 



Radio Shack has a modifica- 
tion out for the TRS-80 that uses 
the data on the tape instead of 
the computer clock for clocking 
the CLOAD. This should allow a 
much greater volume control 
setting range. I have another 
computer that uses that 
method, and I can set the 
volume anywhere from 1 to 10 
and still get a good load. 

When I CSAVE my own pro- 
grams, they CLOAD best with 
the volume set at 4 Vi. I don't like 
to have tapes that play back 
at different levels because I 



usually forget to reset the 
volume control correctly. There- 
fore, once 1 get a good CLOAD, I 
CSAVE the program back to a 
second tape. This means that 
from now on it will CLOAD from 
this tape with my standard 
volume setting. Also note that 
most programs only take up a 
portion of the tape that they are 
sold on, so I put many programs 
on this second tape, which 
reduces the number of active 
tapes in my library. 

Most of the tapes that I re- 
ceived came without boxes. 
Since dust and error free digital 
tape recording are not compati- 
ble, I do not like to see cassette 
tapes lying around loose gather- 
ing dust. A box for each tape 
would be a small part of the ven- 
dor's program production ex- 
pense and would certainly be a 
beneficial service to the 
customer. 

1 have barely scratched the 
surface of this field. While I was 
disappointed in some of the 
above software for the reasons 
given, I think that we have made 
a start in the right direction. 
However, I stilt think that there 
is a need for more sophisticated 
applications-type programming. 
Personal computing is growing 
up very rapidly. More and more 
people who are not interested in 
computers as a hobby are get- 
ting involved- They are going to 
demand and be willing to pay for 
good applications software. ■ 



WHY LOWERCASE? 



Unfortunately. 



•c- (« ^'. . -fou' * (••^ It. yet ^a. .«• «ialc4M Mu'll <-wv«r 

■>* .rwKUr S*r«r«tor !- »^r '•SW eUUHT' tofrt«i'« »• 
. ^.-*i Vm« c«^«'•cf•^t. 't^mt- tf^iil i^ACicli' F\i£ tioir 

'■"Jt .1 1*1*' "tl ;<r ^*.* 



-^i*AR4i^:.:HffAW#.'..'W«AI 






(«■• I > U cMre^ 



Wouidrri you tike access to VOUR eniite lyDCseP Level II Basic con- 
vetts lo«e'case cornmana wotds into UPPERCASE Aii c^a^acle's 
contained Delween Quotes remain as typed but the sollware in an un 
converted TRS-80 allows UPPERCASE display only* This sottware 
shoftcul allowed Tandy to omit one video memofy chip This c^lD 
must be added and the video software repai'ed before the display o< 
duaicase is possible 



converting you' TRS-80 requires installing the video menwry cfiip plus wir- 
ing changes There is only one moOilication on the market which eliminates most of the wiring. 
To get the duatcase mod installed you have three choices. 1] Send your computer to 
a company or individual who will do the wiring, 2) do it yourself, or 3) "THe PATCH" 
Ittade mark! 

To make choices 1 & 2 opeote requires usirig soHware overhead in the form ol a ■drivef" This 
lakes 30 bytes, unless you want a ■normal" shi't to UPPERCASE keyboard That tattes upwards 
of 60 more bytes Software oriented mods have three more disadvantaQes 1| They reside ih 
program memory, eating program space which you could De usmg, 21 other machine language 
programs are unusable it they are loaded against the top of memory, o' 3) the driver ' software MUST 
Be loaded every iime you power-up. or the MEMORY SIZE''" appears due to program bomb Choice 
lumber three suffers from NONE Of the software Overhead problems We call i! THE PATCH ' and it s 
new (Of the 80 si 

THE PATCH a small electronic module which plugs into the jnused ROM socket on Level (I 
machines makes necessary software changes to ROM supporting lowercase, an optional tSIOC* Cur- 
sor S o>lra keyOoard debounce Electronically means NO software overtiead You' computer 
displays lowercase instantly upon power-up and the keyboard operates in normal typewriter 
fashion 

■THE PATCH' is completely compatiOle with your TRS-eO since H is the 'irst and only. TBS-aO 
lowercase system designed tfial flawlessly mates with the computer as a unit, not lust a special pro- 
gram package 

THE PATCH' IS also the onty modification of any kind which car have e'tra options and updates 
factory installed for 5 lo 10 dollars per option as ihey are available Same day tufnarouna 

Order yours today to avoid eitra delay Send S69 97 * 2 50forSiHto CECDAT THE PATCH ','Bo» 
8963 •■ Moscow, ID 33843 (2081383-0611 
THE PATCH IS a trademark of CECDAT, Inc v^ 19S 



94 ■ 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 




S,.PR0DUCTS!!fTRS-80- 




MALL 
YSTEM 



NEW! 



HHIITLER: MME CONTROLLER INTERFACE - 134. 9S. Htu hii-dulrr product thtt 
(ortroli liqhti, dpcl>a"C:es, conputer □"■ic'irrsL s, darkrooo ttiMri #nd olh*r 
115 *0U devufs snTwh«re in your houst ! So«t»jr» conlrolln) by Eaixtli 
tscl.«. Uie mtn Srars or BSR How Caritrol Systeii ailH ullfitonit oot'on. 
A4S*«bl»il, tested, seM-contiAri»fl, and includes Basic loftiiare. 

TRS-SO BISK 1 OTHER HTITEIItS - S2Z. 95, H.C. Pennington. Bed disk booh 
-p'je seen' Birectofy secrets, tile torB*n, cMa*g*d disk recovery, etc, 

LE*RMIHS LfVEL II - S1S.9S, 0.*. Lien. Learn LevcL-2 like you did Lev*l-1, 
sieo By sieo. SsBe author and style as LeveL'1 aaiiual. Super nca book! 

UTILITIES 
nm-i: ucMtM Ljuwouf nonitm for I« TRS-W'S - S24.9S 

tSK-JD: THREE VERSIOMS Of RSK-f FOR BISK STSTERS - 2f.f5 

tm-i RELOC*TO«: nn tsm-z/it mthhcre in hehort - 9.Vi 

Machine Language •onitors Hith I-SO disassemble'- 1 HE> and ASCII aensry 
dunps; EDIT, ftOVE, EICHANGE, VER1F1, FILL, lERD, TEST, or SEARCH neaory, 
read'-rue STSTEB tsoes, enter BSEAKPOINTS, PRINT .iih TRS?!? cjr Centfonus, 
read/.rite Oisk seciors dtrett'.r' "SO-? laoe loads at top o( 16lt LEVEL I or 
11; RSp"-;d di5« includes 5 ^friions lor 16K, JJi; and 48«. 

bCV-1: CONVERT STSTEH PROWUB TO BISK FILES -19.95. Eaecutc Adventure, 
»ir Raid, RSL-1, ESP-1, T-8U6, etc, fro" disk, even il they Interfere Kith 
TRSDOS' <tea version xorkj .ith TRSDOS 2.1. 

MSIC-1P: LEVEL-1 BISIC WITH PRINTING! - S19.95. Rui any LEVEL-I BASIC 
progra* on your lAi^ Level'?. PLUS LPRINT and LLIST with our TIIS2J2 or 
Centronics. Furnished on tape; can be used froa disk. 

MACHINE LANGUAGE GAMES 

AIR RAIB, BARRICADE or R5L-1 : - 110.00 eacti, all 3 tor tH.OO 

AH RAID: • super shooting gallery; our Kit popular gane. Ground based 
•issile launcher shoots nigh speed aircraft! Hours of fun' 

BARRICADE: "BREAkQUT" for the TRS-BO! Break through 3 aalls aith 
high-speed ball and keyboard controlled paOdle! 9t different oDt'ons! 

RJl-1: Enter patterns aith repeating keyboarai Save oatterns on taoe (* 
'urnistied). Play Jolm Conuay's LIFE. FAST - about 1 second per generation! 



SHUL STSTEH SOFTVME 



P.O. aoi 3SS 



HENMIT PARK. » 91320 



MODELII TRS-80- 

CP/N" VERSION 2.0 FOR THE PWDEL-II - 1170.00. Litesl version fro« Digital 
Research. Runs Both single and double density disks' "Standard" version 
runs nearly any CP/H Mift.are, including Cobol, Fortran, C-Baiic, "-Basic, 
business and accounting packages, etc. Hundreds o' orogra«s available' 

RSHII: EMAHCED RSM HONtTOR FOR THE K»CL-II - »39,9S. Relocatable version 
d1 RS»-!B dIuS screen eO'tor tor •odlfying either aeiaory or disk sectors in 
both He> and ASCII, split screen scrolling, and fomaiied serial or parallel 
printing. Sold on sel t-booting disk; directions to save as THSDOS file, 

PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE 

THE ELECTRIC PENCIL FOR THE TRS-»: T*Pt-«»9.», DISK-USD. 00. Popular 

video editor for creating and saving leit filai. Prints formatted copy «ith 

right just i * icalion, paac titling I nunbering, etc, Uooer cast only, or 
Lo«er case aith modi f1 cation. 16* Level-^ or 2 (tape). 

CP/N" OPEBATIHC STSTEN FOR THE RODEL'I - fUS.OO. The SDB0/Z8Q "Softvare 
Bus tor the Xodel-1 IRS-80, Includes TRSJSJ and RS-JJS-C loft.are, 
lo«r-cate suooort, debounce, OCV-? and otlier jnioue utilities. Alloas use 
of "any available prograais -ritien tor CP/P. 

PRINTER SUPPORT 

TR$232 PRINTER INTERfACE - •49.95 (S59.V5 after June JO). Aiiesbled I 
tested printer interface tor Ili2i2 or ;0-"il current looo printers. 
Eioanilon interface not required. Print froB level-I! BASIC, CP/H, 
BASIC-IP, ELECTRIC PENCIL, etc. Standard caiiette (Ottuare tncluded. Add 
S2.D0 tor shipping. 

TRS232 "FORWTTER- MFTVARE PACUSE - 11*. 95. Adds cage and line Length 
tonlrol, printer pause, "s«arf' line terainat ion, etc. to TRSH!. 

RSHZS?: Adds HS-!3J-C capability to IISN-2'JB iKiniiors - M.95 
PENZ32: RS-;3?-C for cassette version Electric Pencil - 9.95 
EBTZ3Z: TR52J? and RS-JIJ-C tor tape version of EOTAS" - 9.95 

OTHER PRODUCTS FOR THE TRS-M 

ESr-1: 129.95. Asseabler, Editor, Ptonitor IS080 -nesonics) 
LIT-1: B.OO. Listing ot Level-1 BASIC vith soae coaaent s 

■•CP/N ta Digital Reiearch, Inc. 'TRS-BO I- Tandy Corp. 

See your Sealer or of«r dirtet. Calif. Residents add bl ta> 



SHALL STSTEH SOFTMIE 



PO. 101 3SE 



NEWBUXT Pin. CA 11320 



introducing... 



MAYDAY 




The Uninterruptable Power Supply that.... 

• Prevents toss of memory when power "blackouts" occur. 

• Prevents loss of memory or disk I/O errors wfien "brownouts" occur, 

• Provides time to continue operating complete system with disk drives 

to finisfi operations or store information. 

• Will handle most mini/micro computers with power consumption up to 

250 watts. 

• Designed and developed using complete TRS-80 System, 

Piotect your Time and Investment 

For price list oncJ detaileci specificotions conlact your nearesl Sun Technology 
distributor or coll direct to: 






.«< N*w Durhom, N«w Hompshlr* 0385S (603) 8S9-7 1 1 

Monufoctunng high technology products since 19701 



— TR5-60 MODEL II USERS — 




Preserve — Protect — Display; 

ynur equipment wilh 

CRYSTAL CLEAR 
PLASTIC COVERS 

• KeylxMrd & CRT %IA 95m 

• Line Primer 111 Si4<>S» 

pKfl i 1 SO pOkiDg* eoch 
(■ndtona retidenn ooe *X w<« loi) 

Iniiodwctory OffMr Buy both cov»ri (t tov* 



Comblnoilon prk* S34.95 
IrKludIng postog« 



Crown Plastic Co. »^266 
3746 N. CoUege 317-92.S-5566 
Indianapolis, IN 46225 



^Rfadar Service — see page 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 95 



TUTORIAL 



If you bought your 80 

to learn about computers, why upgrade to Level II? 



Inside Level I 



Robert V. Meushaw 
4188 Brittany Dr. 
EllicottCity, MD 21043 



Once I had worked my way 
through the TRS-80 Leval I 
BASIC User's Manual and had 
run most of the examples, I grew 
itchy to move on to Level II 
BASIC My friends who already 
had Level II machines constant- 
ly reminded me of how primitive 
my system was. The pressure to 
move up kept growing. 



I would have succumbed to 
the pressure, if I had not already 
gone through a similar experi- 
ence in my younger days when I 
had been bitten by the stereo 
bug. I had spent thousands of 
dollars on speakers, amplifiers, 
tuners, turntables, etc., In an at- 
tempt to own the ultimate sys- 
tem. Clearly, it was an impos- 
sible task. 

Looking back, I realized that 
my pretention overcame my bet- 
ter judgement. After all, the pur- 
pose of owning a stereo was to 



10 1 = 1 


10 FOB 1 = 1 TO 15000 NEXTI 


20 1 = 1 + 1 


20 PRINT ■DONE" 


30 IF 1 = 15000 THEN 50 


30 END 


40 GOTO 20 




50 PRINT "DONE" 
60 END 


Listing 3: Single line ver- 




sion of timing loop in 


Listing 1: Timing loop us- 


Listing 2 (28 seconds). 


ing incremented variable 
(302 seconds). 








10 FOR 1 = 1 TO 5000 

20 * " ' BASIC STATEMENT 




10 FOR 1 = 1 TO 15000 


30 NEXT 1 


20 NEXTI 


40 PRINT ■■DONE" 


X PRINT 'DONE" 


50 END 


40 END 






Listing 4: Program used 


Listing 2: Timing loop us- 


to investigate timing be- 


ing FOB-NEXT statement 


havior of various Level 1 


(33 seconds}. 


BASIC statements. 



listen to music, not to claim the 
lowest distortion figures of any 
of your friends' systems. 

My ears could have been sat- 
isfied with a much less expen- 
sive system^ 

I had to reevaluate my true 
motives for owning a computer. 
After several days of mulling it 
over, I realized I wanted to 
understand the underlying con- 
cepts of the machine. My true 
desire was to know the details 
of the Z-80 microprocessor, how 
the various software routines 
worked and how the Level I 
BASIC interpreter worked. There 
was so much more to learn on 
the system I already had. I had 
only scratched the surface of 
understanding the TRS-80. 

Level I BASIC 

What I needed was a more 
well-defined objective than just 
to "learn more about Level I." I 
decided to begin my Investiga- 
tion with Level I BASIC and at- 
tempt to learn any technique 
that allowed me to use the lan- 
guage more efficiently. 

A simple timing experiment 
(Listing 1) opened my eyes. This 
is a very simple timing loop 
which increments the variable I 



from 1 to 15,000 and then prints 
-DONE". 

There is nothing amazing 
about this program, but I was 
dumbfounded to find that it took 
302 seconds to execute. In fact, I 
was so amazed that on the first 
several runs of the program, I 
terminated the execution pre- 
maturely because I thought the 
computer was broken. 

Why on earth, considering the 
speed of modern day comput- 
ers, should it take 302 seconds 
to count to 15,000? This was ex- 
temely puzzling, so for my sec- 
ond investigation I ran an equiv- 
alent program, shown in Listing 
2. It took only 33 seconds. 

Here was a problem worth in- 
vestigating: Why should two 
equivalent programs differ in ex- 
ecution time by a factor of 
almost ten? More importantly: 
What can be done to obtain the 
fastest program execution 
time? 

Out of curiosity, I tried to im- 
prove on the results of the pro- 
gram in Listing 2. Listing 3 
shows a third program that ex- 
ecuted in 28 seconds. This im- 
provement was not as dramatic, 
but it still amounted to about a 
15% increase in speed. 



96 * SO Microcomputing, June 1980 



llieII^O}lrTRANS1000 



A completely refurbished 
IBM Selectric Terminal witii 
built-in ASCII Interface. 

*FOR YOUR TRS-80 WITH OR WITHOUT 
EXPANSION INTERFACE. 



Features: 

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,.- RMdvr Servicw - 1« page 1 62 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 97 



Clearly, for a given program, 
there could exist a large number 
of equivalent programs whose 
execution times might differ 
substantially. Unless each 
equivalent program was coded 
and tested, it might not be possi- 
ble to determine a priori which 
would be fastest. 

I had defined my project: 
Determine a set of guidelines 
which could be applied to an ar- 
bitrary program to improve its 
execution time. 

The Approach 

Since I had already obtained 
execution times for the FOR- 
NEXT loop shown in Listing 2, it 
was a simple matter to add 
statements in the loop as shown 
in Listing 4 and measure the 
total time of execution. The ex- 
tra time for execution beyond 
that required by the FOR-NEXT 
loop would be directly attribut- 
able to the extra statement in 
the loop. 

For example, if the timing 
loop of Listing 2 required 48 
seconds to execute its 15,000 
iterations after a statement was 
added, then the additional time 
required because of that state- 
ment would be 48 minus 33= 15 
seconds. If the time per execu- 
tion of that statement was com- 
puted, it would be 15/15,000 = 
.001 seconds. 

In practice, the delay loop 
which I used performed 5000 
iterations because it did not 
result in excessive execution 
times. 

■ Firstly, I attempted to cate- 
gorize the kinds of Level I BASIC 
statements including: 

Assignment Statements; 



Arithmetical Statements; 

Logical Assignment State- 
ments; 

Single Parameter State- 
ments; 

Two Parameter Statements; 

Transfer of Control State- 
ments; 

Conditional Statements; 

I/O Statements, 

Within each statement cate- 
gory, I included various forms of 
each statement in order to test 
the effect of the variations. 
While the list is not exhaustive. 
It's sufficient to gain an under- 
standing of the overall opera- 
tion of Level I BASIC. 

The Assignment Statement 

Table 1 shows the execution 
times of the assignment state- 
ment variations. The various 
forms included the assignment 
of constants, variables, array 
elements and strings to real 
variables, string variables and 
array element variables. 

For example, the first two 
results show that it requires 
more time to assign a constant 
to the variable K than to assign 
the value of X to K. 

The next two lines show that 
it requires less time to assign K 
the value of a variable array ele- 
ment, i.e. A(X), than to assign it 
the value of a particular array 
element, i.e. A(7). 

Comparing these results with 
the previous results shows that 
it requires more time to assign W 
the value of an array element 
than a non-array element. For in- 
stance, in going from K = A(8) to 
K = X, we can cut the execution 
time by 41%. 

The next three lines show the 





Asstgnrrwnt 


Statsmanis 


BASIC SlalemenI 




Exacullon Tlma (Sec.) 




K = 5 




.007 




K^X 




.00» 




K^A(5| 




am 




K = A(X) 




.OOBB 


LET 


K = 5 




.004« 


LET 


K = X 




.0034 


LET 


K = A|XI 




.0002 




A(51 = 5 




.0106 




All) = 5 




.0096 




A15) = X 




.009B 




All) = X 




.0084 


LET 


A(I( = X 




.006 




AS = "ABCO' 




0042 


LET 


A$ = 'ABCD' 




OOIB 


Table 1: Execution times 


for 


Level 1 BASIC Assignment 


Statements. 









considerable savings that result 
from using the optional assign- 
ment statement LET. Going 
from K = A(8) to LET K = X we 

can cut execution time by over 
65%. 

The next series of statements 
shows the results of assigning 
values to array elements. As you 
see. the fastest executing state- 
ment uses only variables and 
the LET statement (i.e., LET 
A(I) = X), and the slowest uses 
constant i3arameters without 
the LET statement (i.e., A(8) = 
7). 

Finally, the limited string as- 
signment capabilities of Level 
I are evaluated in the last two 
statements. As expected, the 
use of the LET statement results 
in a considerable savings in 
time. 

Aside from comparing rela- 
tive speeds it is interesting to 
examine the absolute times re- 
quired to execute assignment 
statements. 

It takes approximately 10 ms. 
to execute these assignment 
statements. If you approximate 
the machine instruction execu- 
tion time of the microprocessor 
as 6 microseconds, it would ap- 
pear that as many as 1500 
machine instructions are ex- 
ecuted in carrying out one 
BASIC assignment statement. 

These crude approximations 
can give some insight into the 
relative inefficiency of an inter- 
preted language as compared to 
a machine code implementation 
of the same operation. 

Arithmetical Statements 

Since so many programs in- 
volve arithmetic functions, the 
results of Table 2 are particular- 
ly interesting. The left column of 
the table shows the expressions 



Logical Aasignmant Statamanta 


A = (B ^ C) 


.011 


A = B = C 


.0OB6 


LET A = B = C 


.0062 


A:=B>C 


.0085 


A = B< = C 


.0085 


Table 3: Logical Assign- 


ment Statemen 


Execu- 


tlon Times. 





evaluated in the timing loop de- 
scribed previously. 

Each expression is written in 
a general form using ? to stand 
for one of the functions + , - , /, 
or *, shown at the top of the 
table. All the functions have 
relatively close execution times. 
Addition and subtraction, for ex- 
ample, have nearly identical ex- 
ecution times. The next fastest 
function Is multiplication, and 
division is the slowest function. 

Comparing execution times 
in each column, we get similar 
results to those previously ob- 
tained. For a given expression, 
approximately 24 percent more 
time Is required if parentheses 
are used, and approximately 26 
percent less time is required if 
the LET statement is used. Addi- 
tionatly, substitution of 
variables for constants im- 
proves execution speed. For in- 
stance, A = l-fJ is 24 percent 
faster than using A = 5 + 5. 

Logical Assignment Statements 

Often programs require the 
use of Boolean variables, or 
variables which take only two 
values, usually and 1. 

Table 3 shows some ex- 
amples of statements which 
compute the value of a Boolean 
variable. The first statement 
assigns A the value of 1 if (B = C) 
and otherwise. The second 







Arithmetical Statamants 
+ — 


. 


/ 




A = 5?5 


01 


.01 


,011 


mta 




A^P5 


009 


009 


.01 


0104 




A ^I'J 


0076 


.008 


0088 


0092 




A=(5-'5) 


0124 


0124 


0134 


0142 




A=(I?5I 


0114 


0114 


0124 


012H 




A = |I?J| 


01 


0104 


0112 


0116 


LET 


A -575 


.0074 


0074 


0084 


0092 


LET 


A = l?5 


.0066 


0066 


0074 


0078 


LET 


A = I?J 


.005 


0054 


0063 


0068 


Table 2: Arithmetical Statement Execution Times 


for Level 1 


BASIC. 













98 • SO Microcomputing. June 1980 



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80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 99 





single Paramelar Slalcmanli 




K = RND(661 


□ 134 




K = HND|X1 


012 


LET 


K^HNDiXl 


0096 




K = RND( 30000) 


014 




K = RNDlOl 


0098 




K = RND|J) 


0068 wheie J = 


LET 


K = RNDi01 


0072 




K = INT{5) 


0096 




K = INT(X) 


0084 


LET 


K = ;NT(X) 


006 




K - ABS|5| 


.0086 




K=ABS(X) 


0074 


LET 


K^ ABS(Xl 


005 


Table 4: Single parameter statement execution times. 



Statement may look somewhat 
strange, but it is equivalent to 
the first and it executes 22 per- 
cent faster. 

This Is another example of the 
execution time penalty incurred 
when unnecessary parentheses 
are used. As expected, the use 
of the LET statement provides a 
significant decrease in execu- 
tion time over the first state- 
ment. In this case the decrease 
amounts to 44 percent. 



The last two statements show 

that there is no substantial dif- 
ference in execution time when 
using logical tests such as 
"greater than," "less than or 
equal," etc. 

On the average, the logical 
assignment statements are 
noticeably slower than the addi- 
tion/subtraction statements, 
which surprised me. This may 
indicate that arithmetical state- 
ments can be used in place of 



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microcomputing 



■jllfm ,| hvvf.'t. ti)r (lfl(VPt\ Nio< 1)1) OTtl.T 



Peterborough, 
NH 03458 



Two Para malar Slalamania 
SET(30,47| 011! 

SET(X,Y) 008 



REST(30,47) 
RESETIX.Y) 

K = POINTi30,'17i 
K^POINTIX.V) 
LET K-POINTIX.VI 



.0098 
.0066 

0146 
0114 
.009 



Table 5. Two-parameter 
statement execution 
times. 



logical statements in cases 
where execution time is critical. 

Single Parameter Statements 

Level I BASIC includes the 
single parameter functions 
RND, INT, and ABS, which are 
shown in various forms in Table 
4. The examples given for all of 
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The speed increase ranges 
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In Level I BASIC when RND(0] 
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The fastest execution of RND 
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eter. It is interesting to note that 
the execution times of the ABS 
and INT functions are on a par 
with the addition/subtraction 
assignment statements shown 
in Table 2. However, the RND 
function appears considerably 
slower than even the division 
statements shown in that table. 

Two Parameter Statements 

There are three statements in 
Level I BASIC which require two 
parameters. These statements, 
summarized in Table 5, are all 
associated with the TRS-80 
graphics. 



The SET statement is used to 

turn on a particular point in the 
126 by 48 point display, while 
RESET is used to turn off a par- 
ticular point. POINT is a 
Boolean function used to deter- 
mine whether or not a particular 
point Is turned on. 

As expected, each of these 
statements executes faster 
when using variable parameters 
rather than constants or other 
expressions. Oddly enough, it 
requires considerably more time 
to turn on a point than to turn it 
off, despite the fact that the in- 
struction set of the Z-80 micro- 
processor allows a particular bit 
in memory to be set to 1 as 
quickly as it can be set to 0. 

The POINT statement is the 
slowest of the graphics instruc- 
tions, even when it employs a 
LET statement. Unfortunately, 
the LET statement cannot be 
used to increase the speed of 
the SET or RESET statements. 

It is possible to determine the 
approximate time required to 
turn on or off every point in the 
display, using the figures in 
Table 5 and the fact that there 
are 128 x 48 = 6144 individual 
points in the display. The time 
required to turn on 6144 points 
is approximately 49 seconds, 
while the time required to turn 
them off is 41 seconds. But this 
does not include the time re- 
quired by the necessary FOR- 



FOR I = 1 TO MOO 
GOTO 30 
NEXT I 



Listing Sa: Program used 
to test GOTO statement. 



10 
20 
.10 
100 



FOR I = 1 TO 5000 
GOSUB 100 

NEXT I 
RETURN 



Listing 5b: Program used 
to test GOSUB/RETURN 
statements. 



10 


FOR 1 1 TO 5000 


20 


GOTO 100 


30 


NEXT 1 


100 


GOTO 30 



Listing 5c: Program used 
to compare GOTO state- 
ment with GOSUB/RE- 
TURN statements. 



too • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



NEXT loops. Using the results of 
Table 1 to approximate the loop 
time necessary for 6144 itera- 
tions adds about 14 seconds to 
the total, giving us 63 seconds 
to turn on all the points and 55 
seconds to turn them all oft. 

Transfer of Control Statsmsnts 

Measuring the execution 
speed of a transfer of control 
statement required a slightly dif- 
ferent approach. 

The GOTO statement re- 
quired a number to which con- 
trol could be passed. The 
GOSUB statement required not 
only a control number, but a 
RETURN of control to the state- 
ment after the GOSUB. 

The particular routines which 
I used to test these statements 
are shown in Listings 5a, 5b and 
5c. Listing 5a allows the GOTO 
statement to transfer control to 
the NEXT statement of the tim- 
ing loop. Listing 5b was used to 
test the GOSUB/RETURN state- 
ments. Listing 5c was used to 
compare the transfer of control 
to a routine using only GOTO 
statements with that required 
by the GOSUB/RETURN state- 
ments. 

Tfie results are given in Table 
6. Interpreting them is not as 
clear cut as in the previous 
cases. To execute a given rou- 
tine using only GOTO state- 
ments is faster, but this routine 
is not as flexible as one that 
uses GOSUB/RETURN state- 
ments, especially in the return 
of control to the calling routine. 

There may be occasions 
when you can use the increased 
speed of the GOTO to your ad- 
vantage. In comparison, the 



transfer of control using only 
GOTO statements is approx- 
imately 14 percent faster than 
using GOSUB/RETURN. 

A similar savings should be 
gained by using the ON N GOTO 
rather than the ON N GOSUB 
statement. Of course, the entire 
overhead associated with the 
transfer of control can be avoid- 
ed, at the expense of a longer 
program, by including the sub- 
routine as in-line code. 

Unfortunately, in Level I 
BASIC you cannot use a vari- 
able name in place of a line num- 
ber in the transfer of control 
statements (e.g. GOTO K), so 
this trick does not reduce execu- 
tion time. 

Conditional Statements 

Level I BASIC includes only 
the IF-THEN conditional state- 
ment. At first glance, it does not 
appear that there is much you 
can do to improve its operating 
characteristics. 

I found, however, that in some 
cases the THEN portion of the 
statement is unnecessary. In an 
expression such as IF X = 1 
THEN 100, where control is 
passed to line number 100, 
THEN is required, but for condi- 
tional assignment statements, 
etc., it's simply not. 

The execution times in Table 
7 indicate that there is no penal- 
ty in speed for omitting the 
THEN statement, so this is a 
four byte savings which is 
always worth taking. 

The execution speed of the 
conditional statement depends 
heavily upon whether or not the 
condition tested is true or false. 
By comparing the third and 





Tran>l«r ol Control SliiamMiti 


GOSUB - 


GOSUB 100 




100 RETURN 


GOTO - 


GOTO 30 




30 NEXT 1 




GOTO 100 




30 NEXT 1 




100 GOTO 30 


ON N GOSUB 


ON N GOSUB 100 




100 RETURN 


ON N GOTO 


ON N GOTO 30 




30 NEXT 1 



0072 



0092 



0052 



Table 6. Execution times for the transfer of control state- 
ments. 




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•fi—Om S^rvlct - S0» pag» 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1960 • 101 



CondlllofMl Ststwnanta 


(The following execution limes 


■re measured wilh j = i 




IFJsl THENX = 1 


.0142 


IF J = 1 X = 1 


0142 


IF J = 1 LET X = 1 


.0114 


IFJ=2THENXxt 


007 


IF J = 2X = 1 


007 


Table 7: Execution times \ 


tor conditional 


State- 


ments- 





fourth statements In Table 7, 
you can see that when the test 
tails, Its execution speed Is In- 
creased by a minimum of about 
40 percent. 

This means that, where feasi- 
ble, conditional statements 
should be constructed to allow 
for failure of the condition 
tested. It Is probably safest to 
time your program with condi- 
tionals that usually test true, 
and again with conditionals that 
usually test false. In order to 
determine which approach is 
fastest. 

HO Statementa 

Because of the limitless num- 
ber of ways in wtiich strings, 
variables, TABs, ATs, constants, 
etc., can be combined in an I/O 
statement, it Is a large field to 
test. I limited my survey to a few 
combinations which provide in- 
sight Into possible areas of sav- 
ing. These ara shown in Table 8. 

The first eleven statements 



are examples of PRINT state- 
ments. The results seem in- 
cor>clu8)ve, except to say that 
using a variable parameter in an 
AT statement is faster than us- 
ing a constant. It also appears 
tt^at suppressing the carriage 
return in a PRINT statement, 
ending It with a ";", saves Ume. 

After further consideration, it 
seems to me that the execution 
speed of the PRINT statement Is 
not really significant because It 
makes no sense to print huge 
amounts of data -the display 
screen only holds 1024 charac- 
ters. Execution speed Is Impor- 
tant only In the Internal compu- 
tatiori that occurs before a print 
statement. 

The data entry statements 
available in Level I BASIC are 
the INPUT and READ state- 
ments. The INPUT statement, of 
course, requires manual Inter- 
vention to supply the data. But 
the READ statement, since it 
can execute continuously in a 
timing loop, is measurable. 

It was necessary for me to in- 
clude a RESTORE statement 
with the READ statement In the 
timing loop, since I didn't want 
to type a DATA statement with 
5000 entries, even If I did have 
sufficient memory to hold it. I 
determined the 'execution time 
for a single READ operation by 
independently finding the ex- 
ecution time of the RESTORE 
statement and subtracting this 





Input/Output Slalementa 




PRINT 


PRINT 


0172 




PRINT ■■ ■■ 


.0164 




PRINT ■■ ■■. 


0042 




PRINT ■■ (64 spaces! ' 


0278 




PRINT ■■ (64 spacesi ', 


027 




PRINT AT Q, ■■ ■■ 


0098 




PRINT AT □, ■ 


0066 




PRINT AT N, ■ ■, 


.0072 




PRINT AT 0, (54 spaces!" 


0178 




PRINTATO. ■■(64 5pecea)'': 


0178 




PRINTTABdOt •■ ■; 


oosa 


INPUT 


Not measured 




REACWBE STORE 


READX 
RESTORE 


012 




RESTORE 


0022 


(from above we 


READX 


0098 


can compute) 






DATA 


DATA! 20 ITEMS ) 


003 


CLS 


CLS 


0262 


Table S: Execution times for various I/O statements. 



from the combined READ/RE- 
STORE execution time. These 
results are also displayed In 
Table 8. 

Some interesting tradeoffs 
are available when using 
READ/RESTORE statements. 
For example, if a sequence of 
numbers Is referenced frequent- 
ly in a program loop, the num- 
tiers can be referenced either as 
array elements or by READ/RE- 
STORE statements. 

The DATA statement is not 
normally considered execut- 
able, but It does require time to 
determine that It isn't an ex- 
ecutable statement. When 
placed in the FOR-NEXT timing 
loop, I measured an "execution" 
time of .003 seconds. This time 
did not vary appreciably with the 
number of Items In the state- 
ment. 

I arbitrarily Included the CLS, 
or clear screen, statement in 
Table 8. This is the slowest exe- 
cuting statement in all of Level I 
BASIC. I didn't know why. so I 
explored it in more detail. 

By consulting a Z-80 micro- 
processor reference card, I 
developed an assembly lan- 
guage routine which cleared the 
screen (Listing 6). It first loads 
the HL register with the start ad- 
dress of the display memory 
(i.e., 3CO0 hex) and then stores a 
blank at that location (i.e., 20 
hex). 

Next, the DE register is load- 
ed with the address of the sec- 
ond display location address 
(I.e., 3C01 hex). Then the BC 
register is loaded with the 
number of bytes to be moved In 
the following "block move" in- 
struction. The effect of the 
"block move" is to clear the 



Compound Statements 


K = INT(A(X|| 


0074 


K = ABStX » Y| 


.0094 


K = ABS( A|X| 1 


0114 


K - INT(X! 


0084 


K = INT(X + Y) 


0104 


K = INT( A(X) ) 


0114 


Table 9: Execution times 


for various 


compound 


statements. 





screen. 

Each Instruction In Listing 6 
is accompanied by the number 
of "T cycles" It requires, where a 
"T cycle" corresponds to the 
machine clock period. The total 
time required by this routine Is 
shown beneath the listing. 

The numtier 1023 in the calcu- 
lations Is the numt)er of bytes 
moved in the block move, and 
the number 1.8x10" "6 is the ap- 
proximate clock speed of the 
TRS-80. The total time required 
by the assembly language pro- 
gram is approximately .012 sec- 
onds, just under one-half of the 
time required by the CLS state- 
ment. 

CompourK) Statanwnts 

After determining the execu- 
tion times of various Level I 
statements, 1 decided to ex> 
amine their behavior when they 
were combined. Table 9 shows 
the execution times of the ABB 
and INT statements used with 
different parameters. In both 
cases, the fastest execution 
time results when a simple 
variable Is used as a parameter, 
which is not surprising. 

It occurred to me that by 
decomposing them Into several 
simpler statements, I might 





Ins (ruction 


Number ol T cycle 


LD 


HL.3C00H 


10 


LO 


(HLL20H 


10 


LO 


DE.3C01H 


10 


LO 


BC.3FFH 


10 


LOIR 




21 



Total T cycles =10+10+ 10 + 10 + 1023' 21 
= 40 + 21483 
= 21523 

OneT cycle = i'(i.B " i0-'6)soc. 
Total time = 21523/(1 8 ■ 10"6) 

= 0119 

- 012 sec. 

Listing 6: Assembly language program to perform CLS (clear 
screen). 



102 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



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80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 103 



K-ABS(X*Y1 0094 


K = X*V 


0076 




L = ABSlK) 


0074 
01S total 


K = ABSl iA(Xi 1 0114 


K = AiXi 


0086 




L = ABS<Ki 


0074 
016 total 


LETK = AB&X-^Y| 007 


LETK = X.V 


005 




LETl =ABStKi 


005 

01 tula! 


Table 10: Execution time 


comparison of 


compound and 


decomposed statements. 







reduce their execution time. 
Tabie 10 gives three examples. 
In each of the cases, a single 
compound statement is re- 
placed by two simpler state- 
ments that produce the same 
result. As the execution times 
clearly show, using a single 
compound statement is con- 
siderably faster than using two 
simpler statements. 

While it is not fair to say that 
this will always be the case, it Is 
certainly something that you 
should investigate when devel- 
oping your programs. 

BASIC Variations 

As a final project in my in- 
vestigation of Level I BASIC, I 
decided to examine the behavior 
of the language when used in 
ways not documented in the 
i.eve/ / User's Manual. It often 
turns out that there are quirks in 
a language, which you can use 
to your advantage if you can find 
them. 

The first statement I looKed at 
was the FOR statement. A typi- 
cal form of this statement is: 

F0RI = 1 TO 100 STEP 2 

In this example, the start in- 
dex, end index and step size are 
all numbers. I wanted to know 
what would happen if i used 
something other than a number, 
and I was pleased to discover 
that I could replace any or all of 
these numbers with either vari- 
ables or expressions. 

For example, the following 
statements will execute proper- 
ly; 

FOR I = A TO B STEP C 
FOB I = A + 3 TO AeS<K/4| STEP RND(5) 

Ttiis is very useful in program- 
ming situations. One example is 
a general purpose subroutine 



that can be called and supplied 
with the particular parameters 
to be used in its loop calcula- 
tion. The use of variables or 
logical expressions can be ex- 
tended considerably beyond 
what is described in the manual. 
It is possible to use logical ex- 
pressions to define Boolean 
variables such as: 

X = (A> = 51 ■ (B< = 7) 

It is also possible to use 
'■mixed mode" expressions, or 

expressions in which logical 
tests are used with other vari- 
ables. For instance: 

SET((X>y]-32 +2,42) 

is a valid expression. 

In the expressions ON K 
GOTO and ON K GOSUB, I found 
that if K is a negative integer the 
expression will not work. How- 
ever, if K is zero, or if K is a 
positive integer greater than the 
number of parameters in the ex- 
pression, the first parameter will 
be selected. For example, in the 
expression: 

ON K GOTO 1M.200,»0 

if K is zero or if K is greater than 
three, the statement will trans- 
fer control to line number 100. 1 
tried a sample program which 
includes multiple statements on 
the same line as a conditional 
test. The program line I selected 
was: 

IFX=' THIN A = B = 1:C = 2 

In running the program with 
several values for X, I found that 
if the test evaluations were true, 
all the remaining statements on 
the line were executed; while if 
the test evaluations were false, 
all the remaining statements on 
the line were skipped. 



This might be very bother- 
some, but it can be useful in pro- 
grams that require multiple ac- 
tions after some decision. Many 
interesting variations of pro- 
gram statements are possible 
as a result of this feature. For 
example: 

1FX = 1 THEN A=1 B = 2 IF Y = 1 THEN A 
= A*i: B = B- 1 

Will set A = 2 and B = 1, if X = l 
and Y = l or A = l and B-2, if 
X = 1 and Y01. A.B are un- 
changed it X01. 

One final interesting result 
that I found was that in a pro- 
gram line which includes a 
PRINT Statement, If the final 
character on the line is a quote 
the mark can be eliminated. 
thereby saving one byte of 
storage. 

This means that the following 
program lines will produce the 
same result: 



PRINT NO FINAL QUOTE NEEDED' 
PRINT "NO FINAL QUOTE NEEDED 



Level I Guidelines 

Some of the above results 
have shown you how to con- 
serve memory space, while 
others have shown you how to 
increase speed, usually at the 
expense of program size. You 
should make the tradeoffs you 
feel are necessary in your own 
applications. It should be possi- 
ble to obtain the l^enef its of both 
reduced program size and in- 
creased speed if the "80/20" rule 



of programs applies in your 
case {i.e.. 80 percent of the exe- 
cution time is spent in 20 per- 
cent of the code) 

Following is a summary of 
some general guidelines you 
can use to increase the perfor- 
mance of your programs. 

1| Avoid unnecessary use o! pa'en 
theses 

2) Use the LET staiemenl m assignmeni 
statements 

3) Use FOR-NEXT loops as much as 
possible wittioul tests tor exiting the loop 

41 Use FOR-NEXT loops on a single line 
b) Avoid unnecessary statements vKilhin 
loops. 

6) Use variables in frequently evalualBd 
eKpressiohs rather thah constants nt array 
elements 

7) Use compound stalements rather than 
sequences of simpler statements. 

61 Use trie random function wilti a zero 
parameter where feasible 

91 Where possible, use conditional 
statements wfiicfi evaluale false rnosl Ol 
the time 

lOi In anihmelical eipressions use 
mulliplicalion operations ralfiei It^an div> 
sign operations 

As I have noted, these items 
are strictly guidelines: Consider 

them along with the various tim- 
ing results I have presented. 

I have applied some of these 
guidelines in Listing 7a which 
was recoded in Listing 7b. The 
execution time for the first pro- 
gram was 47 seconds. Using the 
recoded version, the execution 
time was reduced to 17 seconds, 
a reduction of almost 64 per- 
cent! 

While results such as this 
may not be possible in every 
case. I believe that the savings 
you can attain are well worth the 
effort. ■ 



10 A(0)=1 

ao FOR 1 = 1 TO 500 

30 X = {1/6.28) • A(0] ■ I 

40 IF((1X-A|0)/100)> 0001) THEN X = 6,2a-X 

50 A(I) = X 

60 NEXT I 

Listing 7a: Sample program for use in applying Level I BASIC 
programming guidelines- 



10 


P = 6.28 


20 


K = A(OVP 


30 


L = A|0l-5 


40 


M = 1/100 


M 


N = .0001 


60 


FOR 1 = 1 TO5O0 


70 


LETX = K*( 


BO 


IFlX-Ll'M >N LETX^P'X 


90 


LET A(I| = X 


100 


NEXT I 



Listing 7b: Recoded version of program shown in Listing 7a. 



104 • 80 Microcomputing. June 1980 




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^ Reader Service ~ sae page 162 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 105 



GENERAL 



Your neat graphics 

can get shot to ribbons with CHR$(23). 



Double Size Graphics 



Bertram Thiel 
159 West Mam St. 
Frostburg, MD 21532 



It's funny how one thing leads 
to another in computing. I 
start adapting a hangman pro- 
gram and end by PEEKing, 
POKEing and performing some 
fancy logic that has nothing to 
do with spelling. 

While transcribing a hang- 
man program into my TRS-80 
Level II machine, I decided that 
the meager graphics in the 
original needed some embellish- 
ment, like sketching the figure 
and gallows, followed by a rope 
dropping down and the head 
moving to one side with the 
word "snap" appearing next to 
it. 

Simple Garbage 

That's simple enough, but I 
am using the double-sized char- 
acter width for greater legibility 
on my 9-inch monitor with the 
command: 



PRINT CHns(2a} 

That's where the trouble 
begins. I have written the 
graphics part using SET(X,Y) 
and a PRINT® for the word to 
appear near the head, but in nor- 
mal 64 character mode. When I 



insert the CHR$<23) at the be- 
ginning and run it, all I get is gar- 
bage, and the PRINT® line fails 
to appear. 

Extensive debugging fails to 
show anything of importance, 
except when I eliminate the 
CHR$(23), everything works fine. 
It is also apparent that once you 
are in the double-width mode, 
the only way to get out of it is to 
clear the screen with the CLS 
command, erasing anything on 
the screen. Radio Shack gives 
no information on how to re- 
store single width graphics and 
letters without erasing the 
screen. 

The article, "Hidden Codes 
and Missing Chips", by Patrick 
and Leah O'Connor {80-Micro- 
computing, January, 1980) 
starts me on the way to a solu- 
tion when they describe how 
double mode works in hardware. 
I try OUT255.0 and OUT255,8 to 
go back and forth between the 
two modes, but it is too quick. 
The OUT command does not 
latch, so when it is finished the 
double mode reverts back to 
what It was t>efore. 

Putting the OUT command in 
a delay loop helps, but this is im- 
practical. Somewhere there has 
to be a bit that is flipped and 
used as a reference to change 
the bit No. 3 on the output port 
when it is finished. 

To find it. I have to get my feet 
wet in the swamp of PEEK and 
POKE to examine the several 
hundred addresses of reserved 
RAM that Radio Shack does not 



explain. 

Since some byte has to 
change when going from CLS to 
CHR${23), I try writing a short 
program to test RAM within 
range of addresses, compare 
the contents before and after 
the conversion and store any 
positive results for display at 
the end of the run. 

Listing 1 does just that, stor- 
ing the contents of memory in B 
and C, then comparing them 
and storing those that changed. 
I dimension the arrays to 12 
places which, as it turns out, are 
more than enough. Try the pro- 
gram and specify memory loca- 
tions starting at 16364 and end- 
ing at 17128, which is the zero at 
the beginning of Program Text 
(see the T-BUG manual tor more 
detailed information). 

The results show that there 
has been a change in the cursor 



location, and six other loca- 
tions in reserved RAM. The one 
that stands out and says, 
"BINGO!" is location 16445, 
which shows a zero in normal 
mode and an eight (or binary 
00001000) for data pin No. 3 in 
the CHR$(23) mode. 

Now all I have to do is POKE 
16445,0 to convert back to nor- 
mal graphics and character size. 
As far as 1 can tell, POKE 
16445.8 is equivalent to PRINT- 
CHR$(23). 

Switching back and forth be- 
tween normal and double mode, 
it is soon apparent how the 
thing works. 

Even Numbering 

First, the PRINT®, in double 
mode, only works for a word 
starting at an even-numbered 
position. If you are in double- 
width mode and type: 



10 


REM ADDRESS COMPARE FOR TRS-80 


20 


REM B Tl- l£L 1/05/80 


30 


DIM 01 (12) .DJdZ) , D3{12) 


40 


INPUT "STARTING flDDRESS'^AI 


50 


INPUT "END 1 HG ADDRESS" ; flJ 


60 


LET A-A! 


70 


CIS 


SO 


B-PEEK(fl ) 


90 


PRINT CHR$(;3) 


100 


C-PEEK[A) 


no 


IFBoC THEN GOSUB 700 


120 


LET A-rt*l 


130 


IF A<AI TMEN 70 


UO 


CLS 


150 


PRINT "ADDRESS" , "NORMA L ". "DOUBLt" 


I60 


FOR D-1 TO 12 


170 


PR INT 01 (0) ,02 (D) ,D3(D) 


180 


NEXT 


190 


STOP 


200 


J-J*1 


210 


01 IJ)-A:D2(J)-B:D3(J)''C 


220 


RETURN 




Program Listing 1, 



106 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 




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^RaaMr S»rvic9—S9e page 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 107 



Characlvr 





UvlBton 
• ? 

i< + 1^2 

«/a 

U + 1V2 



HMUlndw 



Dtvlslon 
■ 2 2 

... Ti22 
il2i3 
ix + 1V2.'2 



fUmslndcr Action 



yes 

no 



I = ■ ~ T 

■ =1 - 1 
N=X'2 



Table 1. Logic chart. 



PniNTalOO.-MELLO rPniNT«l65. 
■HELLO 2' 



you see only the tirst line 
printed. Now enter: 

POKE 16445.0 

and the other line will appear. 
Note they are both double 
spaced. Double-width mode in- 
puts characters every other 
position in memory, and if they 
don't start in an even position, 
you'll never see them. This can 
be Surprising when loading the 
screen memory with a message 
or graphic in double-width, and 
you have it suddenly appear by 
reverting back to the normal 
mode. 

If you have printing on the 
screen in normal mode and 
you POKE 16445.8 or PRINT 
CHR$(23). you see only one half 
of what was there before. Also, 
the whole screen is shifted right 
one double-character width, 
which IS the clue to under- 
standing how double mode 
characters and graphics work. 

Remember that you can SET 
any X position tMtween and 



127, but in double mode all you 
have available is every other parr 
of X memories. If we look at the 
first four numbers, 0.1,2 and 3. 
you'l) see what I mean. 

Type in SET(0,30) and you get 
a block in positions zero and 
one (in double width mode). 
SET(1.31) occupies screen posi- 
tions two and three on line 31. 
SET(2.32) and SET(3.33) though 
they do reside in video memory, 
are not displayed on the screen. 
POKE 16445,0 and you see 
them; POKE 16445.8 and they 
disappear again. To draw in dou- 
ble mode graphics, you have to 
lake this into account. 

The only thing left to explain 
is how to do it easily, especially 
if you are graphing. Studying the 
characteristics of the numbers. 
It becomes apparent that each 
had a couple of characteristics 
unique to its own group (multi- 
ples ol tour). Each time you 
divide by two you have a result 
that either does or does not 
have a remainder, with a one ad- 
ded to compensate for odd num- 
bers. 

Table 1 shows how a position 
can be evaluated and. when 



true, what action will be InkRn to 

set the proper memory bit to 
give a continuous line. 

Subroutina 

The subroutine starting at line 
1000 in Listing 2 uses these 
characteristics from the table 
with the integer function and the 
logical AND to determine if 
there is a remainder after di- 
vision. 

Note that a fourth decision 
line does not exist since, if the 
first three are not satisfied, then 
the X must be of character three 
type which requires a displace- 
ment two positions to the left. 
Special consideration is given 
10 zero in line 1020 and an over- 
value check in line 1010. 

It you enter the program as 
shown and run it, you get a nor- 



mal graphics lino trorr} 0,0 l\3 

47,47. Insert: 



15 PntNTCHRS(23i 

and note the discontinuous lir>e 
on a new run. To activate the 
subroutine, put in the line: 

35 GOSUB 1000 

and you correct this problem. 
Study how the subroutine is 

used and insert it whenever you 
decide to use double mode in 
graphics. 

With the knowledge of the 
PRINTS idiosyncraciesand the 
unusual use ot graphics mem- 
ory storage, many unusual and 
useful effects can be accom- 
plished.! 



1 


REI 0EnONSTn*TIOH »nOGI*An WlT>^ SKApHICS 


1 


HE" SUBBOuTIHt TO COiSECT FOR CWRSUJ) 


J 


REM R THI EL 1/0S/80 


10 


CLS 


10 


rOR <-0 TO <•! 


30 


K-Y 


<>0 


SET (X .T) 


50 


NEXT Y 


60 


GOTO 60 


995 


EHO 


1000 


"in SUBROUTINE 10 EVALUATE t POSITIOH IN SET CCwANO 


1010 


ir f^MJ PRINT "« 15 OVERl/ALUED": STOP 


1020 


1 r X-0 RETURN 


10)0 


A - X .' 2 


lOi-O 


B*A/2 


10SD 


c-(ici)yj 


1060 


D-C/2 


1070 


If ((*-|»Tt»))-0) AND ((B-!NT(l))-0) THEN RETURN 


lOlO 


ir ( (C- inT(c) )«0) AND ((d-inT(d))*0) Then X-X-1 :RETuRII 


1090 


ir((A-l«T(A)}-0) AND ((S-INT(B)1>0) THEN X-« - 1 : RtTUIIN 


1 100 


X-K-2; return 


1 1 10 


STOP 




Program Listing 2. 



COMPUTER FORMS 



^240 



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H* urte . H-H m ■ ■ »*■ . , m-9t ■■—■ »■ ■■ . . Bit.** 

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Ai»fiF Ife monTH', o" qerfCLOpmflnl nno one 
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con 



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3. LABEL AND LIST PltlNTIN&— Aliowi leiecti.e pr.nt.ng of IsbeU or i.its 
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percentaqei of namei with carta-n leys or reqional braakdown. Very uiofu' ■ - 
las) -^^u* "otites nn 'ahfh. 

i. FILE REOneANIZATION— W.th th;, program you may reorqanie , .- 
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bu'fer. There ore V use p'oqrammable messaqei of M characters eacli. 

This machine 'anquaqe proqram .s truly the morse code teacher o' tomo 
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^^^■||. AMCT-BO on caiiatta -ilh full doeuwentation II4.9S 

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nUnllfil nuiibfr dt tntilcB. Fiu 
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In ils-CDd* or4rr. ttLtU-On:'. 



OOilDOliVOry ^<*>0 H tUOUIUS ^»* < ^ dilvai) >rlr* lor prur qimtf. 



oVendOf NOD r OnuIrM tBi 1 ) driv..) iii.ss 

T-^i> ^roiftaift ka«^i (rack of mn unlimited nunbvT <bSO per dlik) of vvndo 
hILTVcC dCCVHt Ol Cp4rd tnlarKalLon hy vendor nuabwr , i aita pomLla ACC 
vartAU* olhar (Lvtdi- 



AUoM 



O;:^^ For Supplies Think BCC '^^^^s::^^ 
oDisks & Tapes _- '■- — "<— -- .'--' s-*'^ nu .» >.... =«.j 

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R£i.os:iT;omD ciimtoiiics lou (1)0 ch»t.,i.«i'r) siioo.oo 



Muler Charge E»P O"" 

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ORDER NOW All pr.iunm'. r^imi- on ((uAliIy cAurlln. Prcigrims mn Availahle on dislieltr fur an 

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Bourrut Consulting Corporation 

L El ffWfidlyftd Smithloiun,nV 117B7 1^57 



AN INVITATION 



July 1. 1980, the cover pricK of KII.OBALD M/CHOCOMPLTI.\ij 
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extend you an ISVITATIO.S TO BEAT I.SFLATIOS . . . SLB- 
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18, 1980, A T THE OLD RA TES. 

Don't miss an issue of the Industry's most complete and informative 
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THIS CARD tXPlKfcS JULY 18. 1980 
KILOBAUD MICROCOMPUTING PO BOX 997 FARMINODAI.K NV 11737 ^' 



fftatOf S»rific»— seepage 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 109 



9 



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Meter Type numerical and 
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TOOLS FOR EVERY 

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^307 



SUBDIVISION GEOMETRY 

MANUALS 

fOR fVliCROCOMpLTERS 

Includes complete listings of programs 
usea m engineering practice since 1977 
plus DOCUMENTATION & INSTRUC- 
TIONS for putting these programs on 
YOUR OWN MICRO. 



(^( <MtHtliN,^ll t>ll>Mli>U /'' 

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DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

Andrew Machen 

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143 C So Cearos 
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92075 --95 

(7141 755-4033 




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Control Your Home 

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C.O.D. is accepted. 



110 • 80 Microcomputing, June 19B0 



INTERFACE 



A real I/O Driver for the 
DEC LA-34 turns It into a fully working terminal. 

DECwriter Driver 



James D. Beauchamp, Jr. 
6214 Stlverleaf 
League City. TX 77573 



What is better for a micro- 
computer's output blues 
than a line printer, but costs 
about the same? A printing ter- 
minal! 

After considering various line 
printers I decided the best thing 
that I could buy for my TRS-80 
was the DECwriter LA-34. Here 
was a table top printer, for about 
the same price as a Centronics 
line printer, yet was a profes- 
sional terminal as well. The only 
thing missing was the software 
driver enabling the LA-34 to be 
used as a terminal. 

Though the RS-232 port from 
Radio Shack has a DECwriter 
Driver listed in the instruction 
manual, it is only an output 
driver to be used with the 
LPRINT command. I wanted a 
real I/O driver for my DEC- 
WRITER. 

The Control Codes 

So I sat down, chained myself 
to the computer and wrote the 
Term program that Radio Shack 
had announced but not yet 
released. The DECwriter I/O 
driver is broken down into sev- 
eral sections which I have 
separated with comment lines. 
The first section of the listing is 
the control codes. 

Control A is used as a BREAK. 



The key labeled BREAK on the 
LA-34 transmits a .233 ms pulse 
which is ignored by the TRS-80, 
The computer decodes its own 
break as 01 H. This is the control 
character SOH in ASCII and is 
transmitted by the CTRL A on 
the LA-34. 

The second control character, 
S, was added because the 
TRS-80 has a habit of speeding 
off during the DOS PRINT com- 
mand. Every time I tried to list a 
program from disk, the TRS-80 
would outrun the LA-34 and I 
would lose valuable data. 

Since the DECwriter can auto- 
matically transmit an X-OFF 
character whenever its char- 
acter buffer contains over 100 
characters and an X-ON when it 
contains less than 10, 1 decided 
to take advantage of this 
feature. 

During the print cycle, when- 
ever an X-OFF is received, the 
print routine enters a tight loop 
(at label X-OFF). When any char- 
acter other than X-OFF is in the 
RS-232 data register, the loop is 
terminated. 

During normal operation, 
when the register does not con- 
tain the X-OFF character, the 
loop is ignored. The loop can 
also t>e entered by pressing the 
Control S during printing and 
exited by pressing the carriage 
return. 

Another control character I 
added, to prevent printing on the 
perforations of my fanfold 
paper, is CTR L or form feed. I 
added a line counter (actually 
Radio Shack added it in the line 



printer device control block, it 
just seems that they did not 
make very good use of it) and a 
routine (FORMED) to generate 
enough line feeds to send the 
printer to the top of the page 
whenever the FF character is 
transmitted, 

I also inserted a check for the 
CTR L in the keyboard routine to 
allow the form feed routine to be 
invoked manually. 

The Controls 8 and I were 
recognized by the TRS-80 and re- 
quired no special programming. 
So that I could have the option 
of using typing paper I added a 
loop (PLOOP for pause loop) in 
the form feed routine. This 
caused the computer to pause 
at the end of each page. This 
loop responds to a flag (PFLAG) 
that is set with Control P (for 
PAUSE) and reset with Control R 
{for RESET PAUSE). 

Input and Output 

The next sections of the pro- 
gram are the Equate Table and 
the DCB initialization. Here 1 set 
the values in all of the DCBs ex- 
cept the keyboard. The key- 
board is initialized by going to 
BASIC and using the SYSTEM 
command to jump to KBINIT-6 
{here I have used 65001 -see 
ORG in line 600). 

This is the technique used by 
KBFIX and is the only way I 
could get the keyboard to ini- 
tialize. If anyone else can get the 
keyboard to initialize from DOS, 
1 would be grateful to hear how 
you do it. 



The next section performs the 
actual input from the DECwriter 
keyboard. It first checks the 
UART to see if it has been in- 
itialized and, if so, inputs the 
character. If FORM FEED and 
PAUSE commands are present 
they are acted upon; otherwise, 
the character is returned. The 
UART is then initialized — a stan- 
dard routine suggested by 
Radio Shack in their RS-232 
manual. 

FFTEST begins the output 
routine by checking the line 
counter to see if the printer is 
within five lines of the perfor- 
ation. If it is, the current char- 
acter is stored and a form feed is 
output. 

The computer next checks 
the status register to see if the 
LA-34 is ready to receive another 
character, then checks the data 
register to see if a control char- 
acter has been received from 
the LA-34. The possible char- 
acters are X-OFF, X-ON, CTRL P 
and CTRL R. If one of these is 
detected, it is acted upon im- 
mediately, otherwise the next 
character is output. 

After the character is output 
the computer checks for a line 
feed and a carriage return. If a 
line feed has been sent, the line 
counter is decremented and if a 
carriage return has been sent, a 
line feed is also output. 

The next section contains the 
subroutines for decrementing 
the line counter, generating a 
form feed, setting and resetting 
the PLOOP flag and a loop for 
PLOOP to wait in. 



'R»aa»r Sofvice—sae pag» 162 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 111 









Program Listing 


HU FEOI 


OIOZO 




If 


OIH 
















FEU 2B20 


01030 




jR 


2,R£STai 


^RESTORE REG AM OUI CMI [F SO 














ftZC 3E01 


01040 




LD 


A.OIN 




A 'M 


00100 
HIIO 
0012V 
1)0130 
00140 
00130 
MlGO 


•MtM 




»M4ttt ttttttt # tti 




FEZE 32DZFE 
F£3t D3£e 
FE33 DBES 
FE33 EEFa 
Fi]7 FS04 

FED JZIIiFE 


01050 

oioeo 

01070 

oioeo 

01030 
UllOO 
OHIO 

onzo 
oiuo 

Ull4u 




LD 
OUT 
IN 
*Ni 
OR 

LD 


(FLASI,* 

(KSURTI.A 

A.ISNiTCHl 

OFBh 

04H 

iShIIHGKA 


;s£t flag to indicate unit 
isead 37iqi to kset uwt 
ikai sense switches 
;lop off loner 3 bits 
;rsts rts, rsts itr, sets sci 

;iH NANOSHWE LATCH 

;load shthg m/inage of latch 
;iiTS 

;LIMe UART M/SNirCH IM6£ 
;SET HUB l*TE MTmilNS TO 


f 

> lUGtfiT ZE 

r 
1 


KCNRITER 1/0 DRIVER 
1973 JANES BEAUCHANP 
2318 KENT ST 
BRYAN. TEXAS 


THIS ID DRIVE)) «.1.0HS Hr DEC l.«-34 TO ACT U A FULL 




00170 
OOIBO 
KI90 
00200 
00210 
OOZZO 


TEtnlML TO AT TK-H. JT k.SD TAIES CME OF THE END Of NCE 
rm FEED AU THE LINE COUKIER. 


FE3l D3tA 
FEJE DeE9 


aAUSST 


Out 

In 


<CNTRfG).A 
*,<SNIIChI 




THESE coNim. COSES hmc t>c folliming fuktkhs: 

CJtH A IHV-Av 


F£40 E6ij? 


01150 

uUSO 




And 


07h 


;5nitch selection 

;lOP off UffER ! BUS 




CTRL S 


= ■-'- PAUSE - THIS IS A TISHT LOOT 


F£4Z 2lC9Ff 
rE43 0600 


01170 
OUBO 




LO 
LD 


X.,SDIABl 
I,00h 


;foiNT TO first in baud TBl 

;ZER0 B REG 




OOZ30 


CTM. L 


"= FORM FEED 




FE47 4F 


01130 




LD 


C,A 


;rut offset in c 




WZ40 
OOZSO 
002E0 
MZ70 
HZtO 
00290 
00300 


CTRL a 
CRTL 
CTRL P 
CTRL R 


■■= CANCEL THE LINE 




FE4a 09 


01200 




ADR 


HL.BC 


;add offset to hl 




'-' TAB 

'■= PAUSE AT END OF PAGE ON 
■•-•-- PAUSE AT ENS OF PAGE OFF 


FE43 7E 
Ft4A D3E9 
f£4C Fl 


OlZiO 
OlZZO 
01230 RESTO* 


LD 
QUI 
POP 


A,II1LI 

iSNjTCHI.A 

Af 


;load POjNiED value 
;load brg h/tasle value 












FE4Q CI 


01240 




POP 


BC 






mttiitf* t f ti 




FEtE El 


Ol»0 
OlZSO 
aiZ70 
01290 


■■OP r». 

»ttMtt>H«tttttfM(t((tt 

* CHECK IF AT LAST OF PAGE 
1 A FOttI FEED. ELSE OUTPUT 


: RESTORE REGISTERS 


00310 
00320 


tt EMTE TMLE 


t 


IF so TICK SA>A Character aro output) 
The character. • 


MTVt 










ton 

4ezi 


OOMO Ll«£CI 
003SD fCLNTH 
003S0 


ESU 
EBU 


40Z9H 
40ZIN 


;aomess of The line counter 
ladmess of the page length 
;this is FRon trsdos 


FE4F 3*2340 


01230 
01300 
01310 
01320 


• 'His ROUTIIC IS USED BY BOTH ThE LPRINT COfMAM ARl THE VISED i 
■HIVEi ROUTINE. IT HILL BE CALLED BT <lPRINT> MC <VltEO> i 


FFIEST 


LO 


A,ILINECT) 


:test if end of page 


OOES 


00370 JESOHr 


ERU 


OESh 


:an out to this location resets 


ftsz Fto; 


01330 




CP 


5 


INITHIN 5 of END^ 




00390 
00380 








;THE UART, an in reads the RS-232 
;CONTROL SITS 


f£54 CZ5EFE 
FE57 F5 


01340 
01330 




JP 

FUSM 


NZ, STATIN 
AF 


lOUTPUT character if NOT 


eoEB 


00400 SNirCM 


EiU 


0E9H 


;an out to this location loms 


F;58 C5 


013E0 




PUSH 


BC 


;5AVE registers 




90410 








;tw baud rate generator, an ir 


f£3S CBSIFE 


01370 




CALL 


FORtlFD 


ISO A FQRN FEED IF AT EMI 




00420 








IREAOS THE SENSE SNITCHES 


FEX CI 


012B0 




PUP 


IC 




NE* 


00430 aTKC 


ESU 


OEAM 


;am out to this location lmas 


FE3I F: 


01330 




FOR 


AF 


^RESTORE REGISTERS 




00440 








;the coNTRa resister. an in 


FE5E DIE* 


014O0 STATIN 


Ik 


*,ICNTREG) 


;load uAfT status 


ooa 


004SO 
004GO DTAKG 


ESU 


OEtH 


;reas$ ihe umt status resisteb f^^ -,,, 
;an out to This location loads the ^^g, ~f^ 


OltIO 
01420 




BIT 
jR 


e,A 

2, STATIN 


;TEST THH£ FOR HIGH 

:logp if Mil 




00470 
004ID 

ootio 

00900 

00310 
OO5Z0 
00S30 
00540 
00550 








;i)ART XNIT hOlOIHG reoisier, 
;an in reads in n< iecievei 

IDATA 

ICONTROl P 
; CONTROL R 

;coitifia. L 




01430 
01*40 


ttttt 


ttf Itt 






t TES 


FOR CONTROL CHARACTERS ENTERED mhIlE IN PRINT LOOP ■ 


MIS 
Ml! 
MX, 


TRLS 
TRLL 


ESU 
ESU 
EBU 


OZOO 
OZZO 
OCH 


FEE4 DEEB 


01430 
014E0 
01470 
01480 


t OF YOU DON'T TEST HERE, 
1 FDR A LONG TINE. 


VOU MY BE STUCI IN A PRINTING LOOP ■ 

I 


f.m 




A,<DTAff£GI 


;input any character the dec sent 


(01 E 
4CIIE Wl 


t DEVICE CONTROL BLOCI INITIALIZATION 


FE6B F£l3 
FESe 2BFA 
F£» FEIB 


01490 
O13O0 
SlSlD 






13H 

Z-XOFF 

330 


; Check if )ioFf 

:LOor IF KOFF is being sent 

;test for escare 


ao5» 

00370 




ORG 
OEFh 


1G414 
VI KO 


■■" » w w» • ivnivvB 






FE6C CAZD40 
FESF fElO 


0I5ZO 
01530 






;.4o:dii 
ctrlp 


;|F so RETum '0 DOS 
ITEST FOR CONTROL P 


(OZt 

tm izn 


00310 
0059C 




ORG 

OEFtt 


40Z&1 
DEC I NT 


:i*nilLIZE M n 


Fc7l CC80FE 


0134O 




CALL 


Z,SETf 


;iF 50 ,SET PFlAG 


fPM 

FKS 3U«40 


ooeoo 

OOEIO 




ORG 
LD 


nooi 

A.IPbJTHI 




Ft 74 FEl2 


01550 




Cf 


CTRLR 


ITEST FOR CQNTRa R 






FETICCHTE 


01»0 




CALL 


Z.RSETP 


:iF so, ittfi nxjn, 


fKL 3Z2940 
FDEF ftF 


OOEZO 
OOG30 


SINIT 


LI 

XOR 


ILItfCTl.t 
A 


naiTiiLlZE 




01570 
OlSBO 


• OTHEBHISE OUTPUT THE CHARACTER • 


fDFO HOMO 


00G4O 




LD 


K.004AH 


;niT 10 IN K REGISTER 


Ft79 79 


01590 
01 GOO 


(••It 


• ■l(tlttftlt>l(tttl>ll^tll>tM((Itttttt>t^tlt(»l(><ttlttt( 1 

LD A,C ;lOAD a U/CHAI! to be OUTPUT | 


F&F3 CDOIOO 


00650 




CALL 


OOOM 




FE7A D3EB 


01610 




OUT 


<DTAREGKA 


^LOAD WlDING REG HI CHAR 


FBFS 19 


006» 




ADD 


HL.DE 


;kl contains i.ads lo td it 


FE7C FEOA 


OlSZO 




CP 


OAn 


;!s ;' H jne ■' 


FDf7 Z216« 


0O670 




LD 


KOIGHI.M. 


:STORE IMO IN KB ILOU 


■ ■ :CBAfc 


01630 




CALL 


2,LFCTR 


;iF so DECREMENT lINE COUNT 


FIFA CKnl 


006B0 




CALL 


IKIH 




FEIl FEOO 


01640 




CP 


ODN 


IIS HA (CR) ' 


FSfD C319JA 


O0fi% 

00700 
00710 




jP 


M% 


;sEiueN TO BASIC 


FES3 2004 


01650 




JR 


NZ,RETR« 


IRETUBN IF Wr 




• Th<rS SECIIU 


iNPUTS THE CHARACTER FROM THE KCMRITER. • FEB7 lBD3 


OlGGO 
01670 




jR 


C,OAh 
STAHN 


:iF so OUTPUT A 'xC- AlSO 

:ouT?uT ;o uAB' 




1)0720 


> n Then D€C>S TW CHARACTER FOR CONTROL CDKS AND IF PRESENT 


;£8S C9 


01GS0 RETRn 


RET 




IRETUR* 10 CALLING CODE 




M7J0 


t il GOES TD m CORRECT ROOTIIK. FOR INSTAiCE. IF A FSM FEED 




0169O 


»•(• 


• •■••«tttt<ltt>tttlttMttttttMtttlt(ltll>ttfttHttl((llttt 1 




00740 


• iS RECiEVED 


rE CALL FORflFfl. 


IF CTRL P is RECIEVED HE CALL 




01700 








sueROUTiNES:::::::::::;::;:::::::::;:t 




00 750 
00760 
00770 


• THE SETP ROUTINE. NE THEN RETURN TO THE CALLING COM. I 


OWIO 
01720 

01730 


t FDRftfD =- 
» SETP === 
< RSETP '== 


GENERATES ENOUGH LINE FEEDS TD CREATE it FOSH FEED • 


F£00 3flD2ft 


BFIX 


ID 


a,iflagi 


;HAS UART BfEN INITIALIZED' 




SETS ThE PAUSE FlAS i 
RESETS Th£ PAUSE FlAG t 


FEOJ FtOl 


00780 




CP 


OIH 






01740 


1 lfcis ■-■-' 


DECREHENTS Th£ LINE COUNTER EVERY LINE FEED t 


FEos czzzn 

FEOB ME* 


00730 

ooeoo 




JP 
In 


N2,D£ClNr 
A.(CnTREG> 


unitialize it if not 

;ha5 a men Character been senp 


FESA E5 


i)l750 
017(0 


., 


jj 






LFCTB 


Push 


hi. 


iSUBROUTlNE ID DECREWNT ?,.£ ,;«£ £IR 


fE» M7F 


ooeio 




II T 


7. A 




F£8I ZIZ940 


0177) 




Lfl 


»*.,iiN£CI 


:G£1 line count AJWESS 


HOC :ei! 


O08Z0 




jR 


;.es< 


;cleac a am retum if not 


FESE 33 


01780 




KC 


>Hll 


imcreknt it 


FEOE DIEe 


M83C 




IN 


A.iOIAREG) 


:elS£ set WH CMMCTER 


FE^ El 


01790 




POP 


HL 


IRESTORE m. 


FEiO =t:<i 


00840 




CP 


ctrlp 


;IS IT CTRL P 


FE90 C9 


OIBOO 




RE! 






nu cciWE 


OOBO 




CALL 


Z.SETP 


ISET PAUSE FLAG IF SO 


fE91 OEM 


OIBIO FOfiHFD 


lD 


Z.itU- 


:G£H£RflT£ A FDW FEES 


FE13 FEi; 


OOB60 




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Program continued 



112 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



PRINT MONEY WITH YOUR TRS-80! 



If you have a TRS-80 disk system, you 
already own "Money Machine" It can 
"print money" for you and your family 
and do it legally 

Virtually eve/'y business in your com- 
munity has customer and prospect lists 
people and companies that they should 
send mailings to on a regular basis Bui. 
they seldom do In a typical business, these 
names and addresses are totally 
disorganized and seldom used even 
though they represent a valuable sales 
tool. 

PUT YOUR TRS-80 TO WORK 

Your TRS-80 has the ability to totally 
organize mailing lists for these companies. 
It also has the ability to supply them with 
tabular listings and mailmg labels upon 
request. All it takes is a little bit of your 
time. Any progressive business would be 
happy to pay you a nominal fee to keep their 
lists organized and up to date. What's a 
nominal fee? You can charge 10 cents a 
name to enter, store and maintain each 
record in your computer. It's also worth 3 
cents to supply this name on a gummed 
mailing label Think of it The label costs 
three -tenths of a cent going into the printer 
and, with the value you add. is worth 3 
cents when it comes out the other end 
Thais 1(XX)% profit That's a "Money 
Machine" 



HOW DO I GET STARTED? 

As a minimum, you'll need a 32K TRS-80 
with at least one disk drive and a good line 
printer You'll also need a copy of 
"LABELMAKER". available on diskette 
from The Peripheral People This program 
will allow you to input names and 
addresses, plus optional data such as 
company, phone number and so on 
"LABELMAKER" also features a unique 
method of coding each record You can 
selectively print labels by using these 
codes and bypass all others The records 
can be sorted by zip code or alphabetically 
by company or name In other words, you 
can provide mailing labels or tabular 
Itstmgs any way your customers want 
them. 

ANY FRINGE BENEFITS? 

You bet! Providing this service is a great 
way to get the family involved with your 
TRS-80. Teenagers can easily input and 
output records during the day Most 
women are latent business persons and 
your wife can easily sell the service .. parti- 
cularly if it means some new clothes, 
furniture or other "fringe benefits" tor her 
You can probably promote discounts or 
trade services with your customers Once 
you've established a business in your home 
you can legally write off a portion of the 



rent and utilities even your TRS-80. to 
your business This can reduce your taxes 
substantially The possibilities for making 
money with your TRS-80 are endless 

YOU RISK NOTHING 

If you don t agree that our LABEL- 
MAKER program does everylhmg that we 
say, then return the diskette along with a 
letter telling us why and we will 
immediately refund your full purchase 
price, plus the postage 

TURN THE SWITCH TODAY 

Are you willing to invest S99 50 to turn 
the switch on your "Money Machine"? 
Then call The Peripheral People today and 
order your copy of "LABELMAKER" You 
can charge it to your Masterchargeor VISA 
card 



START YOUR MONEY 

MACHINE TODAY 

BY CALLING 

THE 

PERIPHERAL PEOPLE 

(206) 232-4505 ^43 



The PERIPHERAL PEOPLE Box 524 MERCER ISLAND, WA 98040 



*TnS 80 IS a trademark of tha Tandy Corpoiation 



DR. HOWE'S SOFTWARE 

For the TRS-80 (*) 

MONITOR #3 $39.96 

OlMlMmbiar; mvmory displays; rrwmory mova, 
March varlly, and rrKxlIfy; read and wrlla ob]act 
tapes; naxadecima! arithmettc; ob^t coda reloca- 
tor; unload programs fof disk; symbolic output 
taptt; 41-paM Instruction manuai. 

MONiTOFf tl 149 95 

Same as Monitor #3 but adds: save and read disk 
fiiss; direct input and output of disk sectors; seod, 
receive, or talk to another computer via RS-a32-C In- 
lerlace; symtrailc disassembly on disk. 

SMART TERMiNAL S49 9S 

Enables your TRS-60 to ba used as a remote terminal 
to a tlme-sriarlng system. Supports iowercase and 
full ransa ol control keys. Automatic tranamltilon 
between memory and host computer. Much mora 

PACKAJNPACK , $24 95 

Increase disk file capacity l>y 33% with NO NEW 
HARDWARE. Applies only to string data in random 
h>ea. ideal tor mailing lists, etc. 

GAME OF "LIFE- $5 95 

John Conwey's ganw of ■life" shows pallerns ovolv- 
in0 end changing swiftly belore your eyes. A dazzl- 
ing demonstration program! 

tAMC SOFTWAtE 

MAILING LIST SN.M 

Mairtialns mailing list files of over 1OOO nantes per 
diskette. Add. delete, change, find name, machine 
languaea sort, print file. 

SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNnNG $49.99 

Based on Dome Bookkeeping Journal •612, keeps 
track of income, expenditures, and payroll for a 
smeilbusinewot up to 16 employees. Dally, month- 
ly, year-to-dsta summaries. 

HOME BUDGET $49 96 

Ctteckbook maintenance combined with recorUe of 
ir>come and monthly bills. Monthly and year-lo-ilate 
summanea sFiowlng tax deductions. 

DATABASE MANAGEMENT. $39.99 

Define (lies of any description and maintain on cas- 
sette or disk. Add, cturwe, (telete, find. sort, iusiify, 
prinl. Nne print, total fields, write. 



HOWE SOFTWARE ^103 

14 Lexington Road 

New City, New York 10956 

I ') TRS-eo is a registarati trademark ot Tandy corp. 



Everything neodtd to add povt 
capability Xo TRS-eO. Model 1, 

SCIENTIFIC ENGtNEERINQ LABORATORIE 

11 NEIL DRIVE • OLD BETHPAGE, NEW YOR 
TELEPHONE (516) 694-3205 


1 


GPIB^SS to TRS-80* 
INTERFACE 

Mod. 48aWB 

$??fi.00 
■f shipping, kisurance & tax 

SPECIFY 
DISK OR TAPE 

'Tride Mark ol Tandy Corp. 
There Is no atffllatlon between 
Sclentttlc Engineering Labofatories 
and Tandy Corporatior or Radio 
Shack. 






9rful controllar 
Level 2 or DOS 

S »^291 

< 11804 



LOWER CASE A GRAPHIC 

SYMBOLS GENERATOR KIT 

FOR TRS-80'- CG 16 $94.50 


SYNCHRONOUS DATA 
SEPARATOR FOR DISK USERS. 
SDS $34.50 

THE SYNCHRONOUS DATA SEPARATOR WILL 
ELIMINATE 100S Of THE SOFT READ ERRORS 
AND SPEED UP Disk ACCESS TIME BY ELIMIN- 
ATING RETRIES BY THE DrSK CONTROLLER 

THE SDS PLUGS INTO THE DISK CONTROL- 
LERS SOCKET AND HAS ONLY TWO WIRES TO 
CONNECT NO TRACES HAVE TO BE CUT IT IS 
THE MOST RELIABLE AND ACCURATE DATA 
SEPARATOR AVAILABLE 




r-.T. oo 1 n ♦♦♦• 

,--'" -- ; A 'A' rS) IV ■. .---Ot 






ADDS250FORS *H CALIF RES ADD6SSALtl AX 
SEND CHECK OH MONEY ORDER TO 

G.P. ASSOCIATES ^^^ 
P.O. BOX 22S22. SACRAMENTO. 
CA 95822 

TRS-SO is a trade MARK OF TANDY CORP 


TRL 
IC 

eo 

MO 
FUL 
FO 
REC 
0« 


E 2 LINE DECENDER LOWER CASE ELECTRC 
SYMBOLS, THIN LINE GRAPHICS GAME S^ 

S. TEXTURED BACKGROUNDS AND MA 
RE DEMO CASSETTE IS IMCLUDED 

LY ASSEMBLED WITH DETAIL INSTRUCTi 
1 EASY INSTALLATION 

iUlRES ELECT PENCIL TYPE LC MOO 
DER MEMORY ANDSWITCh KIT SMK F0R$18 


)N- 
M 

NY 

ON 

OR 
50 



^Rtadar Sarvica- saa page 1S2 



dO Microcomputing, June 1980 "113 



The baud rate and variable 
table are explained in the Radio 
Shack RS-232 users manual. 
The last section is the house- 
keeping routine to return to the 
video driver. 

If you have added lowercase 
to your TRS-80, remove lines 
2400 thru 2420 and all of the 
proper conversions will be 
made. 

Conclusion 

The only problem I have en- 
countered is that the editor as- 
sembler uses upper memory to 
store its symbol reference table 
and a large table will wipe out 
the driver It will also wipe out 



any other routines that you have 
in upper memory — so beware! 

I invoke this routine with 
SYSTEM /65001 on my comput- 
er, but if you have smaller 
memory, change the ORG in line 
600. This is the address you will 
use to enable the keyboard. 

One last word about this pro- 
gram and assembly language 
programming on the TRS-80. If 
you have a disk, but have not 
bought the Apparat Editor/As- 
sembler patches, you are not 
realizing the full potential of 
your TRS-80. The only problem is 
the lack ol a memory size com- 
mand at assembly to protect the 
drivers.! 



Continued Program 



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INFLATION 
BEATERS 



sold with 30 Day Refund Privilege 

Mod I PACKAGE... alftr S 149 

• ReceivaWes • General Ledger 

• Payables 

SUPER DISC — 
70 PROGRAMS $1 3.95 



Write: Elliot Kleiman ^132 

Natitnil Software Markstlng, Inc. 
4701 McKinley St. 
HtNywood, FIOFHta 33021 



PROGRAM 
EPROMS! 



Now the computer hobbyist 
can inexpensively program 2708s 
by building his own programmer. 
The CC-500, built from readily 
available parts, will turn any 
TRS-80* into an EPROH programwr. 

The CC-500 can also expand 
your ROH capacity by IK. 

The complete assembly manual 
with software and schematics is 
now available for $5,95 



COMPUTER COtlNECTTONS 

P.O. Box 400 

Northford, CT 

06472 



■ i'ia»"« n w HM raxa, cinmHv i 



K'2Ba 



^^ I) CmlDatM Sfstoms Prmsants 

AA/ordMagic II 

Complete WORD PROCESSING 

designed specifically for 

The Radio Shack TRS-80 Model II Compulef 

WoidMagic ll ' is a Wo'O Piocessot oesigntKl specili 
Ldlly tor llie Radio Shatk TRSflO MotJel II Computer ' 

FEATURES INCLUDE: 

•Mailing Lisl/LabetsGeneralion 

•Automalic Merging of Mailing Dala •l1^ lent Fiipj 

loc'ealed PERSONALIZED foirri Lellers 
•Aulamalic #ftii a'our^d m Toil c^r^Try 
•MaiQinai.on Paging Complete Cu'Soi Movemem 
•Compiele EOitmg Commanas - insertion G'otiai 

Substiluliu-i Overwrite etc 
•CenterinB. Sntootii Higfil Le't Juslily 
-Table of Conleriis Generation 
•Aulomaiic Page Numbering 



n*4iWr*l«4MMstf*(n.rMDOSaMSIC(iiMpreTMcrf tiitH Wotdmtglil 
MlisdIKlBn'PHcli.g IIM.M MlrwilMO. (Cat «•■. td« KiJ 



CalDittSystCfnt t ^S J P.O.Box17B448 
San DItgo.CA 82117 >^2M 



114 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 




o 



INTEGRATED 
EYPLUS UTILITY 

PACKAGE 



Keyplus is a collection of utilities that can be enabled directly 
from the keyboard of a Level II TRS-80. Seven different keyboard 
entry modes include BASIC shorthand (2 modes), direct graphic 
character input (3 modes), typewriter style input and standard 
TRS-80 entry. 

Keyplus supports auto-repeat, lowercase video (optional hard- 
ware modification required), restoration of lost programs, key- 
board debounce, single key stroke user dcHnable strings and more! 

Designed for ease of use, Keyplus routines may be enabled or 
disenabled in two key strokes. 

The Level II version of Keyplus is available for $14.95 and a more 
powerful disk version (32 or 48K) sells for $19.95. Pennsylvania 
residents add 6Vo sales tax. 

TRS-80 is a registered trademark of TANDY CORP. 

SJW, INC. ... 

P.O. BOX 438 

HUNTINGDON VALLEY, 

PA 19006 

215-947-2057 



NEW! 
779 Line Printer Timer 

Works with TRS-80® and 

Centronics® 779 Line Printers 

Turns Motor on and off 

Automaticaliy 

No software or hardware changes needed. 
Saves motor Hfe and power. Just solder 3 
wires and mounts inside printer. Dealers 
wanted, inquire on company stationery, 
also O.E.M. and service accounts wanted. 
$95.00 complete with one year warranty. 
Make checks payable to: 



,.^306 



Digitai Timing Devices 

4306 N.E. 6 Ave. 

Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33334 USA 

Phone #(305) 561-3757 

Division of D. S.S.I. 

These are registered trademarks for Radio Shack & Centronics 



FINALLY.. 


■ 1 


PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE. . . | 


Get results on the firs 


run 


NO MANUALS! 




TRS-80^- ■ 




DEPRECIATtON 


$19 


MAILING LIST 


$79 


ADDING MACHINE 


$19 


TEXT EDITOR 


$99 


AMORTIZATION 


$19 


COMPOUND INTEREST 


$19 


DEC/HEX/ Bl 


$19 


PAYROLL Ispvcify) 


$49 


W»«kty, 




Biwtvklvi 




Monthly, or 




S*mi monthly 




INVOICE 


$39 


(ch*ck/m. order) 




Pa r«iid«nls. . .odd 


6% 


• * 
TRS-80 it a tradsmork of the 


TartdvCorp 


DIVERSIFIED COMPUTER SERVICES | 


5601 PENN AVENUE 


A-23 1 


PITTSBURGH. PENNSYLVANIA 15206| 


412-361-7540 


^247 1 



The 
Maine 
Softwene 
Ubrany 

We rent games and 
utilities for the TRS-80' at a 
fraction of their purchase 
price. 



For catalogue, check 
Reader Service. For faster 
service send S.A.S.E. to: 
The Maine Software Library 
P.O. Box 197 
Standish, Maine 04084 

• 268 

•A Trade name of the Tandy Corp 



PRACTICE 
MAKES PERFECT* 

'ESPECIALLY (F irS FUN! 

Every child who learns math needs 
practice. Problem after problem 
after problem. But sometimes, 
practice can get boring. And when 
it's boring, your child won't learn. 

Now. though, there is a way to 
practice that's always interesting. 
And fun! It's called ARITHMETIC. 

ARITHMETIC not only generates 
problems, it keeps your child in- 
volved with entertaining graphics. 
Moreover, it repeats troublesome 
problems and automatically ad- 
justs to your child's rate of 
learning. And it keeps track of 
your child's progress. 

Without a doubt, practice makes 
perfect. Especially with 

ARITHMETIC. 

ARITHMETK. Features = - . - $15 on 
cassette TRS-80 Level II requited Calil. 
residents add 6°'« sales tai TR&80 is a 
trademark ot Tandy Cofp 

^241 

RATIONAL SOFTWARE^ 

963 EAST CALIFORNIA BLVD. 
PASADENA, CALIFORNIA 91106 



^8ff«ftf S*mc«-M«pa9« 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 115 



SOmVARE 



A guessing game, where the computers recognize patterns! 



True or False? 



John Krutch 

P.O. 80x9284 

Fort Worth. TX 76107 



The subject of artificial 
intelligence seems to 
fascinate everyone, computer 
scientists and the general 
public alike. Public interest in Al 
is amply demonstrated by the 
popularity of such movies as 
The Forbin Project and The 
Demon Seed. (Both of them are 
shallow and unimaginative; fora 
much more thoughtful presenta- 
tion, see the computer-psychia- 
trist in science fiction writer 
Frederik Pohl's fine novel, 
Gateway.) 
Computer scientists, like 



Terry Winograd and Peter 
Woods, are hard at work 
developing programs that some- 
day, perhaps, will make these 
fictior^al portraits a reality. 

Most of the programs are writ- 
ten for big computers with 32-bit 
processors and elephant-like 
main memories. Smaller, but in- 
teresting Al programs can be 
written for 8-bit processors with 
modest amounts of memory. 
The TF program I describe in 
this article is one of them. 

How the Game Works 

TF is a sort of prediction 
game. The program tries to 
predict what the player is going 
to do next, based on its observa- 
tion of his past behavior. 

The player types in the letter T 
or the letter F at random. The 



program must figure out which 
letter the player plans to type 
next. The program assumes that 
a person's behavior is never tru- 
ly random. No matter how many 
times the player tries to arbi- 
trarily respond, certain patterns. 
of which he himself may be un- 
aware, surface in his actions. 
The program carefully stores 
each response, whether T or F, 
and searches for patterns in the 
player's behavior. If it finds a 
particular pattern that occurs 
again later, the program finds 
itself in a position to make a 
prediction. 

TF is written in Radio Shack 
Level II BASIC. It requires 16K 
RAM in its present version, but it 
can be converted to a 4K ma- 
chine without too much effort. 
The program stores the first four 



characters the player types in 
order to make its prediction. The 
character that the player types 
(S known as the "current event. " 
(This terminology is adopted 
from Al researcher John H. An- 
dreae of New Zealand, although 
the program itself is not derived 
from Andreaes work.) 

Starting with the fifth current 
event, TF makes its first predic- 
tion by displaying the character 
it has established the piayer wiii 
choose. The player must wait a 
second or two for the command 
READY to appear before typing 
another character. 

The keys you strike do not ap- 
pear on the display. The letter 
that shows on the screen after 
you press a key is the 
computer's prediction. The pro- 
gram keeps a running score of 



Program Listing 1. 



10 ' 

I'B BAND'iM 

30 DEFINT C.EiF. 

40 DEFSTB A 

50 DIM iv< 1 1 1 lil) 

60 CNTKTLNGTM = 

70 CLS 



INiTIALIZATlON 



MAIN PROGRAM 
FdB I - 1 TO CNTXTLNGTM 



JNPUT SUBROUTINE 



CRNTCNTF!" I 1 > = FVKNTCODE 
NtXT 1 



INPUT SUBROUT INI. 

POINTING AND SCoREKREPING SUBHOUTINK 
HiCATION-CAt CULATIN6 SUBROUTINE 
I i = ylLO. 1 ) + 1 ELSE 



tee 
1 10 

120 
130 
140 
150 Gi:iGU& 500 

160 Gosue aaa 

170 60SUB 60P 

IB0 IF EVENTCODE -= 1 THEN QILO 

ii(L0.2l = iillLO.2) + 1 
I'iSt G03UB 700 ■ CURRENT CONTEXT UPDATING SUBROuriNE 

?00 GOSUB b00 ■ LOCATION-CALCULATING SUBROUTINE 

iia GOTO 150 

500 ' INPUT Sue-ROUTir* 

510 PRINTS iilL-. "READY- 

51-0 CURRENTEVENT* - INKEVSI l^ CURRENTFVENT » = "T" OR 

CURRENTEVENT« - 'F' THEN 530 ELSE 5^0 
530 IF CURRENTEVENT* = "T- THEN EVENTCODE « 1! GOTO 550 
^'tB IF CURRENTEVENT* = "F" THEN EVENTCODE = 0: GoTo 550 
^50 CLS 
560 RETURN 



L0CATI0N-CALCULA1 !N6 SUBROUT INE 



600 ■ 

610 A = -- 

(.^■B FOR I = 1 TO CNTXTLNGTH 

630 A = A t niD»(STR»(CRNTCNTt)IT( I ) )i^') 

(,40 NEXT I 

650 LO = VAL(A) 

660 RETURN 

/mo ■ CURRENT CONTEXT UPDATING SUBROUTINE 

7114 f LiR I = 1 TO 3 

/20 CRNTCNTFXTI 1 ; - CRNTCNTEXTII ■• 1) 

7^0 Ntxr 1 

740 CRNTCNItXl (4> = EVENTfODE 

7'i« RETURN 



H10 

B20 

B30 
t-10 
B50 
t;60 
a70 
['H0 

av0 

700 
V10 

9.0 



PfllNllrjG AND SCORFKEFPING SUBROUTINE 



IF otLOiii ■ o<i'"i.;) THtN ^^-% ■- " 

PRINTS 3501 TF»i GOTH B60 

IF Oliri,;;j CllLOi 1 J THEN TF* = " 

PRINTS 350. TF«i SOTO B60 

HAN = RND t 2 ) 

IF RAN = 1 THfN Tf« = 'T": T - T 

IF RAN = j IHF.N n * - -F-: F = r 



■ r ■' : T = r 



IF TF« 



CURRENTEVENT* THEN RI6HI 



PRINTS 51 J. ■ ruTAL NUMBER OF ENTRIES: 

PRINTS 576. -NUMBER OF CORRECT PRE-- 

PRINIS 641. "DlCTKiNS BV THF COMPUTER; 

PRINTS 704. -PERCENT i.X CORRE.Cl PRE - - 

PRINTS /69. "DICrlONrj BV TMt U.^nPUTt" H : 

JNIIIIRIGHI ' (T 4 fii • ]PP( • IP* ,•) 
Rf. TURN 



1 : PRINTS 350- 
1 J PRINTS ,'!5a. 
-- RIGHT • 1 

T * 



TF» 
TF» 



116 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



how well it's doing. 

How does TF make its predic- 
tions? Each time the player 
types in a letter, TF examines 
the "current context" — the last 
four letters you've typed, in- 
cluding the one you just en- 
tered. The length of this context 
is four. That is the value as- 
signed in lirw 60, but you can ex- 
periment with other values. 

Suppose you type the letter T. 
Assume that the three previous 
characters were T, F and F, The 
program consults array Q to see 
what you did in the past when 
the combination TFFT came up. 

For example, if you typed T 
six times and F twice after the 
pattern TFFT first appeared, the 
program predicts that the next 
character you will type is T, If 
you have typed T and F an equal 
number ot times after a parti- 
cular pattern, the program gen- 
erates a random T or F as its 
new prediction. 

Each time you type in a new 
letter, TF eagerly codes it (T =1, 
F 1= 0) and stores it as data. The 
storage structure set up in line 



50 is a 1111 X 2 array. The vast 
majority of the elements in this 
array go unused. It's done this 
way only for convenience. 

The program consists of six 
modules, shown in Listing 1. An 
initialization routine takes care 
of some housekeeping, followed 
by the main program and four 
sutKOutines. 

Jt\e REMark statements are 
intended to help you understand 
TF. but they can t>e omitted 
when typing the program. The 
tong variable names can be ab- 
breviated to the first two letters 
of the name without damage to 
the program. However, if the 
variable name contains the $ 
character, this must be included 
in the abbreviation. For in- 
stance, CURRENTEVENTS must 
be typed in either as CUS or in its 
entirety. 

Incidentally, variable A In line 
610 is set to the empty string, 
not to a blank. The confusion 
sometimes produced wtwn dou- 
ble quotation marks are printed 
is one of tt>e few defects ot 
Radio Shack's Line Printer III.B 



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• Full function CRT control 
•Type-ahead buffer for keyboard input 

• Full access to both serial ports and parallel 
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•Fully software programmable serial ports 

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• Full set of 7 CP/M manuals plus our own for 
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WHATS NEW? 

(with the "Original" TRS-80® Gsers Journal) ^^ 



The CONNECTION, our May-Jun cover story, is a 
sma lie r-than-a -bread box device that enables even 
4K Level 1 owners to use the RS232, serial 
printers, and telephone modem WITHOUT the 
expansion interface or acoustical coupler and to 
participate in the expanding area of computer-to- 
computer chatter via telephone. (We include a 
phone number listing of resources to call after 
you've been Connected.) An excerpt from [>avid 
Lien's "Leaming Level ir discusses data sorting. 
The creator of "ANDROID NIM" cooks up some 
SCMJND producing BASIC routines with machine 
language stuffing. Our new, magical "Panacea" 
delves into the ways and whys of the S-80 Bus. 



There is a review of Radio Shack's new text editor 
and a user tells how to (or how not to) handle a 
"REUGIOUS ERROR"!? Plus, there are the 
regular features: A tutorial on the 
Editor/ Assembler for beginners; New Products; 
Reviews and the Business Section. It isn't called 
the "TRS-80 CJsers Journal" for nothing! It is 
published regularty every two iTK>nths, and costs 
just $16.00 per year in the U.S. Get a sample 
current issue (first class mail) for just $3.00. Use 
your VISA or iv\astercharge and caU (206) 475- 
2219 today! Or, send check or Money Order to: 
80-U.S. Joumal 3838 South Warner Street 
Tacoma, Washington 98409 



Yes! We are the people who developed "Android Mim" 
and Other fine aninnated graphics programs with sound! 



I 



THS-BO IS a trddemark ot Radio Sh*:k, a Diviwcxi ul the Tandy Corporation 



^Rma<imrS»rvic» — S»»pMgm 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1930 • 117 



GENERAL 



Learn about assembly language by ''looking" into the Z-80. 

Assembly Language Trainer 



WilUam L Colsher 

4328 Nutmeg Lane, Apt. Ill 

Lisle, IL 60532 



Sooner or later, most hob- 
byists get the urge to learn 
assembly language. Unfor- 
tunately, many never get any fur- 
ther. They've heard that assem- 
bler Is hard to learn, that only ad- 
vanced programmers use it, and 
that It Is only good for bit twid- 
dling. 

Actually, assembly language 
is no more dilficult than any 
other programming lan- 
guage—it just takes a slightly 
different mind set. One must 
think not only about solving the 
problem at hand, but also about 
what is physically going on in- 
side the computer. 

Because nothing stands be- 
tween your program and your 
computer's CPU. assembler 
programs can be very fast. Real- 



time games with animated 
graphics come to mind as a 
case where fast execution is 
critical. If you have any devices 
like coffee pots or furnaces you 
plan to use as peripherals, 
chances are you'll want to use 
assembler programs to control 
them. 

I can't teach you assembler in 
a single article. I can give you a 
tool — the TRS-80 Trainer — to 
make learning assembler a little 
easier. It is an assembler pro- 
gram that will run with changes 
to the I/O on any Z-80 computer. 
not just the TRS-80. The pro- 
gram instantly shows the result 
of nearly all the machine in- 
structions which you're likely to 
find troublesome. 

Qslttng the Program to Run 

Obviously, you'll need an 
assembler. This is a not-so- 
subtle technique to get you into 
using assembly language quick- 



DtsplvyMl on Monitof 




Coflimvnli 


MEMORY SIZE'lcrl 






RADIO SHACK LEVEL II BASIC | 


READY 






>SYSTEM(cfl 




Puts Iha ccimputBr inio system mode anO 
allows It 10 read machine language tapes o^l 
oul by the Assembler 


•? TRAIN {Cf| 




"TRAIN" IS Ihe name 1 used lor itie progfam 
Ahen 1 assembled tt 


■7/17152 ici) 




17152 IS trie decimal address ot the tirst in 
struction m Ihe Trainer When you press 
ENTER the Trainer display comes on (See 
Fig. 2 i 


Fig. 1. 


How 


fo load the TRS-80 Trainer. 



ly. This particular program is 
written for the Radio Shack 
Editor/Assembler, so you'll need 
to run out and buy one. 

It you already have another 
assembler, you may have to 
make some changes In the 
code. They shouldn't be major, 
though. You'll also need a Level 
II TRS-80 with at least 16K. 

All the information on getting 
the Editor/Assembler running is 
included in the Radio Shack 
manual. Since it is a system for- 
mat tape you may have some 
trouble loading it. Be patient 
and keep turning the volume 
down. Some o( the information 
about using the assembler 
won't make too much sense at 
first, but things should seem 
more clear after you've started 
to type in the program. 

While you're typing the pro- 
gram, you'll be glad to know that 
the spaces in the code listing 
are actually tabs— the right-ar- 



row on the keyboard. Naturally, 
spaces that are inside quotes 
are actually spaces. Just as in 
BASIC, comments can be 
deleted, but really shouldn't t>e. 

Because this program uses 
many symbols, assemble it with 
the "INS" option. This sup- 
resses the symbol table, and 
you can see how many typos 
you make. When the symbol 
table is displayed on the screen, 
it scrolls the error count oft. 

Once the program is error 
free, follow the instructions in 
the Editor/ Assembler manual 
for creating a tape Make sure 
you save the source with the 
"W" command as well. 

Using the TRS-80 Trainer 

You're now ready to run the 
TRS-80 Trainer. Your system fof- 
mat tape should have the 
TRS-80 Trainer on it. Fig. 1 
shows how to load the tape and 
start up the program. 



A 


-DOOOOOOOOO 


F-0000000000 A1 -0000000000 


Fl -00000000 00 


B 


-00000000 00 


c-oooooooaoo bi -oooooooooo 


C1 -OOOOOOOOX 


D 


-00000000 00 


E-OOOOOOOOQO D1 -0000000000 


El -00000000 00 


H 


-00000000 00 


L-OOOOOOOOOO HI -OOOOOOOGOO 

1-0000000000 H-OOOOOOOOOO 
IX - 0000000000000000 0000 
lY ~ DOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 0000 

INSTRUCTION 


L1 -DOOOOOOOOO 




Display format Register name 








Binary representation o( register contents 






Hexadecimal representation ol reQislei contents 






Fig. 2 TRS-80 Trainer Display. 



118 • BO Microcomputing. June 1980 



Intelligent 
choioe. 



Now It's possible to turn your TRS-80 into an intelligent 
terminal— wjth the TermCom package from Statcom, 

The TermCom package includes the hardware Level II users 
need for timesharing, and the software to convert it into 
an intelligent terminal. With TermCom, you can unload entire 
files t^nd keep up to 13 screens full of data in the terminal, ready 
for instant use TermCom also adds the convenience of 
scrolling, automatic forn-iatting, buffer overflow protection, 
and the ability to lock data on part of the screen while 
using the rest. 

The TermCom package is only Si 50. The software only is S50 
on disc, S40 on cassette, documentation is SIO When you 
want to add timesharing, test eguipment, serial printers, 
or other peripherals to your TRS-80 TermCom is an 
inteihgeni choice 



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>^^ Computers 
M^ Comblins 

PRESENTS r\*^ Moco«ln« 
PMNMBILITY 
HMDICAPPim 
DEVICE I 

A TRS-80' LEVEL II BASIC PROGHAM FOR: 

HORSE RUE MNDICRPPINai 

••K A WINNER: READ COMPUTERS & GAMBLING MAGAZINE 

SAMPLE ISSUES J1 00 
This atnazing program was written by a professional soH- 
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• Automatic kevOoard debounce 

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• The win proDability and correct odds (or each horse 

■ Bubble-sort routine (or (inal display 

• Line printer Output option 

■ Complete users manual wMh examples and tips on betting 
and money management 

Sit do*n with your TRS-60" and the daily racing lorm the 
night betore the race and answer 5 or 6 questions aboul each 
horse's past pertormance The computer then accurately 
predicts the win probability and odds-line lor each horse 
allowing you to spot overlaid horses while at the track The 
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OilDEfl HOW AT THIS SPECIAL IHTRODUCTORr PHICE AND 
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'TRS-M IS a registered Irademark a( Tandy Corporation 



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.r Raad^r Swvice — sov oaae I62 



fin Mirrnrnmnntinn liino JQfln 



Your display (Fig, 2) shows 
all the Z-80's registers, except 
the stack pointer and program 
counter. They are all initialized 
to zero to make it easy to see the 
effects of the instructions you 
type. 

At this point, I caution you: It 
is quite simple to blow up the 
Trainer. Entering jump instruc- 
tions will do it, as will messing 
with the stack pointer. Storing 
things in RAM, where the pro- 
gram is (4300, fl through 4760,,) 
can foul things up, too. 

To use the Trainer, you have 
to know what kinds of input it 
accepts. There are exactly three. 
The hexadecimal digits zero 
through nine and letters A 
through F form allowable ma- 



chine instructions. Secondly, 
the ENTER key tells the comput- 
er you want something EXECUT- 
ED. The third is the exclamation 
mark. If you make a typing error, 
press the "!", and your input will 
be erased. If you enter less than 
five bytes of machine instruc- 
tion, you have to press ENTER 
to make the program execute 
them. Table 1 reviews these 
commands. 

You've already seen that the 
Trainer sets all the registers to 
zero when you start out. With 
this in mind, type 3E01. Now 
press ENTER. You'll notice that 
the A register in the upper left 
hand corner of the display now 
contains a one. In this example, 
3E is the machine code for "load 



the next byte into the A 
register". Of course, the byte 
this time is 01. 

Now type in 0601 and press 
ENTER. A one appears in the B 
register. Type 80 and press 
ENTER. 80 is the machine in- 
struction for "ADD the contents 
of register B to register A." If all 
is well, there should be two in 



register A, 

With the TRS-80 Trainer you 
can enter up to five bytes of 
machine code at once. This ex- 
ample loads register A with five, 
register B with six and then adds 
the two. Note that as soon as 
you type the final zero, the com- 
puter displays the results. Try 
this by typing: 3E05060680.B 



Input Functlon/Usfl 

! Erases current insiruclion. Use it when you make a lyping mistake. 

ENTER Signals the computer to execute the current mslruction. If the in- 

struction you have typed uses live bytes, the enter is noi needed. 

0-9. A-F The hexadecimal digits used to input instructions to the TBS-80 
Trainer. 

Table 1. TRS-80 Trainer Input. 







Program 


Listing 


43D3 213451 
43D6 3A4946 


88918 
00920 


LD 
LD 


HL,SCRBUF-t30a 
A, (SEl) 










43D9 CD2346 


88930 


CALL 


DISPR 










43DC 216451 


88940 


LD 


HL,SCRBUF+356 










43DF 3A4C46 


88958 


LD 


A, IsHl) 


*iii 


88148 


ORG 


4388H 


43B2 CD2346 


88960 


CALL 


DISPR 


43Ba 2iaB5e 


88150 


r.D 


HL.SCBBUF 


43E5 217451 


08970 


LD 


HL,SCRBUF-l-372 


4383 liei^fl 


00168 


LD 


DC.SCRBUPtl 


43E8 3A4B46 


00980 


LD 


A, (SLl) 


4306 aieBB4 


88170 


LD 


BC,488H 


43EB CD2346 


08990 


CALL 


DISPR 


4389 3620 


8018H 


LIl 


<RL),28H 


43EE 21D551 


01888 


LD 


HL,SCBnUF-t469 


43BB EDBH 


80198 


LDIN 




43F1 3A5346 


01810 


LD 


A, (SI) 


4380 215546 


0028B 


LD 


HL,rt:xT 


43F4 CD2346 


01828 


CAL[, 


DISPR 


4318 111958 


00210 


r.D 


DL,SCRBirF*25 


43F7 2JE451 


01030 


LD 


ilL,SCRBUF-t4a4 


4313 818Eee 


00220 


LD 


BC,0EH 


43PA 3A5446 


01048 


LD 


A, (SR) 


4316 BDB8 


08 23 


LDIB 




43FD Cd:346 


01050 


CALL 


DISPR 


4318 115353 


00240 


LD 


DE,5CRBtlFtB51 


4488 215752 


01060 


LD 


IIL,SCRBUF-t599 


431B eiecea 


00258 


LD 


BC,8CH 


4403 3A4E46 


81870 


LD 


A, (SIX+1) 


431E EDBe 


00260 


LDIR 




4486 CD2346 


81080 


CALL 


DISPR 


4328 216F46 


88270 


LD 


ML, LI 


4489 215F52 


01890 


LD 


HL,SCRBUF-t607 


4323 llBfl5e 


00260 


LD 


DE,ECRBlIF*12a 


440C 3A4D4e 


81188 


LD 


A, (SIX) 


4326 813488 


00298 


LD 


BC,52 


440F CD2346 


81110 


CALL 


DISPR 


4329 EDBB 


00388 


LDIR 




4412 219752 


01120 


LD 


llL,ECRBUF-l-663 


432B 11C858 


00310 


LD 


DE,SCRnUF-tl9i 


4415 3A5846 


81130 


LD 


A, (EIY-tl) 


432E 813488 


88320 


LD 


iK',52 


4418 CD2346 


01140 


CALL 


DISPR 


4 3 31 EOBB 


88338 


LDIR 




441B 219F52 


81158 


LD 


IIL,SCKHUFt671 


4333 118851 


88348 


LD 


DE,SCRBUF4:56 


441E 3A4F46 


81160 


LD 


A, ISIY) 


4336 813408 


88350 


LD 


BC,52 


4421 CD2346 


81170 


CALL 


DISPP 


4 3 39 EDB8 


88368 


LDIR 




4424 CD8B46 


01180 


CALL 


MOVK IMOVE DISPLAY TO SCREEN 


433B 114051 


88378 


LD 


DL,SCRBUF-t328 




01190 


[THIS SETS UP 


FOR ACCEPTING AN INSTRUCTION 


433E 813488 


80388 


LD 


EC, 52 




01200 


rHL -> DISPLAY 


AREA. DE -> EXECUTE B IS MAX BYTtS 


4341 EDB8 


88398 


LDIB 




4427 21603F 


01210 


LD 


HL,SCRTOP-(B64 


4343 11D351 


00480 


LD 


DE,SCRBUF-f467 


442A 115947 


01220 


LD 


DE.INSTR 


4346 811188 


00410 


LD 


BC,17 


442D 8605 


01230 


1,D 


B, 5 


4349 BDBB 


00420 


LDIR 




442F C5 


01240 


READ PUSH 


BC 


434B 115452 


80430 


LD 


DE,SCRDOF+596 


4438 CD9A44 


01250 


CALL 


IIXIN ;READ ONE HEX BYTE 


434E 818388 


00448 


LD 


BC,83H 


4433 CI 


01268 


POP 


nc 


4351 EDBB 


08450 


LDIR 




4434 DA3B44 


01270 


JP 


C, FINIS 


4353 119452 


80460 


LD 


DE,ECBBUF+668 


4437 12 


81288 


LD 


(DE) .A 


4356 818388 


00478 


LD 


BC,83H 


4438 13 


01290 


INC 


DK 


4359 EDBB 


88488 


LDIR 




44 39 10F4 


01300 


DJNV, 


READ 




88498 


iTHIS CODE PUTS USER REG VALUES IN THE DISPLAY 




01310 


;NEXT coDr: (;fts user hec.'; set up I 


435B CD4145 


00500 


SKOW CALL 


HEXR JDISPLAY ilEX VALUES 


443B ED735146 


01320 


FIN I.': LD 


(SSP) ,SP 




00510 


I BEST OF CODE 


DOES BIHABY VALUES 


443f 313D46 


01330 


LD 


SP,SF 


435E 218358 


005 20 


LD 


HL,SCBBUFtl31 


4442 3A5346 


01348 


LD 


A, (SI) 


4361 3A3E46 


08530 


LD 


A, (SA) 


4445 ED47 


01350 


LD 


I. A 


4 364 CD2346 


88548 


CALL 


DISPH 


4447 3A5446 


B1360 


LD 


A, (SR) 


4367 219358 


88558 


LD 


HL,SCRBUF+147 


444A ED4F 


01370 


LD 


R,A 


436A 3A3D46 


80560 


LD 


A, (SF) 


444C Fl 


01388 


POP 


AF 


436D CD2346 


08570 


CALL 


DISPR 


444D CI 


01390 


POP 


BC 


4378 210350 


80580 


LD 


HL,SCRBUF-tl95 


44 4 E Dl 


01488 


POP 


DE 


4373 3A4846 


80590 


LD 


A, (SB) 


444F El 


81418 


POP 


HL 


4376 CD2346 


88G08 


CALL 


DISPR 


4450 08 


01420 


EX 


AF,AF' 


4379 21D350 


80618 


LD 


HL,SCRBUF+211 


4451 D9 


01430 


EXX 




437C 3A3F46 


88628 


LD 


A, (SCI 


4452 Fl 


01448 


i'OP 


Al' 


437F CD2346 


88638 


CALL 


DISPR 


4453 CI 


01458 


POP 


BC 


4382 210351 


88640 


LD 


HL,SCRBUF-'25 9 


4454 Dl 


01460 


POP 


DE 


4385 3A4246 


88658 


LD 


A, (SD) 


4455 El 


81470 


POP 


ML 


4388 CD2346 


80660 


CALL 


DISPR 


4456 88 


81480 


EX 


AF,AF' 


438B 211351 


80678 


LD 


HL,SCRBUF+27 5 


4457 D9 


01490 


EXX 




43BE 3A4146 


00680 


LD 


A, (SE) 


4458 DDEl 


81500 


POP 


IX 


4391 CD2346 


08690 


CALL 


DISPR 


445A FOEl 


01518 


POP 


lY 


4394 214351 


88780 


LD 


HL,SCJ(BUP-»323 


445C ED7B5146 


81528 


LD 


SP, (SEP) 


4397 3A4446 


00710 


LD 


A, (SH) 


4468 CD5947 


01530 


CALL 


INSTB JEXECUTE USER INSTRUCTION 


439A CD2346 


00728 


CALL 


DISPR 




01540 


;NEXT CODE SAVES USER REG6 1 


439D 215351 


00730 


LD 


HL,SCRBUF-t3 39 


4463 ED735146 


81558 


LD 


ISSP) ,SP 


43A8 3A4346 


887 40 


LD 


A, (SL| 


4467 315146 


81560 


LD 


SP,SIY«2 


43A3 CD2346 


88758 


CALL 


DISPR 


446A PDE5 


01578 


PUSH 


IV 


43A6 21A458 


00760 


LD 


HL,SCRBUF+164 


446C DDES 


01580 


PUSH 


IX 


43A9 3A4646 


88770 


LD 


A, (SAD 


446E 08 


01590 


EX 


AF . AF ' 


43AC CD2346 


88780 


CALL 


DISPH 


446F D9 


01688 


EXX 




43AF 2)B45B 


887 90 


LD 


HL,SCRBUF+18B 


4478 E5 


81610 


PUSH 


HL 


43B2 3A4546 


00808 


LD 


A,[SF1) 


4471 D5 


01620 


PUSH 


DE 


43B5 CD2346 


00810 


CALL 


DISPR 


4472 C5 


01630 


PUSH 


BC 


43B8 21E458 


00820 


LD 


HL,SCRBUF+228 


4473 F5 


01648 


PUSH 


AF 


43BB 3A4846 


00830 


LD 


A,<SB1) 


4474 88 


01650 


EX 


AF,AF' 


43BE CD2346 


00848 


CALL 


DISPR 


4475 D9 


01660 


EXX 




43C1 21F458 


88858 


LD 


HL,SCRBUF+244 


4476 E5 


81678 


PUSH 


HL 


43C4 3A4746 


et)Q6e 


LD 


ft, (SCI) 


4477 D5 


B1680 


PUSH 


DE 


43C7 CD2346 


00878 


CALL 


DISPR 


4478 C5 


81690 


PUSH 


BC 


43CA 212451 


00888 


LD 


HL,SCRBUt' + 292 










43CD 3A4A46 


00090 


LD 


A, (EDll 










43DB CD2346 


00900 


CALL 


DJSPB 








Program continues 



120 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



IMMEDIATE DELIVERY — FROM ORANGE MICRO 

BASE 2 PRINTER 




TELEVIDE0 912C 
•79900 

STANDARD FEATURES (partial list) 

• Reverse video, Underline, Blinking. 

Reduced 

• Protected fields, Security Blank fields. 

• Block or Conversational modes. 

• Editing LineorCharacter, Insert/Delete. 
•Tab, Backtab: Columnar tab. 

• 14 key numeric pad with return key. 

• RS232 Printer Port 

• Deluxe Selectnc® Keyboard 

OPTIONAL: 

•2nd Page Memory '80°° 

• 11 Special function keys and 

8 edit keys: VO" 



^1^ 




FEATURES: 

• 72. 80. 96. 120 or 132 Columns per line. 

• Bi-directional, 7 dot matrix, impact, 
•Graphics Capability. 

• HS232, Centronics®. IEEE488, 20 ma. 

• 60 LPM/ Fast feed. 

• User Programmable Cfiaracter Fonts. 
•16 Baud Rates -to 19,200. 

• Expanded Cfiaracters. 

Interfaces to TRSBO, Apple, 
Atari, PET and most other 
computers. 



TOLL FREE 
ORDERING 



►^296 



Phone OfflBfs WELCOME. Same day shipment lor VISA ana MASTER CHARGE. 
Parsonsl checks require 2 wMkg lo clear Ada3S torahlppino and Mar>dling. CA 
reaidanla add 6%. Manulaclurer's warranty included. Prices subjecl to revision. 




_, , - , COMPARE QUALITY, 

^ o°rISina?e"'* features & DISCOUNT 



$17900 



QUME letter-perfect printer 
45CPS, receive only $2499<>o 



TOLL FREE 

(800) 854-8275 

CALIP. ONLY (714) 630-3322 



Oronge 
micro 

|P.O. Box 2076, Yorba Unda. CA 92686 




PPI-80 

^ / / 

PARALLEL I/O 
<^ FOR THE TRS-8() 

/ / 

TTm Pm-m a ■ SBinpMta pwaail ua nM^a «aa^ad ■p«cllo»l, »v rw 

TWl-«Ccow«lrtneo«aia«i0««l>«l^por1»»iaii*ig»igilM>ir»» 

• IHirtn HWcliDI* loartu ctatoiling 

a CO"ipl«« an board rpguitfad pOMr* supDl> 

• TTL tO'npKiWe 1 >■"« co^-vwliBney aviilnDM irvough IBjInKKhaB 

• -5 .oils ind grouno il aicn loclgi 

■ 3 vllwAre »kec[af>W modes of O0«rdliGn 

■ hanfli Waning 

> plugs inio hpyOoard or e'piniior inEerljCE 

■ on DOira hluge WHl lor Biperirnenlir^g 

a 0rovi*i[}rw for ir>|ftflACin^ Sbi'1 as** 0^ r\uirv L-onkoHflr 

^M»>> w^tuflaiH Induda: 

■ [idkreclionaJ toTiFHunicatinr h«tlH«ei^ rr'n:rm[>r"pijlflri 

> parirw^ prinr#r inltflice 

■ «irBle»i horrw conlrol via BSR nome cor^lroJWr 

• dirncr confrol ol Irt^hn uppliar^cei arv! rr^olori 

■ mlnrtBcn tu m«ny populu tkMicli including A D-D * cOninrwr 

and »n EPROM Pruqrammer 

^n-H ■ ■■■tiM* next and can Ba puretiHBd In Hmral torm 

ComplMWy assamWm) and mied J1 19 94 

Comoleir «il «.ih all Dans SS 95 

Bar! Dciird O'lileO ana elcned Hiin aiHmHy rnanual n 3b 

rtccnso'ies 

B inannel » D ; criamei n * Ey Oplin\al Tetrmoiogy 1115 DO 

EPnOW Progiammet Model EP JA- fS by Optimal lochnology )M 00 

to order i«id Diywol plul 1? Ol iliipping srid r>afdling ro 
OUAWr IT ITEM* 

^ eoK iM 

CHMLISTOM I C »W1 

U r(y«lv>Mr. >Ml Wl 


O ""' X ^. 


i 


A 1 


V»UQnt\ 
/ystems 


P.O. box 628 
. Charleston sc 
^^^^^29402 



^A^w^m^i^m^^s^^^m 



m 



TRS-80' 







% 



SflVE A BUNDLE 

N^hcn you buy your 
TRSHO^'i equipment! 

LW tiur hill frcic nmiitKr lo 

check tHir |irkc hcfofx* yiw bu> 

a TRS M>'*< . . . anywhere! 



full Radtojhpckworninly 



g»" 



ll¥it:1 




SALES COMPANY 

[ 141? .'.t-s; ^* fW-'UPDw 

^ ^0. •OXKMi PCNSACOLA FL 32*M 

^ 904j'4M4M7 

^ fiMkMMfMa 1MOI74 1M1 



T I R F D OH i' L A Y I N (; CAM I- S 
WITH YOUR TRS-80'7 



Ready lo let your personal compunr Jo BOttic 
real work for you? Thi'n you re rtady (or 
MICHOCHECK-BO, an fxccpilonaUy jscful and 
usablf checking account handler fur I6K Level 
II systems. Many products havi lots of fancy 
gllcitr. but leave uut t Bstntial functUins. Not 
MlCROCllECK-801 It gels ihi^ |ub doni' without 
unncpdid gimmicks, using a minimum of hard- 
ware and human effort. The pri>j(rams lead 
yoo sicp-by-Hiep ihrough E'ach optratlcm, and 
supponlng ilocumcntatlon Ir excellcni. 

With MlCRCX;Hf-:CK-l«) yuur oulKtandlng cli>cks 
and deposits can be kept as current as deslrul, 
aivl inonih-end account balancing Is a snap. 
Cancelled checks are stored on cassette, ready 
to be listed at any lime on either the video dis- 
play or. If you (lave one, a line printer. A 
special feature allows each check to be given B 
exxJe Identifying the category of expense (e. g. , 
food. miiJlcal, contributions, (tc), and the 
codes supplied with the system are easily lal- 
lurtiJ to Individual requirements. Cancelled 
checks can be listed by expense category, by 
month, by any eomblnailon of the two, or In 
total. Also, a summary of expense categories 
Is provided. Checks are normally mainlalni-d 
In check number order, but another special 
feature permits sorting aixl listing by any field 
In the cancelled check record; these InclLJde 
date, amount, payee, and enpenst category. 

Why not thru* away your checkbook and let 
MICROCHFCK -HO do the arithmetic and recurtl- 
keeplng fur you'/ (14.95 postage paid. Send 
check of money order, or write for detailed 
information: 

SUMA MECROWARF: ^267 

1110 WEST 4IkI STRFET 
LA GRANCh. ILLINOIS 60525 

• A trademark of Tandy Cuiporatlon 



.-ReefferServfce— seepepe 162 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 121 



Program continued 






4SB6 CDlt45 
4569 214246 


■2958 CALL HEXOUT 
82961 LD HL,SD 












45BC 11BC51 


1297 B LD DE,SCRBUF<26B 




147* P^ 


81781 


PUSH 


AF 


45BF CD1445 


129BB CALL HEXOUT 




t47H ED^T 


■ 1718 


LO 


A, I 


4592 214146 


82991 LD HL.SE 




44TC ]25346 


■ 1721 


LD 


(BII.A 


4595 111C51 


83 888 LD DE,SCRaUF>2a4 




44TF EDSF 


■ 17 31 


LD 


A,R 


459B CD1445 


B3B1B CALL HEXOUT 




44S1 12544G 


■ 1748 


LD 


ISR] ,A 


459B 214A46 


B382B LD HL.SDl 




44B4 ED7B514t 


81751 


LD 


SP, ISSP1 


459E 112D51 


83B3B LD DE.SCRBUF*381 




44BB )EII 


81768 CLEM 


LD 


A, 8 iCLEAR USER IH5TRUCTI0M AREA 


45A1 CD1445 


B384B CALL HEXOUT 




44BA 215947 


8177B 


LD 


HL, INSTR 


45A4 214946 


83858 LD HL,SE1 




44BD 115A47 


B1788 


LD 


DE.INSTH'l 


45A7 113D51 


B3B6B LD DE,SCRBUF*]17 




449B I1I4BB 


■ 1790 


LD 


BC,4 


45AA CDlt45 


■ 3^71 CALL HEXOUT 




4493 3(tl 


81B18 


LD 


IHL) ,8 


45AD 214446 


838BB LD HL.SH 




4195 EDBB 


llBll 


LDIR 




45B8 114C51 


■389B LD DE,5CRBUF>3 31 




4497 C1&B43 


81B2B 


JP 


SHOW iCCMTIttUE 


45B3 CDI445 


B31BB CALL HEXOUT 






■1838 iTHIS 


CODE ACCEPTS 0«E HEXADECIMAL BYTE 


45B6 214346 


■311^ LD HL,SL 






■1848 lA CARRIAGE RETURN ENDS CURRENT INSTRUCTION 


45B9 115C51 


■ 31 2^ LD DE,SCRBUF4'148 




449A CDDS44 


81858 HXIN 


CALL 


CHAR 


45BC CD1445 


83138 CALL HEXOUT 




449D PEBD 


81861 


CP 


BDH 


45BF 214C46 


■314^ LD HL,SH1 




449F CACE44 


81BT8 


JP 


Z,SETLST 


45C2 116D51 


13151 LD DE,SCRBUFt3e5 




44A2 32D344 


81888 


LD 


(CI), A 


45C5 CD1445 


■316^ CALL HEXOUT 




4 4 AS CDD544 


■ 1B98 


CALL 


CHAR 


45C8 214B46 


■317^ LD HL,SL1 




44AB FEBD 


■ 1911 


CP 


■ DH 


45CB 117D51 


13181 LD DE,SCH3UF+3B1 




44AA CACE41 


11911 


JP 


Z . SETLST 


45CE CD1445 


1319^ CALL HEXOUT 




44AD 31D444 


11928 


LD 


(C2),A 


t5Dl 215146 


13211 LD HL,SI 




4tBI 3AD344 


81938 


LD 


A, (CI) 


45D4 11DE51 


132 IB LD DE,SCRBUF'>47 8 




44B3 CDI545 


119t« 


CALL 


HEXIT 


45D7 CD1445 


13221 CALL HEXOUT 




44 BS CB27 


11951 


SLA 


A 


45DA 215446 


■ 3238 LD )<L,SR 




44 B8 CB27 


■ 1961 


SLA 


A 


4 5DD 11ED51 


83248 LD DE,SCRBUF>49] 




44BA CB27 


■ 197^ 


SLA 


A 


45E^ CD14t5 


83258 CALL HEXOUT 




44BC CB27 


■ 1980 


SLA 


A 


45E3 214E46 


■3260 LD HL.SIX'l 




44BE F5 


■ 1999 


PUSH 


AF 


45E6 11(852 


03271 LD DE,5CRB1IF*<1S 




44BF 3AD444 


■ 2111 


LD 


A, (C21 


45E9 CD144^ 


0328B CALL HEXOUT 




44C2 CDB54S 


1211^ 


CALL 


HEXIT 


45EC 214D4E 


0329B LD HL,SIX 




44C5 CI 


12121 


POP 


BC 


45EF 116A52 


13311 LD DE,SCRBUF->61B 




44CG aa 


■ 2131 


ADD 


A,B 


45F2 CD1445 


1331^ CALL HEXOUT 




44C7 47 


12141 


LD 


B, A 


45F5 215846 


■332^ LD HL,StY»l 




44c:a ]Eai 


12151 


LD 


A.l 


45FB llAe52 


13331 LD DE , SCRBUF*6 Bl 




44CA CB37 


t2861 


SLA 


A 


45FB CD1445 


1334B CALL HEXOUT 




44CC 7 8 


12171 


LD 


A,B 


45FE 21tF46 


■335B LD HL,SIY 




44CD C9 


12188 


RET 




4681 11AA52 


8336 ■ LD DE,SCRBUF'6BZ 




44CE 3EPP 


12191 SETLfT 


LD 


A.iprti 


4684 CD1445 


83378 CALL HEXOUT 




44D« CB27 


■ IISB 


SLA 


A 


4687 C9 


83388 RET 




44D2 C9 


B211B 


RET 






83398 iTHlfi CODE NOVES SCREEN BUFFER TO R.S. SCREEN 


AREA 


44D] it 


92121 CI 


DEFB 


• 


4«8B 218858 


■3400 MOVE LD HL.SCRBUF 




t4D4 it 


12131 t:2 


DEFB 


■ 


468B 11B83C 


■3418 LD □E,3C88H 






12141 iTHIS 


CODE CALLS R.S. KirBOUD ROUTIHB 


46BE ^18884 


B342B LD EIC,4BBH 




44D5 D5 


82151 CHAR 


PUSH 


DE 


4sn EDBB 


B3438 LDIR 




44D6 PDE5 


02168 


PUSH 


I* 


4613 C9 


83441 RET 




44Da CD2HBe 


■217 ■ ACN 


CALL 


2BH 


4614 215947 


B345B LD HL, INSTR 




41DB B7 


12188 


OR 


A 


4617 115A47 


83461 LD DE.INSTR'l 




44DC 2eFA 


■ 219B 


J9 


Z.AGN 


461A ■l^tB^ 


1347B LD BC,4 






■22^l jIF NONZERO MAKE SURE IT'S HEX OH CR 


461D 3EB8 


B34BB LD A,B 




44DE FDEl 


12211 


POP 


lY 


461F 77 


B349B LD (HL),A 




44ei Di 


■ 2228 


POP 


DE 


4628 EDBB 


835BB 1.D1R 




44E1 FEID 


12231 


CP 


BDH 


4622 C9 


83518 RET 




4«E} CAB445 


12241 


JP 


Z,RET2 




B352B JTHIS CODE DOES BINARY REGISTER DISPLAY 




44Ee FE21 


1225^ 


CP 


21H 


4623 0688 


8353B DISPR LD B, 8BK 




44Ea CABF45 


■ 22t^ 


JP 


ZpKILLIT 


4625 CB27 


B354B SHIFT SLA A 




44EB FE30 


■ 227^ 


CP 


3IK 


4627 D43146 


■ 3558 CALL NCZERO 




44ED ['AOS44 


■ 228^ 


JP 


H.CHAH 


462A DC3746 


■ 3568 CALL CONE 




44fB FEjA 


82290 


CP 


3AH 


462D 23 


1357B INC HL 




44F2 F2Fa44 


023BB 


JP 


P,TBY41 


462E 10F5 


835BB DJNZ SHIFT 




44F5 FAB245 


02310 


JP 


M.RETl 


4630 C9 


83598 RET 




44Fa FE41 


8232B TRY41 


CP 


41H 


4631 F5 


136B1 ZERO PUSH AF 




44FA l'AD544 


B2338 


JP 


N,CMAB 


4632 3E31 


1361B LD A, 3eH 




t4FD FE47 


82340 


CP 


47H 


4634 TT 


13628 LD <HL) , A 




44FF F'2D544 


12358 


JP 


P.CHAR 


4635 Fl 


13631 POP AF 




4582 77 


lZ3«f RGTl 


LD 


(HL) ,A 


4636 C9 


e364^ het 




4;i] 2) 


82378 


IHC 


HL 


46J7 F5 


■365^ ONE PUSH AF 




4SB4 C9 


823B1 RET2 


RET 




4638 3E31 


■366^ LD A,31H 




4515 rE4B 


B239I HEXIT 


CP 


48H 


463A 77 


13671 LD (HL),A 




45B7 FAac45 


824^8 


JP 


H.IAPHI 


4E3B Fl 


1368a POP AF 




45BA C5B9 


12411 


ADD 


A, 9 


4G3C C9 


1369B HET 




45IC E6BF 


■2421 ZAFhl 


AND 


■ FH 




■3711 jNEXT ARE USER BEG STORAGE AREAS 




4SBE C9 


12431 


RET 




46)D 11 


13711 SF DEFB 8 




45iF Fl 


12441 KILLIT 


POP 


AF 


463E 11 


■372^ SA DEFB 1 




4511 Fl 


■ 2451 


POP 


AF 


463F ■■ 


■373^ SC DEFB 8 




4S11 C3BS44 


124«f 


JP 


CLEAH 


464B IB 


■3748 SB DEFB ■ 




4514 7E 


12478 HEXDUT 


LD 


A, (HL) 


4E41 00 


13758 SE DEFB 1 




451S FS 


12488 


PUSH 


AF 


4E42 11 


13761 SD DEFB 1 




4516 CB)F 


12491 


SRL 


A 


4643 ■■ 


83771 SL DEFB 1 




451B CB3P 


B258B 


SRL 


A 


4644 11 


83788 .'ill DEFB 8 




451A CB3F 


8251B 


SRL 


A 


4E45 ■■ 


13798 5F1 DEFB 8 




451C CB]r 


• 2521 


SRL 


A 


4646 10 


B3eiB SAl DEFB 1 




451E FEIA 


82538 


CP 


■ AH 


4647 00 


B3aiB SCI DEFB 1 




4521 F1284S 


82541 


JP 


P,A1 


4640 00 


13821 SBl DEFB 1 




452] EE3B 


■ 2550 


XOH 


38M 


4649 00 


13831 SEl DEFB 1 




4525 C3:c4i 


■ 256B 


JP 


STl 


464A 00 


13841 SDl DEFB B 




452a 0699 


■2570 Al 


SUB 


9 


464B 01 


B3858 SLl DEFB 8 




*hlh EE4a 


125BB 


XOR 


48H 


464C 81 


B3B6B SHI DEFB a 




452C 12 


■2598 STI 


LD 


(DE),A 


464D 811B 


B3B70 SIX DEFV B 




452D 13 


126B0 


INC 


DE 


464F 180B 


B3BB1 SIY DEFN 8 




452E Fl 


02610 


POP 


AF 


4651 Bill 


B3B90 SSF DEFW B 




452F EKBF 


12620 


AND 


8FH 


4653 Bl 


83901 SI DEFB 1 




4531 FFBA 


02E31 


CP 


IB 


4654 Bl 


B3S1B SR DEFB ■ 




4533 F23B45 


12641 


JP 


P,A2 




83928 /FOLLOWING DKilNEH SCREEN DISPLAY 




453« EE3I 


12i5a 


XOH 


38H 


4655 54 


B3S3B TEXT DEFW 'TRS-BB TRA INEHINSTHUCTION ; ' 




4538 C)3F45 


B26«^ 


JP 


ST2 


5111 


B391B SCnmrF EOU 'iBBBfi 




453B Dta} 


■2678 A2 


SUB 


» 


466F 41 


B395B LI DF.I'M 'ft - f - Al- 


F1-' 


4^30 EE4I 


82688 


XOR 


48)] 


46A] 42 


B3961 DEFH '11 - C - Bl- 


C1-* 


4S1F 12 


82698 ST2 


LD 


(DE) ,A 


46D7 44 


03978 DEFH 'U - i - Dl- 


E1-' 


4548 C9 


82788 


RET 




471B 4B 


B39B1 DEFM 'H - \. - 111- 


L1-' 




82718 jNEXT 


CODE DOES 


HEX REGISTER DISPLAY 


473F 49 


B3991 DEFH '1- H- ' 




4541 213E46 


82728 HEXR 


LD 


HL.SA 


4758 49 


B4BBB DEFH ' IX-IY-SP-' 




4544 llBC5a 


■ 2738 


LD 


DE,SCI'BUF*14B 


4759 0BBB 


B4B1B INSTR DEFM 1 




4547 CD144S 


■ 2748 


CALL 


HEXOUT 


475B ■111 


14B2^ DEPH 8 




454A 313D46 


82758 


LD 


HL,SF 


475D 11 


■4^3^ DEFB 8 




4S4D 119C5B 


82768 


LD 


DE,SCRBUF+156 


475E C9 


■4^4^ DEFB 0G9H 




4558 CD1445 


82778 


CALL 


HEXOUT 


3C11 


■4^5^ SCRTOP EOU 3CBBH 




4553 214646 


8 27B8 


LD 


HL,SA1 


1111 


e4B6^ END 




45S& 11AD58 


127 98 


LD 


DE,SCRaUF*173 


ttttt TOTAL 


ERRORS 




4559 CD1445 


82B^0 


CALL 


HEilOUT 








45^C 214546 


12811 


LD 


HL.SFl 








455F 11BD58 


12B2I 


LD 


DE.SCRBUFtlBl 


Al 452B 


B257B B254B 




4562 CD1445 


■ 283^ 


CALL 


HEXOUT 


A2 453B 


■ 2678 B2t48 




4565 214a46 


B284B 


LD 


HL,SB 


AGN 44Da 


82178 B2198 




4568 lJCC5e 


■ 2850 


LD 


DE,SC!)BUF*2^4 


CI 44D3 


82128 B1BB8 ■193^ 




456B CD1445 


828 61 


CALL 


HEXOUT 


C2 44D4 


■213^ ■192^ ■2888 




456E 213F46 


■ 287B 


LD 


HL.SC 


CHAR 44D5 


82158 B1B5B 81B91 122BB 12331 12351 




4571 11DC5B 


828B8 


LD 


DE,SCRBUF*228 


CLEAR 44SB 


■1761 12461 




4574 CD1445 


82B9B 


CALL 


HEXOUT 


DISPR 4623 


13538 88548 88571 116^^ B0C3B Be66^ BB69B BB728 




4577 214846 


829B8 


LD 


HL.SBI 




88758 88788 ■■BIB 88848 88878 B8988 88938 




4S7A L1ED5B 


■ 2918 


LD 


DE,SCRBUF+I37 




80960 01990 11028 01058 010S0 11110 ilUt 




457D CD1445 


■ 2928 


CALL 


HEXOUT 




81178 




4SB8 214746 


82938 


LD 


HL,SC1 








4583 llFD5i 


■ 2948 


LD 


DE,SCRBUP*]53 




Program continues 



122 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



Program 


corytlnued 














PIKIS 


<43B 


■ 132* 


■ 1271 














HEX IT 


4515 


■ 21)l 


■ 1941 


82818 












BEX0D1 


4514 


13471 


■ 27 4^ 


82778 


82B8I 


828 38 


■ 2868 


■2898 


82928 








■ 295* 


829 Bfl 


■ 3111 


13 (IB 


■irr^ 


8318B 










■ 3169 


■ 319B 


83228 


83258 


■ 328^ 












■ 337^ 














HEXH 


4541 


■ 2721 


■ ■^■B 














BXIK 


4I9A 


B1B5I 


■ 125^ 














IHSTR 


4T59 


■4111 


■ 122^ 


■ 153^ 


81778 


81788 


■ 345^ 






XILLI': 


45IP 


■ 244^ 


■ 226^ 














LI 


466r 


■ 1951 


■ ■27B 














MOVE 


4filB 


■ ]«•■ 


BllBI 














OHE 


407 


■ 3t5^ 


83561 














HEAD 


441F 


■ 124i 


81388 














RETl 


4512 


■ !!«• 


82318 














RETZ 


4^14 


IZJBi 


8224* 














SA 


46]E 


■ 1721 


8a53^ 


82711 












SAl 


464S 


■ isia 


■ ■77^ 


iI7B« 












SB 


4E4I 


■ 37 41 


■ ■598 


82848 












SBl 


4«4I 


■ 3821 


8BB3B 


82988 












BC 


4fi3F 


i373^ 


B>62^ 


82B78 












SCI 


4C47 


■ 3B1I 


■ ■B6^ 


B2938 












SCHBUF 


Sill 


■ 39IB 


BB15B 


88168 


BB21B 


88218 


■■2BB 


BI318 


■ 8348 








8(378 


88488 


814 3 8 


81468 


■ ■52^ 


• •55^ 


88588 








■•eit 


80648 


88678 


Br78B 


M7 3I 


M7 68 


■ ■798 








8BB2S 


8BB5B 


BBsee 


88918 


88948 


■•97^ 


81888 








81138 


B1B68 


81B9B 


81128 


■ 1158 


«273^ 


82768 








■ 27 «■ 


82828 


■ 2858 


• 1B8B 


■ 2919 


■ 294^ 


82978 








■ 3^^^ 


83838 


■ 3^C^ 


■ 3B9B 


■ 312^ 


■ 3158 


831B8 








83218 


83248 


■ 3278 










SCBTOP 


!€■■ 


■ 4^5B 


81218 














SD 


4G43 


«]76^ 


88658 


82968 












SDl 


464A 


■ 3848 


BBB98 


B3B28 












SE 


4641 


■ 3T5I 


■ 8668 


B29 98 












SEl 


4S4S 


■ 3e3B 


■ B928 


■ 3858 












SETLBT 


44CE 


■ 2^9B 


81878 


B1918 












BF 


4&3D 


■ 3T1I 


88568 


8133B 














*6ii 


831>B 


■ BBBB 


82818 












SH 


4t44 


■ 37B8 


88718 


8]8ai 














4e4C 


a3B<S 


8B9 58 


83141 












EH I FT 


4GZ5 


■ 354B 
















SHOW 


415B 


B85i> 


■ 182^ 














BI 


4653 


■ 39B^ 


■ l^l^ 


81348 


81728 


832tl 








GIX 


4640 


838TB 


■ 1878 


■ lliB 


83268 


83298 








siy 


464F 


BIBBB 


8113B 


81168 


81568 










SL 


4fi4] 


B377I 


88T48 


B311B 












SLl 


4G4B 


8 3B5B 


BB9BI 


83178 












SR 


4G54 


B3»1B 


■ iB4a 


B13tB 


8174B 










SEP 


4651 


■lasB 


81328 


81528 


81558 


81758 








STl 


45ZC 


■ 2598 


B2^68 














BT2 


453F 


BIC98 


81668 














TEXT 


4655 


83938 


■ ■2^« 














TRYtl 


44Fa 


82328 


■ 23II 














lAPHI 


4 5IC 


82428 
















lERO 


«G11 


83t8B 


83558 
















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t^Rtader Service — seepage 1S2 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 123 



GENERAL 



An additional index for Radio Shack's 

Editor/Assembler manual— cross-referenced for easy use. 



EDTASM Index 



Terry Kepner 
P.O. Box 481 
Peterborough. NH 03458 



Learning lo program In as- 
sembly code is like trying to 
learn a foreign language; how 
long it takes will depend upon 
how good a reference book you 
have. 

If the book is well written with 
a good cross-reference listing 
the new words, their English 
equivalents and the pages 
where you can find their descrip- 
tions, you will learn the lan- 
guage more easily. If the book 
doesn't have these features, you 
have a hard trip ahead. 

Unfortunately, the Radio 
Shack Editor/Assembler Manual 
falls into the latter category. 
While it does provide an alpha- 
betic and a numeric opcode- 
mnemonic cross-reference list 
at the back, these two lists do 
f>ot tell the user where their 
descriptions can be found. 

It took only a few frustrating 
hours before I decided to rectify 
the situation and produce a 
good cross-referenced index. 
However, this proved more dif- 
ficult than I had thought. 

The numeric cross-reference 
in the Radio Shack Editor/As- 
sembler is actually organized in- 
to three separate numeric lists. 
This meant, in addition to an 
alphabetic index, I also had to 
make a new numeric index, 
properly sorted. 



Creating the index, I discov- 
ered some errors in the Radio 
Shack manual, which are de- 
tailed as follows'. 

1-The LD A,R(pg. 22) and LD 
R,A (pg, 23) mnemonics are not 
in the Radio Shack numeric and 
alphabetic indices. 

2. OUT (D),R (pg. 103) should 
beOUT(C),R. 

3. LD B,H,NN (pg. 121) Should 
be LD B,H. 

I hope these indices are as 
useful to you as they have been 
for me. Since I am a beginner at 
assembly language program- 
ming, the time it took to prepare 
them has been more than repaid 
by the time saved finding infor- 
mation. ■ 



Doecn 

FMtes 



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CD 



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HFLT 





124 • 80 Microcomputing, JurjB 1960 



A specially designed SF TACTICAL BATTLE GAME for 
your PET, TPS-80 or APPLE Computer. 

The man called Sudden Smith watched the five blips on 
his screen spread out to meet the enemy. Two freighters 
converted into something like battlewagons, powerful 
but slow, and three real cruisers: the most powerful group 
of warships ever seen near the Promethean system - except 
for the Stellar Union fleet opposing them. Everyone was 
calling it Starfleet Orion, though it existed for only this 
day. It was life or death, and, after the object lesson on 
the planet Spring, everyone knew it. 

STARFLEET ORION is a complete 2 player game system 

• rule book • battle manual •cassette 

• ship control sheets • program listings 

Includes 2 programs, 22 space ship types, and 12 playtested 
scenarios. Game mechanics are extremely simple, but play 
is exciting, challenging, and rich in detail. Specify PET (8K}, 
TRS-80 (Level II. 16K), or APPLE II (16K& 32K)S19.95. 
Ask your local dealer or send your check to: 

Automated Simulations 
Department M ^4g 
P.O. Box 4232 
Mountain View, CA. 94040 

"TB5-80 <■ ■ rM)lit*r«d lri<)«inBrii o( TANOV CORP ■ 

California residents please add 6% sales tax 



MSK your II 

m 



SBrrisvsTEms, inc 



1^154 



PROFESSIONAL BUSINESS SOFTWARE 

TO OPERATE ON 

TRS-80* COMPUTER 

• ISAM Accounting Package: 

— Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable, 
General l,edgcr with Cash Journal, In- 
voicing and Payroll 

Integrated Accounting System $425.00 

Separate Modules $ 99.00 

• ISAM Inventory Control $125.00 

- Above Systems require 2 - 3 drive Systems. 

- Integrated System requires 3 - 4 drive Systems. 

- Systcins operate under NEWDOS by Apparat 
(not included) 

• Machine Language Disk Sort $ 49.95 

- Multiple Keys - Ascending, Descending 
Callable under Basic 

• NEWDOS by Apparat $ 55.00 

TO ORDER CALL: 
(617) 685-0151 

(Dealer Inquiries Welcome) 



masK'i njigp 




V/SA 



P.O.Box 1225 •Haverhill. MA 01830 
• Trademark of Tandy Corporation 
•* Accounting Package not available in the State of California. 



CPUiCKSeT 

QET YOUR WARP SPEED UP 




FOR REALLY FAST TRS-80* 

GRnPHICS 

• A cMHila SOFTWARE addtlton to ycxir 
TRS-BO* l«v*l II BASIC. 

• Lais you draw graphics with your compular 
Itw aama way you draw on papar, 

• Draw ahafMi, larga alphatMllcal charactars, 
ate. Ian tlmai laalar, mora aaslly artd using !•■■ 
mamory Itian lava! II. 

• SETS ona graphic spot at ■ tlma. 

• Doas not usa strings or POKE. 

• Can ba EDIT ad and SAVEd Just Ilka any othar 
BASIC Btalamant. 

• Draw tha slarship ENTERPRISE, alwva. bagln- 
nlng al any point on Itta scraan, In 0.3 sacond* 
(TRS-80 iBkas 4 saconds and usas twica as 
much mamory). 

• No attacl on your warranty. 

UJINKING CURSOR 

a Play Itila cassatta program into your TRSSO* 
and Iha cursor starts wlnhlng. 
a Also dabourxras your kayboard. 

• It haaps on winking until you turn tha machlna 
ol( (not attactad by NEW). 

J05-1 OUICKSEToncBSSalla S7.95 

WC-1 WINKINGCURSORoncassatta S4.95 

, QW-1 Both on ona cassatia S0.9S 

) Add S1.00 par ordar ttandllng charga. 

(PA rasldanta— add 6% tax) 

JMSCorp 

P.O. Box 1B0B3 Pittsburgh, PA. 1S238 

(412)055-7017 

* Tns*] '% ■ MmOmrrmi*, ol rh< Radio Vvct D—m-on ol Tmndy Co'PO'lf 



JDlfliTHEFUnJ! 




^349 



Uou liitvc SnavcLcA nine aiiix* CoAftu tnb 
ffiiu. h*vc lie Co ^ 6<foiu ^au M»ch. Chf 
pthcn iibt oj &ht stup. l^m uu dcfcd MMcb, 
U9un »toen9&h hu^ ^n\€, wib yuA m ^u 
Mclte to uiA, ouft Jwm s> nocM s&cps (he 
«u>s& MabLU \o€ ^u'vt lic^b so IkK- & §lant 
tuLUH ComMo't! ^u tUALv^ 6onC ntt.b llils, 
cspcci^L^ 3.)t<K the nt,z%uu uib Ci^Lon. t^ou 
yiit ^u^ib, Aub ^Hi liave no choict in. th& 
msMeH... Zhc tonaAo ts atCacVtrL^! 

PHHSE Kf\L 

It 15 H)t Tno*t unu^iuat ^nx ^ou will tvtr 
platf. T()t 5<nii>q i^ a jpact jtatimi cci^trollcd 
Pt) o rvtyiwau ccmputcr, otyJ 4«ur 9011I 1; ti> 
virvivt. PMME Ull 15 ijot oil aOvcn^iin ttame.. 
tvcri) qame you ftmt t> rft<f(rci>t, aiyd 05 v»u 
fkxif t^ou btcomt ytroit^r arfd mere powerful. 
U^ii>5 botK f*>( potMr^ of ^t)u OTyd moqic, 
tt>e t^me 19 tfl^t-pac<d aijd e*citiiM. PHASE Wl 
h05 bc«i) approvtd t>i) Il>t MISSOURI SOUTHERN 
STATE COLLEOE SCIENCE FICTION CLUB ai>d r^ 
bocHcd bi) two ifcar^ of ^c^tiiyat. •ya 3o)n th< 
Fun! Dorj'T b« ^ ki^t oil tiouf W0cH te be 
Isiltcd bi) a B C.n. '-' 

Tq onbcK, TTiftke cH«ch p&u&m-c 60 PHASf Vli 

anb tnaiL 6oi FUTKKEVIEW UNHmiTFP 

P.O. Bo« 1295 Joplin, mO, 64ft01 t^27fl 

pL«kSC specify UOUK CC^puS€R^ 

TM-(K) LEVEL I 16 K, ok 3Z K 

APPLE I PUDS lbKjO«52K 

APPLE I w/Apple»{rft fton IfrKos 

TM-80 rxJD I imt. » ^ame jo* Till !) *3H 95 

l>«>l«r5, iciyl s.«.st. for price lijt. 

ague Ert^rwwsTER ^mm iMiTirwoMO 

tfmCDMTE DfllvEKV ^ -. t , „ , 

frWUMWreipr ClOyrjgjy »y Dr»<t' 



i3£k J 



e? 



TRS-80* STRUCTURED 
BASIC 

Now available tor TRS-80 disk systems 



A pre-compiler adding performed pro- 
cedures, case siruclures, repeal while, unlil 
and many olher structured language slale- 
menls lo ihe already powerful Level II 
BASIC. Diskette $50.00. Lisling $.15.00. 
Manual purchased separately $10.00. 



313 Meadow Lane 
Hastings. Miehigan 49058 

(616) 945-5334 
'Prater inquirin inviledl 

VISA & MASTERCHARGE ACCEPTED 

■ TRS 80 (S rt iiMumdik ol Jartay Carp 



^RMa^rS^nicf — se^psgrn t52 



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(IX'IWI) 
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sue 
SIX 



126 " 80 Microcomputing. June 1960 



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DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



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•rRtaa^t S»nic« — s«9p»g» 1S2 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 127 






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128 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



«iEci atx 


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Software 
Exchange 



• Cash & royalties for original 
programs — science, busi- 
ness, games, education. 

• Wo risk. 

• Join our coop & share your 
programs with others and 
vice-versa! 

Programs must be original! 
For complete info, clip & mail to: 

Software Exchange 
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QUALITY TRS-80 SOFTWARE 



KEYWORD Indexing System 

\ •crk> III pnifranik Itul kIII inat< i dan flic iin dlM. hu<ld an 
l<Kk« III all [Kiarrvnivi iif "lu'r»i<nK" In Ihc k-\i ii( iIk dala (Ik 
and «U<n> Imialrki iw warvhco lnli> IIk Ilk iKiIng Ibc lodtuil 

■tktihk ncivd kmtHh* ■•* kiialliin pitaNi^ 
*di(licMiin ■■{ MM lu:>«iink Inim lain h> >ioicm 
•"and" "iw" "mm" higk fair Imfalrkv 
•klkrbtt tiv in<r orilKn lni|vlrk> 
knVOKDIMIIA-^dK J:tklMISs>stcH> S39.» 

SORTS tor HOME and BUSINESS 

Vi i,<ii«p«ikr ncr Ohiwld he wHIhmi ■ xinallkiCK) ki mt mirt 

pniiKani. TIk VxllKaU Mknioan: In mcimio hhI |MiiRram> arv 

orHKFi In Uwl 11 HVSK and haw tht fotlnKlng kaluiv.. 

•Soii M H)H IW M m.kIC data 

»f>nn IW wp Hi S fkkh tlmaltaiKiMKlt 

•In RMiinillnt <if d>:««:ndln4 h;i|mik>: 

•.■■•ppork Ui. >liki> iir lap! I <) 

■Safip<irt> ■xcii. dhk and prtnfcr 1 O IMIRI lll» 

•S«p^Kt<i KMr I it riMlIno 

■Istr oHs (SORT III) .H.l>> 

SOKI lt-lfikU>illllnm<:iniir>4>n SI9.9S 

MIRI llll-12klMIMnnKmi>o^>n S29.9S 

KM the SUKMIS CAMtLIR 
HUCklXCk Sm lAUtk. Uhm> y«m h> Omalau «K plaftnf ul 
IbiHnamk id hands iif KI and anal^K dtc rv<i«lli' im lapt In l^cl 
IIHVtIC. SI9.93 

HanuaN liir all pni||fains aiallahk lor tl.lHI va. 
(prkk' (kiliKilhk iin puri.ha«v ill pR>||ranil 

"TR5«> H a ragttUrMJ tradamarV of TANDY CORP " 

Cgl>i#rtheastc7MICROWARi) 

BOX 2133, ^74 
BOSTON. MA. 02106 



TRS-80 MODEL II 

I'riiU—iondl XiIlrtLio- MJrt A\ MLMILI ' 
WORD PROCESSING: ( ompletF cdilinK <ri|i.ibili^ m 
< lui1iii|4it-nliT. iiuhl. lell or lull iini. luililndlion. t.ihs. 
m<ir)iin. li'riKlh & widlh i ontrui Linrs diiliimdtuditv 
ovcrllot* Iriini line to linr Ail liie >|w<.iti( jIkhh slured 
on disk l'.iiswOfd> used All prinler Ifdtutps used lpi>r 
\ouT prinli-r) Auto in^erlion cvl n^mes dale I'Ti 1rt>m 
oilier d.ilii l>le(il Divk irKlet mdintaiiH'ri lor lile (or> 
Ircil >nii 1 .m di^iji.iv indri d.ili' time c riMli'd c h.iiiKed 
<« 1I...1I H. Iiriel di-M npliiwi Sv-tem I («. iisi'd I lies i ,m 
III' on iilhi'r disk drivi'v I ili.ic I K boild A < li.iiii ut dii 
ii'ii-nl liles I .in hi' iinnled .ilitns wilh mollr t opv loo 
'rtil ti .luto mseflion Inti-il J( ini; mih olhei vy'lems lor 
.lulu ddl.i <mmI> done 

He<|uires b4K /, iiiinlei ul voor i hone 
Udumenldtion ■ illllKI loul = iJiN 1)0 

BASIC CROSS RtrtRENCt: Prepdres d ll^tmB ot your 
IIASK pfoijidm H.-.id'nn contains pro({r,im name, 
ddle. time. & pdge K All RLM sidlements print 
m)N(;AllDA are ed'.v to spol llie das', relerente 
repoil II ihen printed It »how>, you si d <;lAN( i ivhat 
Inleir . Kllhin vool piOHMIl. ,lle fi-le^enc r-d H vhere all 
<.iii,.lili- n.ino'v iist'd B. Alli-ie Knim uli.i^ is .ivdiLihle 
I iFid 1)1 Ai) Npiit- Ul' Aioli' thi'. nil ourvi'ki". vou 

I .in LJM' It liHi ' 

Uixumenldtion ' iTIMK) lulal ^ iVi'M 

DISK SORT; Sorii thoiii.inds ol rdndom hie let ord> 
<_jpdi ilv !■> dependent on v'm'diik >pjte Mlu lent uie 
ot '.tiinB'' Sorlv anv dala aiea trofn 1 thru 2^S (on- 
'lSUOu^ by lei ivilhin jnv \iaH ot youl letord Spent ltd 
tion\ die input uMn^ ttie question & dnswei method 
[ he\ 1 an Im' \torpd & p^ed dutomalicdllv m youf vys- 
lem joh «Iieam oi you i .in one-shot >orl Input tilei are 
iH)l ( lobbered by the sort All ■.loied i[)ei s i an be div 
(ii.ni><i i.imled Ol . h.inKed 

Sinuli' IK inullipli' drives & MK rei<uiritl 
Dociinii'riUilion " illMKI lolal - th'! 't'l 

COMING SOON; l.eneial ledni'i, Aiiounl. Ke< I'lV 
diile I'ay.ibli' Inyentoiy ( iinliol *. more 
CUSTOM SYSIEMS: U mu haw .i -peLi.il need ^en(l un 
,1 leri-'i We I an dii il 
ANADIKPRINIERS. OP 9^00/9501 S1. 650 00 NEW1 

Sent] loT documenlaiior 5 ofder tofm. 

GOOD-IYODON DiU %\ilenn 

^■jafc fipiermrif |)i ( fiino. ( ■\ '^^lll ^21B 
'rf*^hn t'hiv on MiTfii.iri' pi/nhj^i's 

JKSH(i ). J rrnnrered ludem.iii u' l.init\ ( oifj 



^Reatlef Service- see page 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 129 



BUSINESS 



Use this program to replace your 

columnar work sheets when doing the books. 

Accountants Aid 



James H. Sheats 
2036 Headland Drive 
East Point, GA 30344 

Ffom time to time accoun- 
tants, bookkeepers, ana- 



lysts and the rest of the num- 
ber-scribbling fraternity {by 
whatever name called) pick up a 
sheet of columnar work paper, 
print a report title and date at 
the top. print columnar head- 



IH REM "SPREAD SHEET" 

2e REM PROGRAMMED BY JAMES H. SHEATS 

3B REH 2036 HEADLAND DRIVE 

4fl REM EAST POINT, GEORGIA JB344 

SB REM 4B4-766-BBST 

b2 CLEAR2eB0 

■)3 DEFDDL C,T 

5b CLS:LPR:NT l.liRSf31) iLPRltJT:L!'BINT 

60 PHINT'SPREAD SHEET PROGRAM" 

65 INPUT"HEPORT NAME " ;RS : LPRI NT TAB | 3 B 1 RS : LPRINT: LPRINT 

68 INPUT"DATE";DS!L,PRINT TAB |3^ 1 □$ : I.PRINT : LPRINT 

78 INPUT-INPUT LINE NAME';LS 

7& INPUT" NUMBER OF COLUMNS WANTED ';« 

76 DIM CSIN) ,C1N1 ,CTIN1 

77 LPRINT USING"* »-j LS; 
Be FOR X-1 TO N 

90 INPUT"C0LL1MN NAME'jCSO;] 

1B0 LPRINT USING"* «";CS(X1; 

12B NEXT 

125 LPRINT"TOTAL" 

13B PRlNTLSilNPUT L 

14B IE L-999 THEN 208 

144 LPRINT USING"IIII1IH11"|L: 

145 T-fl 

15B FOR X^l TO N 

155 C1X1=B 

150 PRINT CSlXl.ilNPUT C (XI !T-T*C [X) 

165 LPRINT USING"tllllll.ll"iCiX) I 

17B CT(X)»^CTIX) tC(X) 

18B NEXT X 

185 PRINT ■TOTAL'jTiLPRIHT USING" I t 11 »11 . t 1" |T 

19B GOTO 130 

2BB CLS;LPHINT: PRINT "TOTALS " i LPHINT"TOTAL5 " i : FOR X-1 TO N 

204 PRINT CSIX) ,CT(X} , 

205 TT-TT»CT(X) 

208 LPRINT USlNG"Mlllil.il"jCTlX) ! 

218 NEXT X 

220 PRINT "GRAND TOTAL "jTT 

230 LPRINT USING'1»*##I».1»";TT 

24B END 



Program Listing 



ings across the page, and start 
filling in lines and columns of 
figures. 

Usually these sheets have 
both line and column totals, 
which should be equal when 
cross-footed. After consider- 
able work with an adding ma- 
chine and an eraser they usual- 
ly are. Finally. 

The Accountant's Writeup 
Aid is designed to eliminate 
some of the pain associated 
with this process. The program 
can be adapted to a number of 
purposes in its present state 
and can be customized to your 
own needs. 

This program is written for a 
TRS-80, Level II, with a 132 
column line printer (in the 
author's case, an IDS Paper 
Tiger). 4K of memory is plenty, 
since the program is very short, 
about 874 bytes. 

The Program 

The program uses both 
screen and printer output, but 
users without printers can 
eliminate all LPRINT state- 
ments and still have a useful 
program. 

The command on Line 55, 



LPRINT CHR$ (31), is a Paper 
Tiger control command that ad- 
justs the line length to 132 
characters. It may not be neces- 
sary with other printers. Lines 
65 and 68 allow you to input a 
Report Name and Date. Both of 
these lines are unnecessary 
without a printer. 

Line 70 is the reference name. 
This can be Date, Check 
Number, Invoice Number or 
other suitable reference. This 
entry is not used for any compu- 
tations. 

In Line 75, input the number of 
columns that you want for a par- 
ticular task. This version of the 
program is written with 10 
characters per column and will 
print the reference column, 11 
data columns and a line total 
column. (See Fig. 1.) You may 
customize your LPRINT USING 
statements for more or fewer 
columns. 

Lines 80-125 form a routine to 
input heading names for the col- 
umns. 

In Lines 130-190, numerical 
data is input. Each entry may be 
positive, negative or zero. After 
accepting an entry for each col- 
umn, the program prints a line 



130 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



total, and the routine is repeated 
for the next line. If an input error 
is made, the same reference 
numt>er can be re-entered, zero 
quantities entered for the un- 
changed columns, and correc- 
tions made in the erroneous col- 
umns. This procedure is demon- 
strated in Fig. 1 for day 4. 

This program loop is exited by 
inputting a reference number of 
999, but you may establish your 
own loop exit. Upon exit from 
the loop, the program prints col- 
umn totals and a grand total. At 
that point, the program ter- 
minates. This routine is in Lines 
200-240. 



One Disadvantage 

One disadvantage to this pro- 
gram is that an entry must be 
made in each column, each 
time. However, a zero or an 
ENTER will do. No heading 
routines for second and subse- 
quent pages are provided, 
either. 

Still, tor the computer 
owner/businessman, this sim- 
ple program has a great deal of 
flexibility and should be in his 
library along with the amortiza- 
tion, checkbook balancing, de- 
preciation and all the rest of the 
so-called "business" pro- 
grams. ■ 



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i-i 


I.M 


l.S 


:.N 


Bt.in 


•l.N 


lli.ll 


MS 


].n 


i.n 


I.N 


l.N 


I.M 


I.M 


IMI 


I.B 


l.N 


n.oD 


'l.N 


I.N 


I.N 


it.n 


l.N 


I.H 


I.W 


'..X 


i.y 


i.K 


I.M 


M.K 


ILW 


M.N 


i.n 


l.IS 


t.M 


i.II 


I.U 


I.X 


l.K 


i.n 


N.N 


l.N 


Vi.m 


NI.N 


•.«■ 


I.N 


t.H 


l.N 


g.H 


l.N 


l.N 


l.N 


I.H 


t.N 


-M.M 


?.W 


I.M 


I.N 


l.N 


t.N 


l.N 


l.N 


l.N 


I.H 


l.N 


l.N 


l.N 



•.» n.ii ii.n m.N lb.m w.i 



Fig. 1. 



i[Si 



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MANAGEMENT 

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^R99a»rS»mc»—at*p»g» 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 131 



LTILITY 



Display your buffer contents in hex, ASCII or decimal. 



Buffer Analysis 



Robert M. Chambers 
74 Stinson Ave. 
Nepean, Ontario 
Canada K2H 6N4 



In my efforts to discover the 
various TRS-80 tape formats, 
I found that I had to write sev- 
eral assembler and BASIC pro- 
grams to do little bits and 
pieces of the work. 
To overcome the awkward- 



ness of frequently loading the 
different programs, I decided to 
write one program which would 
do all the jobs. 

Buffer Analyser is a program 
which displays the TRS-80's I/O 
buffer in ASCII, decimal or hex- 
adecimal format. 

The whole Idea of this pro- 
gram is to read a record into the 
I/O buffer and display it on the 
screen In hex, decimal or ASCII- 
Using the I/O buffer overcomes 
the problem of truncated data 
which often occurs when a 



ABS 


D9 


GET 


A4 


PUT 


A5 


AND 


D2 


GOSUB 


91 


RANDOM 


86 


ASC 


F6 


GOTO 


80 


READ 


8B 


ATN 


E4 


IF 


8F 


REM 


93 


AUTO 


B7 


INKEYI 


C9 


RESET 


82 


CDBL 


F1 


INP 


DB 


RESUME 


9F 


CHRI 


F7 


INPUT 


89 


RESTORE 


90 


CI NT 


EF 


INSTR 


C5 


RETURN 


92 


CLEAR 


B8 


INT 


D6 


RIGHTS 


F9 


CLOAD 


B9 


KILL 


AA 


RND 


DE 


CLOSE 


A6 


LEFTS 


F8 


BSET 


AC 


CLS 


84 


LEN 


F3 


BUN 


8E 


CMD 


B5 


LET 


8C 


SAVE 


AD 


CO NT 


B3 


LINE 


9C 


SET 


83 


COS 


E1 


LIST 


B4 


SGN 


D7 


CSAVE 


BA 


LLIST 


B5 


SIN 


E2 


CSNG 


FO 


LOAD 


A7 


SQR 


DD 


CVD 


E8 


LOC 


EA 


STEP 


CC 


CVI 


E6 


LOF 


EB 


STOP 


94 


CVS 


E7 


LOG 


OF 


STRS 


F4 


DATA 


88 


LPRINT 


AF 


STRINGS 


C4 


DEF 


BO 


LSET 


AB 


TAB( 


BC 


DEFDBL 


9B 


MEM 


C8 


TAN 


E3 


DEFINT 


99 


MERGE 


A8 


THEN 


CA 


DEFSNG 


9A 


MIDS 


FA 


TIMES 


C7 


DEFSTR 


98 


MKD$ 


EE 


TO 


BD 


DELETE 


B6 


MKI$ 


EC 


TROFF 


97 


DIM 


8A 


MKS$ 


ED 


TRON 


96 


EDIT 


9D 


NAME 


A9 


USING 


BF 


ELSE 


95 


NEW 


BB 


USR 


CI 


END 


80 


NEXT 


87 


VAL 


F5 


EOF 


E9 


NOT 


CB 


VARPTR 


CO 


ERL 


C2 


ON 


A1 


+ 


CD 


ERR 


C3 


OPEN 


A2 


- 


CE 


ERROR 


9E 


OR 


D3 




CF 


EXP 


EO 


OUT 


AO 


/ 


DO 


FIELD 


A3 


PEEK 


E5 


t 


01 


FIX 


F2 


POINT 


C6 


> 


04 


FN 


BE 


POKE 


B1 


= 


D5 


FOR 


81 


PCS 


DC 


< 


D6 


FRE 


DA 


PRINT 


82 






Table 1 


Level It BASIC Compression Codes. 



string variable is used. 

According to the memory 
map provided in the Level II 
BASIC Reference fvlanual, the 
address of the I/O buffer begins 
at 16870 and ends at 17127. Us- 
ing the PEEK instruction within 
FOR-NEXT loops and referenc- 
ing this area, one byte at a time 
is accessed and processed for 
the chosen display format. 

When the command menu is 
displayed, you press A for 
ASCII, H for hexadecimal, D for 
decimal, N to read the next tape 
record, C to clear the buffer and 
X to stop the run. 

Hexadecimal display is most 
useful for my purposes and I 
have, therefore, supplied the list 
of compression codes in that 
{Table 1) form. This list is useful 
in analyzing BASIC program 
tapes and useful information to 
use for writing programs to 
renumber or change BASIC pro- 
grams. These codes are used in 
memory and on tapes to reduce 



the amount of storage needed 
for BASIC programs. 

The Level II manual also 
mentions that each line ot 
BASIC code contains a car- 
riage return, a two-byte line 
pointer and a two-byte line 
number. The TRS-80 Microcom- 
puter Technical Reference 
Handbook says that a CSAVE 
will generate 128 zero bits, an 
A5 hex byte for synchronizing a 
read, a two-byte start address, 
a two-byte end address, the 
data and, finally, a one-byte 
check sum. The check sum is 
the sum of all the data. 

When you examine the buffer 
you will not see a lot of this. A 
BASIC program in hex will start 
00 2C D3 D3 D3, Presumably, 
this portion follows the sync 
byte A5, which is not shown. 
tJsing the code compression 
table below, you can find the 
start of the program state- 
ments and proceed to decipher 
the program. ■ 



Program Listing. 



I CLEARieflB 

5 AS""0123456789ABCDEF" 

10 CLSiPRINTCHRS (23) :PRINTg528, "BUFFER ANALYZER" j : FORZ= 

lTO1200!NexTZ 
15 GOTO30 REM >>>>>>> TO MAIN LINE START <<<<<<<< 
20 CLS:AFS=CHRS(0) !PBINT?530, "PRESS A KEY TO READ THE N 

EXT RECORD"; 
25 AFS=INKEYS!lFAFS<CHBS(l)THEN25ELSECLS!PRIHTe534,"TAP 

E RECORD BEING READ " ; : INPUT»-1 , BS 
30 AFS=CHRS(0) :CLS:PRINTe412,"PRESS";:PRINTe515,"A FOR 

ASCII, H FOR HEX, D FOR DECIMAL N FOR NEXT OR X TO 
END"; :PRINT@658, "PRESS C TO CLEAR THE BUFFER"; 
35 AFS=INKEYS:IFAFS<CHR$(1)THEN35 
40 IFAFS="A"THENGO£UB176!GOTO500 
IFAFS="H"THENGOSUB95: GOTO500 
IFAFS="D"THENGOSUB200!GOTO500 
55 IFAFS="N"THEN GOTO20 

60 IFAFS="X"THENCLS: GOT0999 
65 IFAFS="C"THENGOSUB700:GOTO30 
90 GOTO30 

94 1 •>************>it*]tit*itlrtit***l*1l****************tit*** 

95 <*•*** rp[,p; CONVERT BUFFER AND DISPAY IN HEX ROUTINE 

***** 

96 



45 
50 



I ********•******< 
***** 



>*■**•**•*****•********** 



100 CLS 

150 FORX-16870TO17127:A=PEEK{X) 



132 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



155 B-FIX(V16) :C-B*16:D=A-C 

160 PRINTMIDS(AS,B+1,1) ;MID5(AS,D+1,1} ;" "t 

16 5 NEXTX 

170 RETURN 

]^7^ ■ **********•**•*••*•*******•*•■•**■*■•*•*********** 

• * *•* 
176 •**•*. THE READ BUFFER AND DISPLAY IN ASCII ROUTINE 

**** 
277 1 *************** **«****«******««**■*********«**«*** 

*■■** 
1B0 CLS 
185 FORX"16870TO17127:PRIHTCHRS{PEEK(X1 ) )" "jrNEXTX 

190 RETURN 

199 I*******. *****. **.***********•***•■■**■****•*•***** 



200 ■•*** THE READ BUFFER AND DISPLAY IN DECIMAL ROUTIN 
E *•* 

231 ' ••*•**•*•**•*■•*■****************••***•>*•******** 

***** 
205 CLS 
210 FORX=16B70TO17127iPRINTPEEK{X) ; : NEXTX 

234 RETURN 

235 I. .*..*.*..*.......*..•.**.*.**.**.***•. *...*..*.*. 

***** 

600 ■*•**•*•• THE DELAY AT END OF DISPLAY ROUTINE 
***** 



501 



5B5 AFS=CHRS(0) 

510 AFS=INKEYS:IFAFS<CHR$(1)THEN510 

515 G0T03B: REM BACK TO MAIN LINE 

^99 < ************************************************** 



708 '*•••••••*••*•• CLEAR BUFFER ROUTINE 

***** 
7fll ■***.*******.*..*.**.*.**.....*..*.******•**•***••* 

• •• t* 
702 CLS:PRINTe540, "CLEARING"; 
785 FOax-16 870TO17 127 !POKEX,0: NEXTX 
706 CLS:PRINTe540,"CLEAREDl";:FORZ=lTO333!NEXTZ 
710 RETURN 
997 I***************** THE END ROUTINE **************** 

***** 
993 • ****t***********t*it**t************ik*t**t****iiit**** 

* *•* * 

999 END 

1000 ' *■*■•*•*•■*•*•**■*■*****•*•********************** 



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■^ Header SorvicB — see page 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 133 



UTILITY 



Lots of data to display? 

Try these techniques for a tidier screen. 



Display Formatting 



Allans. Joffe W3KBM 
1005 Twining Road 
DresherPA 19025 



The time will soon arrive 
when you wish to display 
large numbers of data bits on 
your monitor. You have been 
aware of the formatting aids, 
such as the four printing zones 
and the TAB function, built into 
the TRS-80. As a start, enter 
Listing 1 and Listing 2 and run 
first one and then the other for 
comparison. 

You may have to carefully ex- 
amine Listing 2 to fathom how 



you got the same 40 numbers 
that Listing 1 gave you. The item 
of concern is really the dif- 
ference in format. In Listing 1 
the consecutive numbering is 
basically horizontal, while in 
Listing 2 the consecutive num- 
bering pattern is basically verti- 
cal. While it is a matter of 
choice, 1 prefer the Listing 1 ap- 
proach when formatting data on 
the video screen. 

Modifications 

Now consider this slightly re- 
vised version of Listing 1. If you 
are worthing with this article at 
your computer (which is the way 
to fly), just make the appropriate 
changes in the listing on your 
screen (see Example 1). In line 7 
there are three spaces between 
each X, Xt3 couplet. 



When you run this program, 
you will see we have added 
some data to illustrate the for- 
matting look. Beside each value 
of X (1 to 40) we now show the 
cube of each X value. If your 
TRS-80 has the same firmware 
quirk that my machine has, it 
will show a value of 8000.01 as 
the cube of 20. Now look at Ex- 
ample 2. 

Line 70 may be a momentary 
headscratcher, but if you 
worked out how line 70 in Listing 
2 functioned, the new line 70 in 
Example 2 will fall into place. 
Once again the difference in for- 
mats is a matter of taste and 
what you are used to. I personal- 
ly opt for Listing 2. 

Another formatting aid is 
shown in Listing 3. The equation 
in line 20 is a centigrade (Cel- 



sius) to Fahrenheit conversion 
based on the fact that -40 
degrees is a point of numerical 
equality for both systems. Line 
10 prints out Celsius tempera- 
tures from to 102 degrees in 
steps of 2 degrees (in conjunc- 
tion with line 30), and with the 
further aid of line 30, prints the 
corresponding Fahrenheit tem- 
perature beside the Celsius tem- 
perature. 

The real value you get from 
this effort will only come if you 
enter the programs into your 
computer. Once you have a feel 
for and an understanding of the 
methods outlined here, then 
comes the fun. You can experi- 
ment and improvise, and in so 
doing you are in great danger of 
becoming a better programmer. 
Don't say I didn't warn youlH 



5 


CLS 


10 


FOR X = 1 TO 40 


20 


PRINT X. 


30 


NEXTX 


40 


END 




Listing 1. 



50 CLS 

60 FOR X = 1 TO 10 

70 PRINT X.X + 10,X + 20,X + 30 

80 NEXTX 

90 END 



Listing 2. 



5 CLS 








7 PRINT ®0,"X Xt3","X Xt3".-X 


xty 


■X 


XT3" 


10 FORX-1 TO 40 








20 PRINT X,Xf3, 








30 NEXTX 








40 END 








Example 1. 









50 


CLS 












55 


PRINT ®0, "X 


Xt3", 


X Xr3", 'X Xt3 


.'■x 


Xt3" 




60 


FORX= 1 TO 10 










70 


PRINT X;Xf3.X 


+ 10;(X 


+ 10)t3,X + 20;(X + 


20)f3 


X + 30;(X 


+ 30)13 


80 


NEXTX 












90 


END 




Example 2. 









5 


CLS 












10 


FORC 


^0 TO 24 STEP 2 








20 


F = 1(0 + 


40)- 1.8) - 


40 








30 PRINT C;F,C + 26;F 


+ 46 8,C + 52,F 


+ 936,C + 78:F + 140.4 | 


40 


NEXTC 




Listing 3. 









134 • 80 Microcomputing. June 1980 



TM 



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Feature Checklist 

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PO Box'529 Mercer Island WA 98040 
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80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 135 



INTERFACE 



Use your 80 to check test measurements automatically. 



Testing I, 2, 3 



D. C. Nelson 

4733 E. Linden 
Tucson, AZ 85712 



Have you ever wanted to 
use your computer as part 
of a measurement system? 
Soon after getting a computer, I 
began to wish that I could use it 
for recording and analyzing 
measurements from test instru- 
ments. 

The thought of my computer 
functioning as a data logging 
tool was enticing, but the 
thought of having to manually 



key in the data was not. There 
had to be a better way! 

Parallel Ports 

Fortunaiety there is a better 
way. 1 am referring to the 
parallel port, that neglected 
feature commonly used for little 
more than reading keyboards or 
driving printers. 

You can create both the hard- 
ware and software necessary to 
link your computer to outside 
measuring instruments without 
having to learn assembly lan- 
guage, since everything can be 
done under BASIC. 

Although most of what is 
presented is oriented toward the 
TRS-80. it Is by no means limited 
to it. The S-100 bus computers 



are equally usable. Let's look at 
some of the requirements for 
linking test equipment to a com- 
puter. 

First, the data must be in a 
computer recognizable format 
and at TTL compatible levels. 
However, this does not mean 
that we are restricted to using 
only binary numbers. Binary 
code makes the most efficient 
use in space of a given number 
of bits but it is not always the 
easiest code to use. 

By redefining the meaning of 
each bit position in an eight-bit- 
word, we can make the code 
easier to work with in terms of 
the outside world. This is called 
binary coded decimal, or BCD 
for short. 




Fig. 1. One Parallel I/O Port. This example shows address 31 decoded. 



BCD Data 

A single eight-bit-word can ex- 
press any binary value from 
00000000 to 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 , or from 
to 255 decimal. In a single- 
decimal-digit. It takes four bits 
to specify any of the possible 
values from to 9. The remain- 
ing binary combinations from 1 1 
to 15 are discarded. 

Since the computer operates 
on eight-bit-data, it is only 
logical to use the remaining four 
bit positions to represent 
another digit. Thus an eight-bit- 
word can be used to represent 
any number between and 99 in 
BCD format. Unlike a straight 
binary format, we now have 
some bit patterns that are il- 
legal. Example 1 shows how this 
process works. 

Why go to BCD? A quick look 
through an IC catalog will give 
part of the answer. Many com- 
mon components such as 
counters, AID converters, and 
clock chips have BCD outputs 
already available. f*^any com- 
mercially available measuring 
instruments have auxiliary out- 
puts that are BCD coded. 

In addition, it is easier to tailor 
your computer to the number of 
digits you wish to resolve by us- 
ing BCD. 

BCD also has some disadvan- 
tages. First is the need for a 
method of converting between 
BCD and binary. 

Second, to have a large num- 
ber of BCD interfaces you must 
also have a large number of in- 
terconnections. Remember that 
each digit requires four bits, 
therefore four leads will be 
needed. For a six-digit frequen- 



1 36 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



cy counter this means 24 bulky 
connections. (Multiplexing can 
cut this down but that gets more 
complicated.) 

Hardware 

Let's look at what it takes to 
get parallel data in and out of 
our computer. The TRS-80 has 
an edge connector on the back 
left that provides access to the 
CPU bus inside. 

An explanation of the pinout 
can be found in the back of the 
Level I manual. Oddly enough, 
this diagram was omitted from 
the Level II manual in the 
system I worked on. You will 
need Level II BASIC to make 
both the hardware and software 
function properly. 

The parts of the bus that in- 
terest us are the address lines, 
the data lines and the two con- 
trol lines labelled iN and ODT. 
The Z-80 CPU can address up to 
256 I/O ports. When this is done 
in the TR&«). the CPU places 
the port address <0-255) on the 
lower eight address lines and is- 
sues the appropriate fN or OUT 
control command at the rear 
connector. 

If a word is being written to 
the port, the data bus will con- 
tain the byte t>eing output and 
the OUT line will be strobed low. 
If an input byte is requested, the 
data bus is tri-stated to allow 
the input port hardware to place 
its byte on the bus and the \H 
line is strobed low. 

Whether a specific port 
numt)er is used for input or out- 
put depends upon the design of 
the external hardware. It can tie 
both. 

The first requirement in set- 
ting up a parallel port is for the 
computer to recognize its port 
address. This means we must 
decode a particular address. At 
the same time we must check to 
see if either the IN or ODT line is 
valid. These control lines tell us 
that the address is a port and 
not a memory. 

Fig. 1 shows an example of 
how this works. First we must 
pick an address that is not 
already in use. Let's use 31 as an 
example. 

The address bus has the ap- 
propriate lines inverted to make 
the inputs to the eight input 




INPUT 
• #S PORT 

STHOBtS 



~Lr 



• a 

• 6 
OUTPUT 

* •! POHt 

STBoetS 



• 2 



-TL 



Fig. 2. Decoding 8 Paraltel I/O Ports. Input & output circuits are the same as Fig. 2. 



NAND gate high when address 
31 is given. This signal is in- 
verted and gated with the in- 
verted OUT command to form a 
strobe pulse for the latch. 

For an input port we decode 
the address in the same way ex- 
cept we use the IN line. Instead 
of a latch, we must now use a tri- 
slate buffer to place the input 
byte on the data bus. Note that it 
is possible for an input and an 
output port to have the same 
numerical address. The control 
lines tell which of the two is to 
be active. 

Multiple Ports 

Obviously, a single I/O port 
will not suffice for all measure- 
ment applications. In order to 
address at least four, and prefer- 
ably eight ports, the address Is 
decoded differently. 

First, we will say that all port 
addresses will be contiguous, or 
numerically sequential. The 
lowest address will be the 
boundary of the block. Since 



BINARY 


BCD 


DECIMAL 


0101D010 
01001101 
00000011 
lOOOOOOO 


10OOO010 
01111001 
00000011 
ILLEGAL 


82 

79 

3 

128 


01010110 BCD = 56 DECIMAL 


Example 

Decimal 


1. Binary, BCD and 
Equivalents. One 


byte can represent any two 
digit number. 



eight ports will require three bits 
for the address within the block, 
this leaves five bits to define the 
block boundary. 

Addressing a specific port 
now requires three events to be 
true; The proper boundary as 
defined by A3-A7; the proper 
three-bit address as defined by 
A0-A2; and the TN or GOT com- 
mand as appropriate. Fig. 2 illus- 
trates this. (There are other 
ways of implementing parallel 
I/O ports. This method is shown 
because of its simplicity and the 
low cost of the parts.) 

If a full eight ports are placed 
on the bus, it should t>e buf- 
fered. If not, there is the possi- 
bility of overloading the bus with 
all the additional decoding and 
latching circuitry. 

Also, if you locate your inter- 
face at the end of several feet of 
cable, you can introduce error 
causing reflections onto the 
bus. As a final thought, consider 
the consequences if something 
goes haywire externally; you 
end up damaging some ICs and 
your connections are straight 



onto the bus. Need I say more? 

I built my buffer using tri-state 
gates on a small card that 
plugged straight into the edge 
connector. The buffer in turn 
had its own edge connector 
where the cable from the expan- 
sion interface was attached, de- 
tained full use of the extra 
memory and the disk drive. 

Circuit speed posed no prob- 
lem. The IN and OUT signals 
are 1.4 microseconds wide, 
more than adequate settling 
time. 

Incidentally, the manual 
showed one of the pins on the 
edge connector providing +5 
volts. Check tiefore you use it as 
mine turned out to be a ground. 
Because of the power draw of an 
eight port interface, plan on 
building a separate power sup- 
ply. 

(!f you are working with an 
S-100 computer, see the article 
on building parallel port inter- 
faces in the Oct. 77 issue of 
Microcomputing, pp. 102-108. 
Although the mechanics of de- 
coding differ slightly, all other 



1000 REM BCD SUBROUTINE 










1010 N ^ INF>(8| 


N - 


10010101 = 


95 BCD 




1020 N1 = N AND 15 


N1 


- OO0OO101 


= 5 




1030 N2 = N AND 240 


N2 


10010000 


= 9 




1040N2 = N2(16 


N = 


10 • 9 t 5 


= 96 




1050 N = 10 • N2 * N1 










1060 RETURN 










Example 2. Subroutine to read an decode two 


BCD digits 


Bit 


masking and shifting are employed. 









80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • AZ7 



principles remain the same.) 

Check your work by Instruct- 
ing the processor to write a 
specific byte to a port. Verify 
this with any instruments, from 
an LED to an oscilloscope. 

At the same time make sure 
that none of the other output 
ports are affected, 

To check an input port, selec- 
tively ground each bit and verify 
that the binary number returned 
changes by the appropriate 
power of two. 

Software 

Now that the hardware has 
been resolved, let's look at the 
necessary software. Under 
Level II BASIC we will make use 
of some special commands. The 
first are INP(X) and OUT(X,Y). 

The statement A = INP(8) in- 
structs the computer to read in- 
put port #8 and equate the value 
there to the variable A. (Note 
that at this time A can be from 
to 255 decimal.) 

To write to a port, tell the com- 
puter to OUT 8,Y and the value of 
Y in binary (not BCD) will appear 
on port #8. In the examples I am 
describing we cannot handle 
floating point numbers. 

Now we need the ability to 
selectively examine specific 
bits for deciphering the incom- 
ing BCD data. Earlier I said that 
one byte, and therefore one port. 



can represent two BCD digits. 
Since the computer uses binary 
and we are using BCD, some 
translating will be necessary. 

Assume we are using port #8 
and that it contains the BCD 
representation of the numtaer 
95, Our program must read the 
port and return the number 95 in 
binary to the processor. 

The first step reads the port 
and places the number in the 
variable N, Next we mask off, or 
zero, the four most significant 
bits, leaving only the units digit. 
This is directly equated to the 
variable N1 for temporary 
storage. 

Then the four least significant 
bits of N are masked and the re- 
maining bits are shifted right 
four places. This number Is di- 
rectly equated to N2 for storage. 
An artificial binary number is 
now created from each half of 
the BCD byte. Since the four 
least significant bits equate 
directly to 0-9 (not counting the 
illegals), the interpreted digit 
must lie in the four least signifi- 
cant bit positions. Anything else 
will give an erroneous result. 

The final step is to multiply N2 
by 10, add it to N1 and return the 
number as N. if this process is 
made into a subroutine, any por- 
tion of the program can get a 
two-digit numlwr from port #8. 
Example 2 shows the me- 



1000 REM 6 DIGIT BCD READ 

1010 Nl = INP(8) 

1020 N2 = INP(9) 

1030 N3 = INP(10) 

1040 Nl = Nl AND 15 t [Nl AND 240V16 ' 10 

tOSO N2 = N2 AND 15 + (N2 AND 240)/16 ' tO 

1060 N3 = N3 AND 15 ♦ (N3 AND 240)/16 * 10 

1070 N = Nl + 1O0'N2 + 10000*N3 

1080 RETURN 

Example 3. 6 digit BCD read subroutine. 



chanics and the coding in more 
detail. Try it longhand to con- 
vince yourself that it works. 

Masking 

The masking process is the 
key step in the conversion. Us- 
ing the AND command makes it 
possible to selectively turn off 
any combination of bits in a 
word and leave the remainder 
unchanged. 

Think of each bit in the input 
byte as one input to an AND 
gate and the other gate input as 
being the corresponding bit po- 
sition in the mask word. If the 
mask bit is high, the gate output 
equals the second input bit. 

If the mask bit is a zero, then 
the gate output is a zero, regard- 
less of the state of the other bit. 
This command will act on all 
eight bits at once. 

To determine the numerical 
value of the mask word, add the 
binary weight of the bit posl- 



BCD OATft 



OJ Of 01 00 



M 01 01 DO 



0» 01 Ql 00 



03 d: di do 



OS 02 a\ 00 



Ds d; di do 



OS 01 01 00 



D9 01 01 00 



09 az HI 00 



OS Dt DI 00 



OS 01 a> 00 



DI Oi DI DO 



09 at 01 00 



DS Dt DI DO 



03 02 01 00 



09 D< DI DO 



09 01 01 DO 



DSZ 
DS3 
EDC 



u? 



Fig. 3. Interfacing a DVM chip. Multiplexed data is in latched parallel format. 



lions you want left unchanged. 

Following the masking pro- 
cess (which leaves the tens 
digit), the shift right by four is 
accomplished through dividing 
by 16. Since dividing by two is 
the same as shifting every bit 
position right by one, it follows 
that a division by 16 will produce 
four shifts to the right. The code 
in Example 2 is shown one step 
at a time for clarity. 

To Obtain more than two 
digits of resolution (one part in a 
hundred is inadequate in many 
cases) use some of the addi- 
tional ports to give whatever 
amount is necessary. 

Each port is treated as in Ex- 
ample 2 except that the decoded 
numtiers are scaled by the ap- 
propriate power of ten before 
being added. Remember when i 
said how easy it was to scale the 
system for any number of 
digits? All you have to do is to 
allocate sufficient ports and do 
the appropriate decimal scaling 
on the numbers. Example 3 
shows a subroutine for reading 
a six-digit frequency counter 
connected to three input ports. 

Output ports can be used to 
control relays, triacs, D/A con- 
verters, etc. One port can be 
used to control eight separate 
circuits by means of TTL com- 
patible reed relays or optical 
isolators. The OR command 
controls any specific bit without 
affecting the others. 

To establish how fast I could 
transfer values in and out I tried 
a couple of benchmark pro- 
grams. In each case the pro- 
gram transferred 1000 values to 
a single port in a FOR NEXT loop 
while doing nothing else. The 
output was finished in 6.4 sec- 
onds while the input took 7.3 
seconds. Using the subroutine 
in Example 3 took 115 seconds. 

Obviously the calculations 



13B • 80 Microcomputing. June 1980 



take their toll in speed. Consider 
however, the application you 
wiii be involved with, and if your 
experience echoes mine, the 
comparativeiy iow speed is of 
little matter. 

What is important is that the 
computer is now doing more 
work and the programmer less! 
Also, it is aimost always nec- 
essary for the computer to wait 
idiy while the external instru- 
ment makes its measurement. 

A do nothing FOR NEXT loop 
can be used as a timer for such 
occasions. I have found that 340 
iterations take one second. 

Examples 
Let's look at a circuit that 



uses the methods I have de- 
scribed. Fig. 3 shows an analog 
to a digital converter using the 
Motorola MC14433 IC. This chip 
is the basic building block for a 
ZVi digit DVM. 

Note that most of the parts 
are used to convert the 
multiplexed BCD output to 
parallel latched BCD, which is 
compatible with the software 
described. This is a typical re- 
quirement for most instruments. 
In this application the multiplex- 
ing works against us. It is possi- 
ble to directly read a multi- 
plexed output, but it requires an 
intimate knowledge of the tim- 
ing of both the instrument and 
the computer. 



To do this, the computer must 
test the digit position it needs to 
read. When that digit is enabled, 
it must be read before the scan 
continues. All digits must be 
read in one scan so that an er- 
roneous reading will not be 
returned. This would occur if the 
measuring instrument updated 
its reading to a new value while 
the computer was still trying to 
read the remainder of the origi- 
nal one. 

Taking two readings and com- 
paring them t>efore returning to 
the calling program is a worth- 
while check, if BASIC reads the 
data. 

The circuit shown in Fig. 3 il- 
lustrates a typical requirement 



for latching multiplexed data. If 
you intend to build it, or need 
more information on this par- 
ticular device, consult the 
Motorola CMOS manual. 

You can also call a machine- 
language program from BASIC 
to demultiplex the data in soft- 
ware and POKE the digit pairs 
into successive memory loca- 
tions. This eliminates the demul- 
tiplexing hardware. 

The subroutine in BASIC 
would then be modified to PEEK 
the memory locations as a 
source of data. Since the final 
program will depend on the 
specific instrument being inter- 
faced I will leave the rest to 
you.B 



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applications, reduce disk I/O and space tequiiements and 
improve response iltnc. while maintaining a key-sequcnced 
inden to a data file . BIDAM permits programmers to place 
emphasis on applications rather than file accessing tech- 
niques, sorting, searching and disk space management. 

UDAM Funclions ace petrormcd by invoking basic sub- 
routines which include: key setuching. changing, addition 
and deletion. Each subroutine returns a status code in. 
dicalmg Ihe completion status oF Ihe requested function 
and a record r^uitiber to enable direct retrievaJ of any 
record on Tile with one (]| 1/0 operation. 

BIDAM ON DISKETTE WITH SAMPLE 
APPLICATION $79.00 

TRSW la • tr»0»m»rV ol ir* RHki Slack [>yiiion of T»ncly Ckin»r»tior 

Task Conpi:ter Apn.irATiONS 

Dayton, Ohio PO Box 24001 
45424 
(513)233-2118 ^220 



fBtMimr SanitM— S9t pagt )62 



Ki Microcomputing, June 1980 • 139 



STYLE 



We haf veys of making you 

tell us the information, you, keyboard, you! 



Keyboard Interrogation 



Michael R. Yarbrough 
14 Carmel Terrace 
Hampton VA 23666 

James B. Vosteen 
1765A 11th Street 
Hampton VA 23665 



Have you ever wanted to do 
something over and over, 
while hoiding a key down? You 
found iNKEY a little frustrating 
right? INKEY senses each key 
only once and then the key must 
be pressed again. 

What about the time you de- 
signed a real-time two-player 
video game and tried to process 
several keys at once? Again you 
were left hanging, since INKEY 
only processes the last key 
pressed. You can overcome 
these INKEY limitations by di- 
rectly accessing your keyboard 
memory, PEEKing. 

The Keyboard 

The TRS-80 keyboard con- 
sists of 53 single-pole single- 
throw normally open keys. The 
keyboard is designed as an 8 by 



8 matrix with the eight address 
lines (A0-A7) running horizontal- 
ly and the eight data lines 
(D0-D7) running vertically (Fig. 
1). 

The keys are divided into 
eight groups, most of them hav- 
ing eight keys per group. Each 
key represents an intersection 
of one address line and one data 
line. The CPU scans the data 
lines looking for an 'on' condi- 
tion {logical 1); once this is 
found it begins scanning the ad- 
dress lines for a similar 'on' con- 
dition. 

For example, if C is pressed 
the data value eight is stored in- 
to decimal address 14337; like- 
wise if 5 is pressed the data 
value 32 is stored into decimal 
address 14352. This informatoin 
is then processed by the Level II 
ROM which checks to see if the 
shift key has been pressed and 
then converts the code into the 
correct ASCII equivalent. 

Program Listing 1 generates 
Fig. 1 using Level II BASIC. Use 
it in the future when a program 
requires direct access to key- 
board memory. 



10 CLSiPRIHT TRBv21>"KEVB0RRD INTERROGFlTION" : PRINT 

20 PRINT"flDtPE3S":;>1433r-:D=l:C=64:Z=192!V=2 

30 FORI-1TO4:GOSUB5O0iHE>:TI 

49 C-=43:F0RI = lT02:G0SUB5ee:NEXTl 

ZQ PRlHTia',M::','=','+3iPRINT«V. "ENTER CLEAR BREfW:"; 

60 C-?l:V-^'>'+23:F0RI = lT04iPRINTe'/.CHR»'X:>; 

70 C-C+i:V-V+7:tCXTI 

SQ PRINT'av-2. ■'3PRCE"j:Z=Z+fc4!X=K+C' 

■?C PRINT'S^,. AiPRINT^Z+S. "SHIFT" J 

100 PRIlJT«731."i:)flTfi gfiLUE"i 

lia V^777:D-^1 

120 F0RI-=1T03:PRINT*y'..D:D=D*2:V=V*7 

130 i;c;;ti 

14^3 G0T0i4Q 

300 PRIHT'8V..X:V-V+3:F0RJ=1T03 

G15 ■.'^■.■■t-7: IFO90THEN PRIHT^SV," " : GOTO530 

Z.20 PRINTi'.'.CHR*CC):C=C>l: IFC=60 THEN C=44 

"jZO nE;:TJ:Z^Z+64;\'=Z:X=;>D:D=D»'2 

340 RETURN 

Program Listing 1. 



The reason direct access to 
keyboard memory is so useful is 
because a key's value can be re- 
peated. The instant a key of a 
certain group is held down the 
address of that group will con- 
tinue to have that key's data 
value as long as the key is held 
down. Once the key is let up, the 
value in that address immedi- 
ately goes to zero. As long as a 
certain data value is contained 
within a group address you can 
execute a set of instructions. 
This function eliminates the 
frustration of using INKEY in 
your quick interactive games. 

Another INKEY weakness is 
that it can only return one key- 
stroke at any given time. Using 
PEEK you can detect two, three 
or even more keys being held 
down. 

There are two ways of doing 
this depending on what type of 
processing you need. If you 
need speed, design your pro- 
gram to use keys of the same 
group— one PEEK and several 



IF statements in a row. 

When looking for a single key 
pressed, use whatever data 
value is associated with that 
particular key. To check for two 
keys being pressed at the same 
time, take the data value of both 
keys, add them together and 
that is the value to check for. 

For example, suppose we 
want to make a game that 
moves a rocket up and down the 
left side of the screen and fires 
to the right from wherever it is 
currently located. The program 
might work as follows: to go up, 
press the up arrow; to go down, 
press the down arrow; to fire, 
press both the up and the down 
arrows. 

Note that the arrows are lo- 
cated in key group A6. The key- 
board routine might look some- 
thing like this: 

100 2 = PEEK(14400i 
200 IF Z = 8 GOTO 600 
300 IF Z = 16 GOTO 700 
400 IF Z=: 24 GOTO 800 
500 GOTO 100 

REM CONTINUE KEVBOAHD 



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if; :•■.'•! it:.33ftnt".'--i,.-Tnc!r<'-3 




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SETI.IRIt 

Program Listing 2. 





1 40 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



600 Process up airow and 

GOTO 100 
700 Process down arrow and 

GOTO 100 
800 Process tx}^<^ arrows and 

GOTO 100 



Two or more keys pressed 
that are not in the same group 
must be checked separately. 
For example, if you are looking 
for the A and L keys pressed at 
the same time you can check it 
as follows: 



X = PEEK(1«37) 
Y = PEEK(14338) 
IFX^2ANDY-16G0T0 



Keyboard Interrogation 

Program Listing 2 is a demon- 
stration of keyboard memory in- 
terrogation. The following is a 
brief description of each routine 
in Program 2: 



1000-2400 


Set up screen 


2500-2700 Saves next rocket 




position 




Restores old position 




Moves rocket to next 




position 


2800 


Call keyboard scan 


2900-3400 


Make sure rocket 




boesn'I go oil top or 




botlom 


3500 


Conlinue looping 




KEYBOARD SCAN 


3600 


Get data value 


3700 


Checks tor up arrow 


3B00 


Checks for down ai- 




row 


3900 


Ctiecks (or latl arrow 


4OO0 


Checks lor right arrow 


4100 


Cfiecks (or up and left 




arrows 


4200 


Checks (or up and 




right arrows 


4300 


Checks (or down and 




left arrows 


44O0 


Checks for down and 




righl arrows 


4500 


Checks tor no input— 




branches if true 




Return to main pro- 
gram 



Conclusion 

In order to receive a response 
using the PEEK function, the 
key must be held down at the 
time the PEEK statement is exe- 



F/ff. 1. 



cuted- You will receive the same 
response as long as you hold 
down the key. 

You can access all the keys 
using PEEK, except for BREAK 
and CLEAR. The reason being 
the Level II ROM Interpreter is 
constantly checking these keys 
and has priority over them. 



INKEY remains a powerful 
function that allows input of an 
ASCII character (string) that can 
be used without further process- 
ing. Using a combination of IN- 
KEY and directly accessing the 
keyboard memory. PEEK, you 
will be able to meet most of your 
programming needs. ■ 



Subscribe to 



m 



microcomputing 



out tlie postage 
paid reply card on 
page 162 



announcing the new 

I N BTn U ME NTAT10N 
INTERFACE 

designed tor Ide TBS-80*^ 




La'ii oi Tano. Curt 



Appllad Micro Techndlogy miruduCKs Ihe lirsi 
Itiily po*erlu! Inslriimsnlalion Interlace 
designed tor use with TRS-BO* microsyslems 

The PCBO connects di'eclly to the Enpansion Port 
f dge Card ano accomooales up to 4 ot Appned 
Micros Z 80~ based special tunclion circuit 
cards 

Circuil cards piesenlly available are 

■ 33-ChBnnel A/D Converter (i2<w mMKn) 

■ B-Chinnel D/A Conv>rt«r[i ■DS'iOt.*-»'<<A| 

■ Programmitile Clock |ii>«aik>v tH9>-ivi 

■ Fkxrtlng F^tnl AfMvnetfc nticeiwx |AM«1^ 
bmma, 

m Z.Channel Serial I/O [RS-il2C orcunvnuooti) 

■ 48-611 ParOW I/O (uH>cv«p>d«) 
For complele mlormfltion. contact 

APPLIED n 

■BJJW (irar; Road 'ucBon AiiiOria aS70i 

r602; 622 8605 J 



^Reader Service — see page 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 " 141 



INTERFACE 



Use a Model 33 with your TRS-80, 

with no hardware modifications to your CPU. 



Teletype Interface 



Peter E. Noeth 
6906 Lenwood Way 
San Jose CA 95120 



Perhaps, tike myself, you 
don't have a line printer to 
obtain hard copy from your 
TRS-80 but do have access to a 
Model 33 Teletype. The follow- 
ing circuit and assembly lan- 
guage program provides the 
necessary interface to the 
TRS-80 CPU (keyboard) through 
a 40-pin ribbon cable without 
making any modifications to the 
unit. It requires the Level II ROM 
modification. 

Whenever you power up your 
TRS-80, this program must be 
entered and started. If a pro- 
gram you are running crashes 
and you get "memory size" dis- 
played on your screen, the 
program must be restarted be- 
cause the normal initialization 
routine within the ROM will 
place the regular line printer 
pointer (058DtH) in location 
4026H and 4027H. If this hap- 
pens, the teletype will still print 
but will not provide a line feed 
lor each carriage return. 

The Circuit 

The address decoder section, 
made up of the 74LS30, 74LS139, 
74LS155 and one gate of the 
74LS04, decodes the address 
37E8H. This Is the memory 
mapped address for the line 
printer. When it is available on 
the address bus and RD line is 
pulsed low, pin-5 of the 74LS155 
goes low enabling the Tri-State 
Buffer 74LS367. This places the 
binary bits 0011 or 3H on data 



lines D4-D7. The printer status 

routine within the ROM is look- 
ing for this combination to de- 
termine that the printer is ready 
for a character. The four bits are 
associated to the logic within 
the TRS-80 line printer. This in- 
terface only requires the use of 
one bit to indicate the printer is 
busy with an output. 

If the WR is pulsed low when 
the address is decoded, pin-11 
of the 74LS155 goes low taking 
pin-25 fTBRL) low on the DART. 
This loads the character on the 
data lines into the UART's inter- 
nal buffer. Then, it is transferred 
to the transmit register for out- 
put as serial data on pin-25 
(TRO). 

The Intersil IM6402 UART that 
I used has two signals which in- 
dicate this activity. 

Pin-22 fTRBE) goes low when 
the buffer is being loaded. 
Pin-24 (TRE) goes low for the 
duration of the output of the 
character on Pin-25 fTRO). 

These two signals are ANDed 
together by the 74LS03. Its out- 
put is used to indicate "busy" 
status to the TRS-80, See Fig. 1 
for the timing diagram. 

The UART's reset is tied to the 
TRS-80 system reset line so that 
when you hit the reset button on 
your TRS-80, the UART will also 
be reset and will clear its Inter- 
nal registers. 

The NE555 timer chip is used 
to provide the necessary clock 
input to the UART. The clock 
rate is 16 x , therefore, an input 
frequency of 1,76 KHz will pro- 
vide serial output of 110 Baud. 
The adjustment can be made 

with a frequency meter on pin-3 
of the timer, if you have one, or 
can be adjusted using the tele- 



type itself as follows: Input the 

following basic program and en- 
ter run. 

10 LPRtNT This IS a lesl- 
20 GOTO 10 

This provides a continuous 
output to the teletype. Adjust 
the 50K potentiometer until the 
teletype begins to type the line 
correctly. Continue to turn the 
potentiometer until the teletype 
stops printing the message cor- 
rectly. Noting the number of 
turns between these two points, 
readjust the potentiometer to a 
point midway. This should then 
provide the proper Baud rate. 

The output at Pin-25 (TRO) is 
input to a gate of the 74LS04 
which is used as a buffer for the 
20MA current loop circuit. The 
two points marked -♦- and - 
should be tied to the printer 



magnets in your Model 33 tele- 
type using its instruction man- 
ual for the proper connections. 

Hardware 

I built my interface on a gen- 
eral purpose wirewrap card with 
a 44-pin card edge connector us- 
ing sockets for all ICs, The rib- 
bon cable was soldered to a 
44-pin card edge connector as 
were the connections for the 
teletype and external -»-5V pow- 
er supply. 

The only caution with this in- 
terface is the IM6402 UART 
which is a CMOS device and re- 
quires the normal grounding for 
static when handling. Also, re- 
member not to insert or remove 
this device with the power turned 
on. 

The parts can be purchased 



Descrlpllon 



Quanlily 

1 UART— Intersil IM6402 

1 74LS139 2-line 1o4-lineclecoder 

1 74LS155 2-line 10 4 line aecoQer 

1 74LS04 Hex Inverter 

1 74LS03 2-inpuI nana open col 

1 74LS30 B-input nancl gate 

1 74LS367 Tn-slale butter 

1 NE555 Timer 

1 2N363B PNP transistor 

2 4.7K 1MW Carb. Comp Resistor 

2 lOOotimlMW Carb Comp, Resistor 

1 470olini1MW Carb Comp Resistor 

1 10K 1'4W Carb Comp Resislor 

1 10K 5=/= 1/4 Carb Comp Resistor 

1 50K 20-lurn P C Board Pol 

2 ,01 uf Mylar caps 

1 .001 ul Mylar caps 

Misc. 

1 40 Pph ic socKel 

3 16 Pin IC socKet 
3 14 Pin IC socket 
1 8 Pm IC socket 

1 General purpose 4 5 in PC Board 

*i'44-Pin card edge connector 

1 44-Pin cara edge connector 

A/R 1 ul Bypass caps (for I C S) 

1 40 Pin ritibon catile w/connector 

I -t-5V1ampPowerSupply 

Parfs list. 



142 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



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80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 143 



TRE 
TBRE 



u 

1 


U 

250 TO 7SO ^SEC 




UJ LJ 

1 


r 


u 




|^?90*lSEC 




M DATA II 11 







ORG 


7F62H 


;32610 DECIMAL 


7F62 


267F 


LD 


H,7FH 




7F64 


2E6F 


LD 


L,6FH 




7F66 


22264(7 


LD 


(4|)'26H),HL 


;NEW LINE PRINTER POINTER ADDRESS 


7F69 


3E39 


LD 


A,39H 


;56 LINES/PAGE 


7F6B 


32284? 


LD 


(40'28H),A 




7F6E 


CAjJffr4()' 


JP 


4;j'|7j3rH 


;REENTER BASIC WITH "SYNTAX ERROR" 
fDISPLAYED ON SCREEN 


7F6F 


79 


LD 


A,C 




7F70' 


B7 


OR 


A 




7F71 


CADlpfS 


JP 


JJfSDlH 


jPHINTER STATUS ROUTINE IN ROM 


7F74 


F5 


PUSH 


AF 




7F75 


CDDl?5 


CALL 


05Din 




7F76 


2l)'FB 


JR 


NZ,S-3 


;LOOP UNTIL PRINTER IS READY 


7F7A 


Fl 


POP 


AF 




7F7B 


32E837 


LD 


(37E8H) ,A 


fOUTPUT THE CHARACTER 


7F7E 


FE^D 


CP 


9dh 


; IS IT A "CR"? 


iFsg 


cpr 


RET 


NZ 




7F81 


CDDlflfS 


CALL 


?5D1H 


rYES, WAIT UNTIL PRINTER IS READY 


7F84 


2(i'FB 


JR 


NZ,5-3 




7F86 


3E8A 


LD 


A,^AH 


;ASCII LINE FEED 


7F88 


32E837 


LD 


(37E8H) ,A 


; OUTPUT A "LF" 


7F8B 


□D34|74 


INC 


(IX*Br4) 


; INCREMENT LINE COUNTER 


7F8E 


DD7E04 


LD 


A, (IX + (J4H) 




7F91 


DDBEiir3 


CP 


(IX+0'3H) 


.-COMPARE TO LINES/PAGE (56) 


7F94 


79 


LD 


A,C 




7F95 


c(jr 


RET 


NZ 


;IF NOT 56 LINES CONTINUE 


7F96 


DD36ia'4(J'0r 


LD 


(ix+(74H) ,99ii 


;ZERO THE LINE COUNTER 


7F9A 


9699 


LD 


a.99H 


;LOOP COUNT FOR 9 LINE FEEDS 


7F9C 


CDDlfifS 


CALL 


lJ5DiH 




7F9F 


21/FB 


JR 


NZ,5-3 




7FA1 


3E8A 


LD 


A,|7AH 




7FA3 


32E837 


LD 


(37E8H),A 


.-OUTPUT "LF" 


7FA6 


1!7f4 


DJNZ 


7F9CH 


;LOOP UNTIL (9) LF'S ARE OUTPUT 


7 FAS 


C9 


RET 






F/fi 


. 2. Assembly language program to interface a teletype to a TRS-80 16K, Level II. 



Fig. 1. UART timing diagram. 



from most of the suppliers who 
advertise in 80-Microcomputing. 
Alt parts, except the UART and 
the ribbon cable can also be pur- 
chased from any Radio Shack 
store. A three-foot ribbon cable 
with 40-Pin card edge connector 
can be purchased from Elec- 
tronic Systems, San Jose CA, 
part number 3CAB40 and the 
IM6402 UART from Advanced 
Computer Products, Irvine CA. 

Any +5V DC power source 
can be used or a small one can 
be built. Don't attempt to borrow 
+ 5V from your computer be- 
cause with the Level II modifica- 
tion and 16K RAM the power 
output is running close to maxi- 
mum. 

Software 

The assembly language pro- changes the lines per page to carriage return (ODH)and if it is 

gram is shown in Fig. 2. The ini- 56. The routine checks for print- found, outputs a line feed (OAH). 

tialization routine loads the new er status (call 05D1H) and out- It then increments the lines/ 

line printer pointer into location puts the character when ready. page counter, compares it to the 

4026H and 4027H as well as It checks each character for a line/page number (39H) and if 56 



19 REM * 


Teletype Interface - 15K TRS-80 Level II* 








29 REM * 


P.E. Noeth, San Jose, CA. May, 1979* 








39 REM * 


Answer Memory Size? — 3261?* 








4? REM * 


Run this Program - Enter System Command* 








59 REM * 


Answer Prompt with /3261?* 








79 For I 


= 3261? to 32680 








89 Read D 










99 Poke I 


. D 








199 Next I 










119 End 










120' Data 


38, 127, 46, 111, 34, 38, 64, 62, 57, 50, 


40, 118, 


121 


183 


13? Data 


202, 209, 05, 24 5, 20 5, 20 9, 05, 32, 251 


24 1, 50, 


232 


55 


14? Data 


254, 13, 192, 205, 209, 05, 32, 251, 62, 


1?, 50, 


232, 


55 


15? Data 


221, 52, 04, 221, 126, 04, 221, 190, 03, 


121, 192, 


221 




16? Data 


54, 04, 0, 06, 09, 205, 209, 05, 32, 251 


62, 1? 






n;i Data 


50, 232, 55, 16, 244, 201 
Fig. 3. BASIC program to interface a teletype to a 


TRS-80. 







lines have been printed, zeros 
the line counter and outputs 
nine line feeds. This extra line 
feed activity creates a typed 
page consisting of a top margin 
of nine spaces, and 56 lines of 
type for a sheet length of 11.0 
inches. 1 have also included the 
routine in BASIC for those who 
do not have either "TBUG" or 
the "EDITOR/ASSEMBLER" to 
enter this program. See Fig. 3. 

After turning on the CPU an- 
swer the memory size question 
with "732610." This protects the 
interface program from any BA- 
SIC program you enter. Enter 
the interface program, using 
either BASIC or assembly lan- 
guage. Enter the "System" com- 
mand and answer the prompt 
with '732610". The display will 
return a "SN ERROR" and a 
READY> prompt. 

This is because of the JP 
4000H in the initialization rou- 
tine, (i have not as yet found the 
entry point in ROM which re- 
turns a "ready" without re-ini- 
tializating the various pointers 
in RAM.) The program is now 
ready and use of LPRINT and 
LLIST provides a line feed after 
each carriage return.! 



144 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 
Scanned by Ira Goldklang - vvvvw.trs-80.com 



TtrntiMm 

SMmR 




JPC Products Announces a New High Speed Cassette System 

"The Poor Man's Floppy" lor the TRS-80* 

$90 Kit ■ $120.00 fully assembled. 

The TRS-80" is a great small computer. But its cassette recording 
system can be very frustrating, particularly if you can't read an important cassette. JPC 
Products Company has developed an Improved cassette system that uses your present 
cassette recorder but operates much faster with better reliability. The TC-8 plugs into the expan- 
sion connector on the back of the keytxiard and saves and loads 5 times faster! Less than 
ONE BAD LOAD In a MILLION BYTES! With the VOLUME CONTROL ANYWHERE BETWEEN 1 AND 8. The 
T&6 is available in an easy to assemble kit or fully assembled. JPC has an exclusive "can t fail' kit guarantee. 
If you build the T08 and for any reason it doesn't work, v^'e will make it vi/ork at MO COST. All 
you have to pay is the shipping. We guarantee it. The TC-8 magic is partly done in software. So you have to 
load a small program in upper memory. It is usually out of the way there. We provide the software on a 
cassette that comes with the TC-8. Just load it m. Here's how you order. Send 
IQ^^ Ori/^PM I^^TC ^^\ $90.00 for the kit {$120.00 fully assembled) plus $3.50 postage and handling 

JrL^ rKWUU^ lO L^^. to JPC products Co., 12021 Paisano Court, Albuquerque, NM 87112 (N.M. 

Res. add 4% sales tax ) Credit card orders accepted by phone or mail. 




►^190 



*Trad»m»rk ol Tandy Corporation 



'Reaae' Service - see page 162 



Phone: (505) 294-4623 12021 Paisano Ct. Albuquerque, N.M. 87112 

80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



145 



UTILITY 



Treat assembly language tapes like 
BASIC with this Interesting technique. 



CLOAD Assembly Language 



Alfred S. Baker. II 
2327 S. Westminster St. 
Wheaton, IL 60187 



Have you used the Radio 
Shack T-BUG program, In 
Memory Information program 
or Editor/Assembler? If you 
have, then you are probably 
w/ondering how these programs 
steal the computer away from 
Level I BASIC. You type 
CLOAD, load the tape, and then 
the unexpected happens. In- 
stead of getting the READY 
message, you are suddenly run- 
ning the program on the tape. 
What happened to BASIC? 
Where did It go? How did Radio 
Shack do that? 

I had to find out. Beyond sim- 
ple curiosity, I needed to do it 
myself. In this article you will 
see the detection process I 
used to discover how Radio 
Shack uses the CLOAD com- 
mand to load assembly lan- 
guage programs. I also provide a 
section of program code that 
will help you do the same thing 
with your assembly language 
programs. 

Why Bother? 

There are two ways to load 
an assembly language tape on 
a Level 1 TRS-80. The way Radio 
Shack tells you to do it is crazy. 
First, set the tape volume for 
Level I tapes and CLOAD the 
Editor/Assembler System tape. 
Next, change the volume to 
handle Level II tapes, type In 
the name of the assembly pro- 
gram's object file, and load that 
tape. And now comes the good 
part. The program should now 



be In the machine, but you still 
have to run it. To do this, type a 
slash (/) followed by the mem- 
ory address of the program . . . 
in decimal, no less I 

t had written a simple assem- 
bly language game for my two- 
year-old to play. My wife knows 
nothing about computers. Can 
you imagine me explaining this 
to her? Can you Imagine the 
look she'd give me if I tried? 
You can also imagine how 
often she would do it. I'll pass 
her most likely comment on to 
Radio Shack: "You've got to be 
kidding!" 

Fortunately, there is another 
way of doing it. The Editor/ 
Assembler System tape, as 
well as the other programs I 
mentioned above, are ail writ- 
ten in assembly language. They 
are all loaded with the CLOAD 
command. Unfortunately, how 
this Is done is not documented. 
If my son was to enjoy the 
"benefits" of a computer- 
assisted education, then I had 
to figure it out. 

The first step was to go to my 
friendly Radio Shack store and 
buy the T-BUG program. This 
useful little product lets the user 
look around in memory and, in 
general, find out what is going 
on. If you plan to write very 
many assembly programs, I 
recommend that you get it. 

If I was going to figure out 
how to successfully abuse the 
CLOAD command, I needed an 
hypothesis. 

The one I developed was 
based on the way I write large 
programs for Z-80-type comput- 
ers. I assumed that the CLOAD 
routine gets control from the 
statement-reading routine via 



standard Z-80 CALL-RET Logic. 

The statement routine reads 
the word CLOAD from the key- 
board and does a CALL to the 
CLOAD routine. The CALL in- 
struction in the Z-80 places the 
address of the next instruction 
in the statement-reading rou- 
tine on the stack. 

When the CLOAD routine has 
finished reading in a tape file, it 
issues a RET instruction. This 
instruction takes the top ad- 
dress off the stack and 
branches to it. This takes the 
computer back to the state- 
ment-reading routine. 

Suppose the program being 
CLOADed replaces the address 
on the stack with its own ad- 
dress? Once the CLOAD rou- 
tine is done it will pick up this 
new address and return to it. 
Voila! The CLOADed program 
has taken control of the com- 
puter away from BASIC! 

There were two problems 



though. I didn't know where 
BASIC kept its stack, and even 
If I did, I still didn't know where 
on the stack the CALL instruc- 
tion would place the return ad- 
dress from the CLOAD routine. 
If 1 was going to replace it, I had 
to know where it was. 

First I had to find the stack. 
This turned out to be simple. At 
the back of the Editor/Assem- 
bler manual is a list of the ad- 
dresses for important routines. 
One of the addresses, 01C9H, 
is the entry point for Level I 
BASIC. I loaded T-BUG and, 
using its MEMORY command, 
looked at the routine beginning 
at 01C9H. One of the first things 
BASIC would have to do would 
be to set up the location of its 
stack. The first three bytes at 
this location were 310042. 
Paydirt! 

If you know your Z-80 ma- 
chine language (or have a 
reference book), you'll recog- 
nize these three bytes as the in- 



; REPLACE THE CORfttCT STACK LOCflTIOH, 

41FE eeiBe org 4ife:h 

41FE 8842 802ee TESTfft DEFW TEST 

;SET UP THE LOOP VfiLUES. 

. HL->TV SCREEN 

. Ff THE LOWEST CHRPHtTER VflLUE 

e6M 00306 TEST DEFS 

42Mi 21893C 0&4«) LD HL, 3CaeH ; TV 

426J 97 08506 SUB fl 

iNOU FOR THE LOOP. EACH SUCCESSIVE 

; CHARACTER IS PLACED IN EACH 

-SUCCESSIVE SCREEN POSITION UNTIL UE 

; ARE BACK TO CHFRHCTER 00. 

0eee aesee loopi defs b 

4284 77 0e?ee LD <HL),A 

4265 23 0e886 INC HL 

4286 2C 0eS«1 INC A 

4287 28FB - 01006 JR NZ- LOOPI 
; THE PffOGRHM IS DONE. PROVE IT BV 
-LOOPING FOREVER. 

eoee eiioe loop2 defs a 

4299 18FE 01206 JR L00P2 

0eae 01300 end 

Fig. 1. Testing the CLOAD hypothesis. 



146 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1930 



;D£F1N£ THE PROQRflfl STHRT HTC OTHER 


. TO LOCHTIOH 4l£FH HN1> THEN CREHTES 


4432 7C 


83206 


LD fl.H 


, IHPORTflNT SYSTEM flDORESSES 


-THE CLUHD8H_t T»*E FOUR TIMES FOR 


4433 B5 


03300 


Of? L 


4466 eeiee org 44eeH 


.SftFtTV. EHCH UK THE FOUR SETS CON- 


4434 2eFB 


03406 


JR NZ. CREljfi 


WW 00206 ESECilN D€FS 9 


,SISTS Of TWiJ FILES: THE LO* ROUTINE 


J OUTPUT THE 


REhL THING: THE PRiJGF.'Vin | 


efis ed^ee cnson equ sfes^h 


,ftT 41FEH nt> THE ENTlflE PROGRftM HI 


4436 C;DE9f(F 


a3566 


CALL CHSOfJ 


aF4e 004«) CflSOUT EQU eF4eH 


.4486H 


44Sy 216«44 


63666 


LD HL. BEGIN 


6EF4 aesee cf^sih equ eeF4H 


, 


443C. 115644 


63706 


LD DE.ErtilT 


eic? eecee e^hsic ei:u 0ic9h 


; FIRST. THE LOW- ROUTINE IS MOVED: 


443F CD4B8F 


63800 


CFtLL ChSCUT 


42ee 80?de bstfick equ 42EieK 


OeeC. 01660 CRERTE [)EFS 


iWflIT H EIT 


fttirtlN 




; SET UP THE TUO ENTRY POINTS. THE 


4411 S1B444 91760 LD SP. EM0n+2i: 


4442 limZt 


03%6 


LD HL. 


J FIRST IS U5ED TO RUN THE PROGRHM FROM 


4414 t:i6b44 eiseti ld hl. lokw 


oew 


04666 


LRE266 DEFS 


: TBUG. THE SECXjTO IS USED TO CREHT fl 


441/ llFt41 01»e Lt> OE, BSTFtk-t' 


4445 2.3 


04100 


INC HL 


-aOftC'fteLE THPE. 


44LM 010603 0i«)0 LD BC.LCJWfc* 


4446 711: 


04260 


LD H, H 


4488 C35844 006W1 JP RUN 


441L' E[>e0 0^06 LDIR 


4447 BS 


04300 


M? L 


4462 C31144 009** JP CREflTE 


iMCH SET UP Fi"*f FOJ? CWIES 


4446 2^6 


04406 


JR N2,CRE2fe0 


; T}€ LOftO ROUTir* IS REftO IN BY THE 


441F 66f<4 0i20O LD B, 4 


, THE BOTTOM 


SIDE OF 


THE 4 TlflES LOOP 


,ac« coiwwj beijIw^ino with the 


QOfci. 132366 CRE166 L*FS 6 


444fl CI 


04560 


POP K: 


.. IKSTPl^TlOU LHGCLEt; LOHWO. OMCE 


4421 l5 024ee PUSH BC 


444f; iaD4 


04666 


DJN2 CRE166. 


.LC«€U. IT OETS CONTROL flHO LOrtJS IN 




444D CoCSei 


04706 


JP BrtilC 


i T* REST i3F THE PROGRffll Bt* EXECUTES 


J WRITE THE FIRST fILE- THE LOHPER 


; THIS IS THE 


PRiXiRHM 


SIHRT LOCHTION: 


, IT. 


4422 CDE36F 62S60 CALL CFlSOIJ 


0606 


04860 


RUN DEFS 6 


4406 064^ eiKJt) LOflDflO [JEF-W E.-STfltK 


44^5 21FE41 02666 LD HL, BSTflCK-^ 


j 






&m 01100 LOHD [<£KS 


4426 216342 02766 LD DE. BSTIHCK-2* 


, 






44«; Ct>ES'0P 01i.'0b CALL CRSOH 


LOW.06 


; PLflCt 


THE PROCiRWl TCI BE 1 


44flfi C[>F46f; 0a5»0 CHLL CftSlH 


442E CMB6F 62866 CHLL CF(SOUT 


i CLtJtHOEL' HERE 




446E C.i5a44 01400 JP RUt^ 


;HOI WHIT fl BIT 








8068 01500 LOH10U EQU S-LOM>fV} 


442E 210000 029«I*i LD HL, 


, 






; THE CREHTE ROLfTlNE IXjES ALL THE SETUP 


8000 03066 CRE150 OEFS 


8666 


84906 


ENOJT OEFS 


-UWK,. n l«V£S THE LOW) ROUTINE WJt* 


4431 23 03166 INC HL 


0666 


85666 


END 


Listing 1. The instructions needed to prepare an assembly- language program for loading with the CLOAD command. 



struction "LD SP,4200H." SP is 
the slack register and 4200H is 
where the BASiC stack is lo- 
cated. One down and one to go. 

Now I had to find out which 
address on the stack I had to 
replace. Again, a little thought 
presented nne with an easy an- 
swer. I had just loaded T-BUG, 
hadn't I? T-BUG is one of those 
enigmatic programs that al- 
ready was doing what I was try- 
ing to do, // it didn't use the 
same stack and // it didn't cover 
Its trail, then somewhere on the 
BASIC stack should be the 
starting address for T-BUG, 
40B1H. 

This address Is provided in 
the Editor/Assembler docu- 
mentation. I took a look at the 
addresses on the BASIC stack 
using the T-BUG memory com- 
mand. Again success! The 
T-BUG starting address was sit- 
ting at location 41FEH, the first 
position on the BASIC stack. 

Into the Lab 

So far, I only thought I knew 
what was going on. Now I had 
to run an experiment. The test I 
decided on was quick, but It 
presented a slight gamble. I 
assumed that T-BUG didn't use 
the 13 bytes between memory 
locations 41FEH and 420AH. 
Using the memory command, I 
hand loaded the machine lan- 
guage code for the program in 
Fig. 1. 1 then used the T-BUG 



tape Punch command to put it 
on tape. 1 had a tape that 
sftou/rfCLOADonaLevel ITRS- 
80. 

Studying the program in Fig. 
1 will tell you that it prints out 
the entire set of characters on 
the TV screen and then loops 
forever. I turned off the com- 
puter and then turned it back 
on. I wanted to make sure that 
the test wouldn't be fouled by 
anything left in memory. 

Next, I CLOADed my test 
tape, tt suddenly became dif- 
ficult to read the screen. It was 
filled up with a large collection 
of characters. Not only that, 
but the keyboard wouldn't re- 
spond. The computer had gone 
into a loop. I had successfully 
CLOADed a homegrown as- 
sembly language program. 

Doing tt Right 

So much for the prototype. I 
needed a "production" version 
of this code. I needed a pro- 
gram or routine that could be 
used to create a CLOAD-able 
version of any assembly lan- 
guage program. Listing 1 con- 
tains the result. I place this 
piece code at the beginning of 
each of my assembly language 
programs. It divides the pro- 
gram into three logical com- 
ponents: CREATE, LOAD and 
RUN. 

The easiest way to describe 
this program addition is to take 



the three parts in reverse order. 
The RUN component is the orig- 
inal assembly language pro- 
gram unchanged. The only dif- 
ference is that the line ENDIT 
DEFS is added just before the 
END line. 

The LOAD routine contains 
three statements. It turns on 
the cassette tape, reads in a file 
and then jumps to the RUN pro- 
gram. Which file does it read 
in? Oddly enough, it is reading 
in everything: the CREATE, 
LOAD and RUN programs. How 
can a program read itself in? 
This is handled by the first com- 
ponent of the program. 

The CREATE routine per- 
forms the actual magic of this 
act. First, it copies the LOAD 
routine down to locations 
41FEH to 4208H. The condition 
for CLOADIng an assembly pro- 
gram has been met. The loca- 
tion on the stack that must be 
replaced, 41FEH, now points to 
4200H. Location 4200H now 
contains a routine that will load 
a tape file containing the RUN 
routine and jump to it. 

Now that the conditions have 
been set up, a tape must be 
prepared. The tape is written 
out four times. I never trust 
data on tape just once. The 
repeated section of code gener- 
ates two tape files separated 
by a time delay loop. The first 
file is the LOAD routine begin- 
ning at location 41FEH. The 



second file is the complete pro- 
gram. We now have a tape of an 
assembly language program 
that can be loaded with the 
CLOAD command. 

Why didn't I let the entire pro- 
gram begin at location 41FEH 
instead of moving a load 
routine down to thai location? I 
had two reasons. I use T-BUG, 
which sits in locations 4000H to 
43FFH. Also, when I flip be- 
tween my program and BASIC, 
BASIC destroys the contents of 
41FEH. That is where its stack 
is, remember? 

Conclusion 

What have we learned? First, 
even with a computer with poor 
or missing system documenta- 
tion, such as the TRS-80, it is 
still possible to learn a lot 
about the behind-the-scenes 
software. All that is needed is a 
little careful thought and some 
diligent experimentation. You 
must also have at least a few 
simple tools to work with, but 
without the former, they are 
nearly useless. 

Finally, we now have a sim- 
ple method for loading TRS-80 
assembly language programs. 
A process that Radio Shack 
made too complicated can now 
be done by my six-year-old 
daughter. As for two-year-old 
Nathan, his mother is having a 
ball teaching him on "her" com- 
puter.! 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 147 



APPLICATION 



Use your disks to store questions and answers. 



Quiz Master 



Richard R. Eckert 
Colegio De Ciencias 
Universidad Catoltca 
de Puerto Rico 
Ponce, PR 00731 



Because of the microcom- 
puter revolution presently 
occurring, it is feasible for in- 
dividual departments of univer- 
sities or colleges to purchase 
sophisticated computing equip- 
ment that can be used in a 
myriad of different applications. 
One such application creates 
question and answer files for ex- 
ams and quizzes. Such a tech- 
nique is used by the Physics and 
Chemistry Departments of the 



Catholic University of Puerto 
Rico in multi-section introduc- 
tory courses. 

The university recently pur- 
chased a Radio Shack TRS-80 
microcomputer with expansion 
interface, dual mini-floppies and 
a friction feed line printer. The 
total cost was slightly more 
than $3000. 

Two computer programs writ- 
ten in TRS-80 Disk BASIC form 
the heart of our exam-creation 
technique. The first program 
(Listing 1) permits a professor or 
secretary to add questions to a 
file on a mini-diskette. The sec- 
ond program (Listing 2) is used 
to prepare a quiz with questions 
selected from a given file either 
at random or by the professor. 

Once the questions have 



been selected, they are printed 
out on a ditto master on the line 
printer. The professor can then 
run off as many copies of his 
quiz as he desires. 

File Creation 

The first program reserves 
string space for all of the string 
variables used in the program, 
including 255 bytes for the 
characters used in a question. 
This number was determined by 
our decision to use just one 
physical record (255 bytes) for 
each question. 

In practice our courses are 
divided into chapter-size units 
with common objectives. We 
create one file for each unit, 
which usually means some 50 to 
100 questions. Since the capaci- 



ty of a Radio Shack formatted 
data diskette is 85,760 bytes, we 
can place up to 335 questions 
on one disk. This means some 
three to six course units per 
disk, and, depending on the 
course, some four to eight 
diskettes for all of the questions 
in a course. (Since our project 
has just begun, we have actually 
created only four question files 
on one diskette.) 

After clearing string space, 
the first program gives the user 
instructions. First, he is told to 
place the correct diskette in 
position and then asked the 
name of the file (course unit) to 
which he is going to add ques- 
tions. The variable used for this 
name is Y$. The program re- 
quests the number of the last 



Program Listing 1. 


210 PRINT"TO ENTER THE QUESTION AGAIN IF THERE ARE ERRO 

RS " 
220 PRINT 


IB REM <THIS PROGRAM WAS WRITTEN BY RICHARD R. ECKEPT> 


20 REM <BOX 145, STATION 6, PONCE, PUERTO RICO Ba731> 


230 PRINT"WHEN YOU SEE THE SIGN -->, BEGIN TO ENTER A Q 

UESTION . " 


3B REM <ITS PURPOSE IS TO STORE QUIZ QUESTIONS IN A DI 


SKETTE FILE> 


240 PRINT"HERE WE GO." 


4 a CLS 


250 PRINT 


58 CLEAR1000 


2G0 FORI-ITOK 


60 PRINT 


270 PRINT-QUESTION •"iI+N 


70 PRINT"PUT THE CORRECT DISKETTE IN DISK DRIVE 1 1" 


260 PRINT"">"j 


80 PRINT'TELL ME THE NAME OF THE QUESTION FILE YOU WISH 


290 LXNEINPUTA$ 


TO USE" 


300 CLS 


90 INPUTYS 


310 FRINTAS 


95 yS-YS-f"il' 


320 PRINT 


100 PRINT'WHAT IS THE NUMBER OF THE LAST QUESTION FILED 


330 PRINT'ARE THERE ANY ERRORS (YES OR N0)"( 


"l 


340 INPUTCS 


lie INPUTN 


350 IFCS-"YES"THEN270 


120 PRINT"HOW MANY QUESTIONS DC YOU WANT TO PILE NOW) 


360 PRINT 


130 INPUTM 


370 PRINT"NOW WE'LL FILE THE QUESTION" 


140 PRINT 


379 REM <OPEN THE FILE AS A RANDOM ACCESS FILE USING B 


150 PRINT"WHEN YOU ARE ENTERING A QUESTION, DO NOT USE 


UFFEB # 1> 


THE <ENTER>" 


380 0PEN"R",1,Y5 


160 PRINT"KEY UNTIL YOU HAVE FINISHED IT. IF YOU COKE 


389 REM <FIELD THE BUFFER HERE WE MAKE ALL 255 BYTES 


TO THE END" 


AVAILABLE FOR THE QUESTION> 


170 PRINT'OF A LINE BEFORE THE END OF THE QUESTION, USE 


390 FIELD1,255 AS DS 


THE DOWN ARROW" 


399 REM <PLACE THE QUESTION IN THE BUFFERS 


180 PRINT'IN ORDER TO CONTINUE ON THE NEXT LINE, WHEN 


400 LSETD$-A$ 


YOU HAVE FIN-" 


409 REM <PUT THE CONTENTS OF THE BUFFER INTO RECORD HU 


190 PRINT'A QUESTION, HIT <:ENTER>, AND THE COMPUTER WIL 


MBER I+N OF THE F1LE> 


L ECHO BACK EX-" 


419 PUT1,I+N 


200 PRINT'ACTLY WHAT IT HAS RECEIVED. YOU WILL THEN HA 


420 CLOSE 


VE THE CHANCE" 


4 30 NEXT 



14fi " 80 Microcomputing, June 1960 



question tiled (N); if it is a new 
unit he should answer with a 
zero. The next few print state- 
ments descrit>e the way in which 
the user should enter questions. 

The important point here is 
that when the user comes to the 
end of a line, but not the end of 
the question, he should use the 
down arrow instead of the 
ENTER key. This is necessary 
since the LINEINPUT instruc- 
tion (used later in the program) 
terminates the input of a string 
when it receives an ENTER 
(ASCII code 10 or 13). The down 
arrow (ASCII code 26) causes 
the computer to jump to the next 
line without terminating the in- 
put of the string. 

After the program finishes 
giving the user instructions, the 
loop beginning at line 260 asks 
for a question, receives it in the 
variable A$ through the LINEIN- 
PUT instruction (line 290), prints 
the question as received and 
asks if there are errors or not 
(lines 300 to 330). If so, the user 
must enter the question again. If 
not, lines 370 to 420 file the 
question A$ in the appropriate 
record (I -f N) of the appropriate 
file Y$. The file is then closed, 
and the loop repeats. 

Selecting Questions 

The second program selects 
questions from a file and prints 
them on a ditto master in the 
line printer. The user must insert 
the correct diskette, give the 
computer the name of the ques- 
tion file desired (Y$), the total 
number of questions in the file 
(N), the number of questions to 



be selected for the quiz (M), and 
whether they are to be chosen at 
random or by the user. 

If they are to be selected at 
random, the computer will make 
the selection without duplica- 
tions (lines 260 to 320). print out 
the numbers chosen, and ask 
whether they are satisfactory 
(lines 330 to 370). If not, it will 
choose another random group. 
If the user wishes to choose his 
own questions, the computer 
will request the numbers 
desired (lines 210 to 240). 

The program finally instructs 
the user to place a blank ditto 
master in the line printer, and, 
when everything is ready, pro- 
ceeds to get the selected ques- 
tions from the file and prints out 
the quiz (lines 410 to 520). 

General Comments 

Although we are just starting 
to use the exam-creation tech- 
nique it seems especially 
helpful to those instructors who 
have many sections of the same 
course and wish to give frequent 
quizzes without duplicating 
questions. 

Also in small departments 
which do not have a lull-time 
secretary (such as in our 
Physics Department), the 
technique can be of enormous 
value, as countless hours of typ- 
ing time are saved. 

In the near future we hope to 
modify the technique so that the 
question files can be created on 
cassette tape using a simple 
TRS-80 Level II BASIC system. 
Entering these questions is real- 
ly time-consuming! ■ 



Program Listing 2. 



10 REM <THIS PROGRAM WAS WRITTEN BY RICHARD R. ECKERT> 
20 REM <ITS PURPOSE IS TO SELECT QUESTIONS FROM A DISK 

ETTE FILE AND> 
3B REM <T0 PRINT THEM ON A DITTO MASTER IN THE LINE PR 

INTER. "> 
40 PRINT 
50 DIHZ(2e) 
60 CL5 

70 CLEAR1000 

80 PRINT'PLACE THE CORRECT DISKETTE IN DISK DRIVE I 1.' 
9a PRINT'TELL ME THE NAME OF THE QUESTION PILE YOU WISH 

TO USE." 
100 INPUTYS 

110 PRIHT-WHAT IS THE NUMBER OF QUESTIONS IN THE FILE" i 
12B INPUTN 

130 PRINT'HOW MANY QUESTIONS DO YOU WANT IN YOUR QUIZ't 
140 INPUTH 
150 PRINT 
160 PRINT'NOW HE'LL SELECT THE QUESTIONS IF YOU WANT 

THEM AT RANDOM, " 
170 PRINT'ANSWER WITH AN "R" 
168 PRINT'IF YOU WANT TO SELECT THEM YOURSELF, USE ANY 

OTHER KEY." 
190 INPUTCS 
200 IFCS-'R"THEN260 



219 PRINT'ENTER THE NUMBERS OF THE QUESTIONS YOU DESIRE 

ONE BY ONE" 

220 FORJ-ITOM 
230 INPUTZ(J) 
240 NEXT 

250 GOTO400 

259 REM <THE POLLOWIHG ROUTINE SELECTS THE QUESTIONS A 

T RANDOM> 
268 FORJ-ITOM 
278 Z(J)-RND(N) 
288 IFJ-lTHEN32e 
298 FORL-lTOJ-1 
308 IFZ{L|°Z[J)THEN27e 
318 NEXTL 
320 NEXTJ 

330 PRINT'THE QUESTIONS CHOSEN WERE ! ' 
340 FORJ-ITOM 
350 PRINTZ{J1 
360 NEXTJ 

378 PRINT'IS THE SELECTION SATISFACTORY (YES OR NO)"; 
388 INPUTES 

398 IFES-"N0"THENPRINT"WE'LL TRY AGAIN" : GOTC.26 8 
400 PRINT 
410 PRINT'NOW WE'LL GET THE QUESTIONS FROM THE FILE AND 

PRINT THEM" 
420 PRINT"ON A DITTO MASTER IN THE LINE PRINTER." 
430 PRINT"PUT THE DITTO MASTER IN THE PRINTER AND TURN 

IT ON." 
440 PRINT"WHEN YOU'RE READY HIT ANY KEY." 
45B INPUTFS 

459 REM <OPEN THE FILE AS A RANDOM ACCESS FILE USING B 

UFFER I 1> 

460 0PEN"R",1,YS 

469 REM <FIELD THE BUFFER ALL 255 BYTES FOR A QUESTI 

ON, AS IN THE FILING PROCRAM> 

478 FIELD 1, 255 AS DS 

479 REM <BEGIN LOOP TO GET AND PRINT THE QUESTIONS CHO 

SEN> 

480 F0RJ=1T0M 

489 REM <GET RECORD I ZtJ) FROM THE FILE AND PLACE IT 

IN THE BUFFER> 

490 GETl.Z (J) 

499 REM <PRINT OUT ON THE LINE PRINTER THE QUESTION SE 

LECTED> 

500 LPRINTDS 
510 NEXT 
520 CLOSE 



-"TRS-aO li ■ ragist*f«<) tradwmarti ol TANDY CORP."- 



CaN abowt am l«M*Mk prtcc on 

4 -drive loiplrte lyMca. 
Lc««lil4K 15)7.10 

lavdllM t7»,0O 

(Wo MM. h«y»«rf| 

EipamtoM McHuc SI69.00 

tKp«UMlMeffaccl6K S40).IO 

fiyilonlntrTlTr UK $514.00 

I *K Mcwory KM !«( TIS-SO or Apple 

»r9.9S 

TRS-SO ft NORTH STAR ADD-ON DRfVES 




CUSTOM 
ENCLOSURE 




CAILE 
INCLUDED 



Jlngl*drlv*iyii»mlncuttom»nclMu'« 1414.12 

Mn9l* driv* lyiiofn In m«tQl ondoiui* t373.00 

Doubl* dfiv* lyilvm in cuitom oncknuiv 1024, 14 



MPI i2T9.00 

MPI. 0S2. duol r>ood«d i349.00 

Jhugoii 1A400 i2M.0O 

ihu^n SA800 S479.00 

Tondom ilnql* lid^d 1279.00 

Ton<*om doubt* tKl»d W2S.M 

itwn.fl a- dfiv« tuaoD 

MngI* !>•< WflBModDsur* lot ihufOK 127.00 

DoubO (!«• sidM HCWtfWIr Vk«DrT.. US 00 

A(a>l 400. . .^^ iS4«.49 

AlQfl SOO. . ^. vae ■ " -" « i994.49 

KoMhin* MjHk Wf^QMh wowanif *''%#■*%' - -f- ■ ^^^-'^ 

conoonki fiHMr (Tts-K om M). J. . .X ■ 4 . 1 . ■ ■ %Mt.n 

n Pf int»t ...^ H 599.00 

80M 2 TT. iS99.00 

Mwlioo 1 . 33K 12MO.O0 

SopottKaln (3699.00 

SPECIAL' MINI FLOPPY DISKS. Emi ol 10 (with plaatic bon) oo>y 
$2B.X (without plastic box) only $2S.50. Bo> o( 10. 8" dtski (In ptoatk 
box UO.OO). Canlronlc 779 ribbona U.SO each. »^ 303 



Wt MCCePf MNK AMCMfCMO. VltA. MASrCM CMAAOf 

29-02 23RD AVENUE ASTORIA. NEW YORK 11105 
(800)221-1340 {212)728-5252 Telex #420001 ETLX 



■ R9t<l9fS*fvic»-S»«p»g» 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 149 



THE ORIGINAL MAGAZINE FOR 
OWNERS OF THE TRS-80™* MICROCOMPUTER 



SOFTWARE 

FOII T1tS-M- 

OWNERS 



CQIVIPIJTRQOIICS 

MONTHLY NEWSMAGAZINE 

Practical Support For Model I & II 



I 



MONTHLY 
NEWSMAGAZINE 



JJ FOR TRS.W 
C OWNERS 



PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 
BUSINESS 

GAMBLING • GAMES 
EDUCATION 
PERSONAL FINANCE 
BEGINNER'S CORNER 
NEW PRODUCTS 
SOFTWARE EXCHANGE 
MARKET PLACE 
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 
PROGRAM PRINTOUTS 
AND MORE 



PROGRAMS AND ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN OUR HRST 12 ISSUES 
INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING; 

A COMPLETE INCOME TAX PROGRAM (LONG AND SHORT FORM) 

INVENTORY CONTROL 

STOCK MARKET ANALYSIS 

WORD PROCESSING PROGRAM (FOR DISK OR CASSETTE) 

LOWER CASE MODIFICATION FOR YOUR VIDEO MONITOR OR PRINTER 

PAYROLL IF-EDERAL TAX WITHHOLDING PROGRAM) 

EXTEND 16 DIGIT ACCURACY TO TRS 80" FUNCTIONS (SUCH AS 

SQUARE ROOTS AND TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS) 

NEW DISK DRIVES FOR YOUR TRS 80" 

PRINTER OPTIONS AVAIl ABLE FOR YOUR TRS 80'" 

A HORSE SELECTION SYSTEM'-'ARITHMETIC TEACHER 

COMPLETE MAM ING LIST PROGRAMS ( BOTH FOR DISK OR CASSETTE 

SEQUENTIAL AND RAMXJM ACCESS^ 

RANDOM SAMPLING"-HAR GRAPH 

CHECKROOK MAINTENANCE PROCiRAM 

LEVEL II UPDATES*"! F\.EL II INDEX 

CREDIT CAR[) INFORMATION STORACIE ULE 

HEGINNFR S GUIDE TO MACHINE 1 ANCiUAGE AND ASSEMBLY 

LANGUACIE 

I INE RENUMBERING 

AND CASSETTE TIPS PROGRAM HINTS, LATEST PRODUCTS 

COMINC; SOON iGENFRAL LEDGER, ACCOUNTS PAYABLE AND 
RECFIVAHLE. FORTRAN W) FINANCIAL APPLICATIONS PACKAGE 
PRO(.RAMS FOR HOMFOWNLKS MERCiF TWO PROGRAMS. 
STAnSTICAL AND MATHEMAIICAl PROGRAMS lEJOTH 
El EMfNTARY AND AD^ANCEDi AND 



f* 



^ 



Ui 



WORD PROCESSING PROGRAM 

(Cassette or Disk) 

Fi.ir lATiiFny It'ritfs. lexl, nw^ling hsls, ytt , with fach 
ne«.' sulist"iip'K)ns or rpn*>wal 

LEVEL II RAM TEST 

(Cassette or Disk) 

ChfCKi tcindom cn:ce« rrifmorv lo fniurc thai jII meniorv 



DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

(Cassette or Disk) 

CoFiiplele Me manatjemenl loi your TRS 8(1'' 

CLEANUP 

(Cassette or Disk) 

Fdst til lion Mazf Gdmi' 

■ IHs „i ■ IS A IHAlllMAHK Of" TANOV I. IJHP 



ITEM ^ 



SEND FOR OUR NEW 48 PAGE SOFTWARE CATALOG (INCLUDING LISTINGS OF HUNDREDS OF TRS SO" PROGRAMS AVAILABLE ON 
CASSETTE AND DlSKETTEi S2 00 OR FREE WITH EACH SUBSCRIPTIONS OR SAMPLE ISSUE 



iCQiriPUTHI^ICS 



I 

■ 

8oi 141 Nm> City, Nmr York 1M56 

ONE YEAH SUBSCRIPTION $24 

TWO YEAR SUBSCRIPTION $48 

SAMPLE OF LATEST ISSUE $4 

START MY SUBSCRIPTION WITH ISSUE 

(•^ - July 1978 • *7 - January 1979 ■ «12 • June 1979 ■ tlS - January 1980) 




M 24 



HOUR 
ORDER 
LINE 
(914) 425-1535 




NEW SUBSCRIPTION 



RENEWAL 



CREDIT CARD NUMBER 
SIGNATURE 



EXP DATE. 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



STATE. 



J3P. 



••• ADD UTflAJI (CANADA. MEXICOl - ADD lll/VEAII Alt I4A1L - OUTSCE OF VSJl.. CANADA A MBUCO ' 



ISO • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



H 



CQiriPUTHQWlCS 



FOR YOUR TRS-80 ••• 



TRS-ao I* ■ frvdrmark of Ihr H»dlo Shark nivlslcm of Tandy Corporation 



* All Orders processed within 24-Hours 

■k Free Shipping within U.P.S. areas (add $3 for orders outside of the U.S.A. or U.P.S. areas). 
ir 30-Da\i Money Back Guarantee on alt Software fless a $3 penalty for handling). 

ir lO-Day Money Back Guarantee on Disk Drives and Printers PLU8 120-Davs Free Service. 



LEARNING LEVEL II by Davd Lien 

Tfie Ongina* Autfiof O' Tne Level Manual 
A Step By Slep approach to Learning Level ■! 
espec'aii» gea'cd to "e* trs-80" Owe's 
$15 95 



• TRS-M DISK AND OTHER MYSTERIES 
(19.K ($22. »5 alter 2/1/BO). Ovar 100 pages 

ol mdespsnsibte mlormaiion for auk owners 
Learn to recover information from bad disks 
no* to make Basic pfograms unlistable and 12 
morechaplers of never published lips and infor- 
mation Written by H C Pennington (For all 
Disk Owners! 



NEW SBSG BUSINESS SYSTEM FOR 
MODEL I OR MODEL II - IN STOCK 

- General Ledger 

- Accounts Receivable 

- Accounts Payable 

- Payroll 

- Inventory Control With Invoicing 

• Each module can t>e operated individually 
or as a coordinated SYSTEM. Turn-Key error 
catching operation for beginners 

■ Complete manual and documentation 
accompany each program 

• Minimum System requirements 2-Disk 
Drives for Model l...1-0isk Drive for Model II 

• Each module can be formatted to span data 
on Upto 4-Disk Drives 

• Free 30-Day telephone consultation 

• Call for complete specifications 

• Model I Version $125 per module 
$495 per System 

• Model II Version $225 per module 
$996 per System 



DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 

- DMS replace index cards or any data 
requiring long lists of information 

• TBS In-Memory Information System 

{(or cassette systems) $24 50 

• TBS Disk Data Manager (requires 1 or more 
disk drives) Set up last random access 
tiles m minutes Stores up to 320K of 
information on 4 Drives Up to 10 fields 
and 255 characters per record Supports 
upper and lower case RS-232 or TRS-232 
Features complete editing $49 50 

• Personal Software CCA Data Management . 
System. ..Completely user oriented, menu 
drive, 130 page Step by Step Manual. 
capable of inventory control, sorting data, 
reporting data in nearly any form (for reports 
and mailing labels). Sorts data by up to 10 
fields tor zip code, balance due. geographic 
location or whatever. Prints reports with 
subtotals and totals automatically calculated 
Fast random access $75 00 



ICQ^RJTRQWXCS- 

Box 149 N*w City, New York 10956 



t^9 



FROM RACET COMPUTES 

• REMODEL-PROLOAD - Renumbets pro- 
gram lines, combines programs Trie only re- 
number program Ifiat will renumber the middle 
o( a program Specily '6K 32K or 4aK Works 
witn Cassette or O'sk . . . |34.fS 

• GSF - Use in your Basic Progrsmi for lr>siant 
Soling (will son 1000 Items in 9 seconds! Otfier 
commands include C-ompress and Uncompress 
Data Duplicate Memory Display Screen 
Controls and Fasi Graphic Controls . . . S34.M 
(For Cassette or Disk, specify 16K, 32K or4flK) 

• DOSORT - All Q S F commands plus special 
Multiple Disk Sorting Routines . . . S34.95 
(Specify 32K or 48K] 

• INFINITE BASIC • Adds 70 commands lo 
your THS-80 including Instani Son Malrn 
Commands String Commands Left and Righl 
Juslificalion String Centering Simullaneous 
Equalions Upper and Lower Case Reverse and 
more . . . S4f-S5 (For Cassette or Disk) 

■ INFINITE BUStNCSS (Requires Inf.n'le Basicl - 
Ehminale Round-off error 127-DigiI Calcula- 
tion Accuracy inseri New Elements m Sorted 
Arrays Automatic Page Headings. Footings 
and Pagination Multiple Precision Arithmetic 
and more . . , t2t.>5. [For Cassette or Oiski 

■ COPSYS - Copy Macfime Language 
Programs . . . fU.ftS (For Casselte only| 



FROM SMALL SYSTEM SOFTWARE 

RSM-2 Machine Language Monitor . . . 120.95 

RSM-2D Disk Version of RSM-2 . . . 129.95 

OCV-1 Converts Machine Language Programs 

irom tape lo disk , , . S9.95 

AIR RAID The ultimate TRS-80 game con 

uerls your THS-flO into a real time shoolmg 

gallery . . S14-K 

BARRICADE - A fast pong style game . S14.9S 

CPM - J1S0 (for Disk only) 

TRS-232 INTERFACE - interface with Sod- 
ware driver flS-232 printers to your 
TRS-80 . . , t49-tS 

TRS-23Z FORMATTER -Addrtional 

loptional! Software lor TRS-232 owne-s Ads 

many printer commanOs to your 

TRS-80 . . . 114.95 (S9 95 with purchase of 

TRS-232) 



MAIL PAC ' For Model I or Model II Disk 
Systems only . . $99.95. Ouick-sorting full user 
control over mailing list from QallaclicSoltware 



FROM AOVENTURELANO INTERNATIONAL 
• ADVENTURE il - IB by Scott Adams 
114.95 each available on Cassette or Disk 



SAROON tl 

THE CHESS CHAMP 

t2«.H 



FROM APPARAT 
NEW DOS * $t9.»5 

35. 40 and 77 Track Vcrsioni awBilabl* 



48-Pa3e Catalog $2 FREE With An\^ Order 

Order by Phone or Mail 

No Shipping Charge 

Add ^ for COD. 

Add $3 for a!} Foreign and nonUPS shipments 

Add $3forUPSBiue Labet 



FROM THE BOTTOM SHELF 

• CHECKBOOK It (lor CasMtta or Disk) . . 
SII.SO 

• INFORMATION SYSTEM (tor CaiMtle or 
Ook . . . t34.S0 

• SYSTEM DOCTOR (■ complete diagnosis of 
your THS-80 checks memory, video, cassette 
disk ROM and all other parts of your system) - 
for Cassette or Disk . . . I29.90 

• CHECKBOOK REGISTER ACCOUNT- 
ING SYSTEM (requires 2 disk drives) . . S49.S0 

• LIBRARY 100 - 100 established business, 
game and educational programs plus FREE Tiny 
Pilot all lor . . . 149.50 

• BASIC TOOL KIT lists all variables GOTO s 
and GOSUB s in your program . . . 119.90 



SOUNDWARE - Ads sound to your TRS-SO 
JusI plus It in . .$29.95. Sample programs 

included 

TING TONG - Can be used with Soundware 

'or a Sound version of pong . . . (9.95. 



VIC-The Cada Vlaual Inatructlonal St9 95 
Computer Prog ram 

■r-e Level II '6K Cassette is designed to teach 
beginners 'he Bastes of Machine Language and 

Assembly Language Programming See every 
Machine Language instruction Display on 
voiir Video 
VIC includes a Step By Slep 55 page manual 



VISTA VU DISK DRIVE 

110 K OF STORAGE 

$395 

Add S29 95 lor Cable 

(Free with Purchase of Two Disk Drives) 

— 10 Day Money Back Guarantee — 



FROM HOWE SOFTWARE 

MON-3 - Machine Language Programming for 
Beginners HON-3 is a Complete 
System Monitor with Users 
Manual $39.96 

MON-4 - Disk Version of MON-3 . . . $49.99 



LEVEL Ml BASIC . . . $49.95 FROM 
MICROSOFT - Nov* CasHlle owners can add 
Disk Commandstotheir TRS-80 without owning 
a Disk OrivB 



• BRAND NEW OLIVETTI PRINTER . . .$3495 

Business Letter quality prinl. Automatic Line 
Justification (on request). Quick Printing, can 
De used as a Memory Typewnter. plugs nght 
into your TRS-80 without any modification or 
software 



THE ELECTRIC PENCIL 

CmmM* . . . $M.«6 

DIah . . . tISaOO 



HORSE SELECTOR II by Dr Hal Davrs . . . 
$H. The TRS-SO version updated for the TRS-BO 
and originally reviewed in Systems and 
Methods 



^ 



24 

HOUR ORDER LINE 
(914) 425-1539 




'Avatfer Service— seepage 1B2 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 151 



iCQIVIPlJTHQMICS" 

• • • EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80~. • • 

TR5-S0 la ■ Irsdrmarli of Ihr Radio ShBik Divliilan of Tandr rorporallon 

COORDINATED BUSINESS SYSTEMS 




SMALL BUSINESS 
SYSTEMS GROUP 



• EACH MODULE CAN BE OPERATED INDIVIDUALLY OR AS A COORDINATED SYSTEM, 

• TURN-KEY ERROR CATCHING OPERATION FOR BEGINNERS 

• FREE 30-DAY TELEPHONE CONSULTATION WITH SBSG 

• EACH MODULE CAN BE FORMATTED TO SPAN DATA ON UPTO 4 DISK DRIVES 

• COMPLETE MANUAL AND DOCUMENTATION ACCOMPANY EACH MANUAL 

• MINIMUM SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS - 2 DISK DRIVES FOR MODEL I 1-DISK DRIVE FOR MODEL 



ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

The accounts payable system receives data concerning purchases from 
suppliers and produces checks in paymer^t of outstar^ding invoices In 
addition, it produces cash management reports. This system aids in tight 
financial control over all cash cJi5t>ursements of the business Several 
reports are available and supply information needed for the analysis of 
payments, expenses, purchases and cash requirements. All A/P data feeds 
General Ledger so that data is entered tnto the system just once. These 
programs were developed 5 years ago for the Wang micro-computer and 
have been tested in many environments since then. The package has been 
converted to the TRS-BO" and is now a well documented. or>-line. inter- 
active micro-computer system with the capabilities of (or exceeding many 
larger systems 



CAPABILITIES 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

The objective of a computerized A/R system is to prepare accurate and 
timeley monthly stolements to credit customers. Management can gener- 
ate information required to control the amount of credit extended and the 
collection of money owed in order to maximize profitable credit sales 
while minimizing losses from bad debts. The programs composing this 
system were developed 5 years ago. especially tor small businesses using 
the Wang Microcomputer. They have been tested in many environments 
since then. Each module can be used stand alone or can feed General 
Ledger for a fully integrated system. 



PAYROLL 

Payroll invoices many complex calculations and the pfoductlon of reports 
and documents, many of which are required by government agencies II is 
an ideal candidate for the computer With this Payroll system in-house. 
you can promptly and accurately pay your employees and generate 
accruate documents/reports to management, employees, and appropriate 
government agencies concerning earnings, taxes, and other deductions 
The package has been converted to the TRS-BO™ and is now a well 
documented. on-lir>e, interactive micro-computer system with the capa- 
bilities of (or exceeding) many larger systems 

CAPABILITIES: 

* performs all necessary payroll tasks including: 

• file maintenance, pay data entry and verification 

• computation of pay and deduction amounts 

• printing of reports and checks 

* can handle salaried and hourly employees 

* employees can receive: 

■ hourly or salary wage 

• vacation pay 

• holiday pay 

• piecework pay 

• overtime pay 

(Continued on next poQe) 



* menu driven, easy to use: full screen prompting and cursor control 

* invoice oriented: everything revolves around the invoice, handles new 
invoice or credit memo or debit memo 

* invoice information recorded: invoice #. description, buyer, check 
register «, invoice date, age date, amount of invoice, discount (in %), 
freight, tax (S). total payable 

* Iransaction print and tile maintenance procedures insure accuracy 

* flexible check calculation procedure: allows checks to be calculated for a 
set of vendors - or - for specific vendors 

* program prints your checks: contiguous computer checks with your 
company letterhead can be purchased from SBSG 

* reports include (samples on back): 

• open Item listing/closed item listing - both detail and summary 

• debit memo listing/credit memo listing 

• aging 

■ check register report (to give an audit trail of checks printed) 

• vendor listing and vendor activity {activity of the whole year) 

* fully linked to GENERAL LEDGER; each invoice can be distributed to as 
many as five (S) different QL accounts; sysem automatically posts to cash 
and A/P accounts 



CAPABILITIES 



* menu driven; easy to use: full screen prompting and cursor control 

* invoice oriented; invoices can be entered before ready for billing, when 
ready for billing, after billing or after paid 

* allows entry of new invoice, credit memo, debit memo, or change/delete 
invoice 

* allows for progress payment 

-* transaction information includes: 

• type of A/R transaction 

• customer P O # 

• descnption of P.O 

■ billing date 

■ general ledger account number 

• invoice amount 

• shipping/transportation charges 

• lax charges 

• payment 

• progress payment information 

• transaction print and (ile maintenance procedures insure accuracy 

* customer statements printed: computer statements with your company 
letterhead can be purchased from SBSG 

* reports include: (samples on back) 

• listing of invoices not yet billed 

• open items (unpaid invoices) 

■ closed items (paid invoices) 

• aging 

* fully linked to Gerwral Ledger will post to applicable accounts: debits A/R. 
credits account you specify 



152 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



(PAYROLL CAPABILITIES CONTINUED) 

* smployees can bfl psid using any combination o( pay types (except, hourly 
cannot receive salary & salary cannot receive hourly) 

* special non- taxable or taxable lump sums cen be paid regularly or one time 
(bonus, reimbursements, etc) 

* health & welfare deducliors can be automatically calculated tor each 
employee 

* earnlngs-to-date are accumulated and added to permanent records: taxes 
are computed and deducted. US income tax, Social Security tax, state 
Income tax. other deductions [regular or one time) 

* paychecks are printed, computer checks with your company letterhead 
can be purchased from SBSG 

* calculations are accumulated for employee pay history. 941A report, W-2 
report, insurance report, absentee report 

* fully linked to General Ledger Each employee's payroll information can be 
distributed to as many as (12) twefve different GL accounts: system 
automatically posts to cash account. 



INVENTORY/CONTROL INVOICING 

• OVER 1000 ITEMS ON MODEL I 

• OVER 3000 ITEMS ON MODEL II 

• LOW STOCK ALARM 

• INVOICING DEDUCTS FROM INVENTORY 

■ COMPLETE INVENTORY REPORTS 

■ REORDER POINT REPORT 

■ QUICK ITEM ACCESS 



CLIENT BILLING. STOCK CONTROL. DENTAL BILLING, COMMODITIES 
Medlcare/Medicaid billing also available 



MODEL I 
MODEL II 



$125 Per Module 
$495 Complete System 
$225 Per Module 
$995 Complete System 



WE ARE THE ONLY SOFTWARE COMPANY THAT OFFERS A REFUND 
WITHIN 30 DAYS ON ALL SOFTWARE (H 4 E COMPUTRONICS 
MONTHLY NEWSMAGAZINE SUBSCRIBERS ONLY). WE DO 
CHARGE A $3 PENALTY TO COVER POSTAGE AND HANDLING. 



GENERAL LEDGER 

The General Ledger accounting system consolidates tinar>cial data from 
other accounting subsystems {A/R, A/P, Payroll, direct posting) in an 
accurate and timely manner. Major reports include the Income Statement 
and Balance Sheet and a "special" report designed by management The 
beauty of this General Ledger system Is that it is completely user formatted. 
You "customize" the account numbers, descriptions, and report formats to 
suit your particular business requirements These programs were de- 
veloped 5 years ago for the Wang micro-computer and have been tested to 
many environments since then The package has been convened to ttw 
TRS-BO" and is now a well documented, on-line, interactive mtcro- 
computer system with the capabilities of (or exceeding) many larger 
systems. 



CAPABILITIES 

* more than 200 chart of accounts can be handled 

* account number structure is user defined and controlled 

* more than 1 ,750 transactions may be entered via 

■ direct posting; done by hand, valideted against the account file 
before acceptance 

• external posting, generated by A/R, A/P, Payroll or any other user 
source 

« data IS maintained and reported by: 

• month 

• quarter 

• year 

• previous three quarters 

* reports (samples on back) include: 

■ trial balances 

■ income statement 

■ balance sheet 

• special accounts reports and more 

* user formats reports with the following designsd as you wish: 

• titles 

■ headings 

■ account numbers 

■ descriptions 

• subtotals 

• totals 

• skip lines 

• skip pages 

* up to eight levels of totals - fully user designated 

* menu driven; easy to use; full screen prompting and cursor control 



:CQr1R^mQI>^lcs■ 



■oi 14t 



New Clly, New Yorli 10956 



-^^\ HOUR .^ 




LINE 
(914)425-1535 



PLEASE SEND ME: 

MODEL I $125 PER MODULE . 

$495 COMPLETE SYSTEM 

MODEL M $225 PER MODULE 

$995 COMPLETE SYSTEM 



CREDIT CARD NUMBER 

SIGNATURE - 

NAME 

ADDRESS ^.^ 



EXP. DATE. 



_STATE_. 



-21 P- 



»DD (6VEAR (CANAO* MEXICO; *DP it2'VE»H AIR P.»All. - OUTSIDE OF U S * CANAOA S MEXICO ■" 



tif R»4iiwr Service — s«e page 162 



80 Microcomputing, June 1980 • 153 



HARDWARE 



Fit an external fuse to your power supply. 



Fuse Fix 



William P. Winter Jr. 
O'Higglns 3168 
1429 Buenos Aires 
Argentina 



Having Just purchased a TRS- 
80 keyboard/CPU, adding a 
TV monitor and cassette record- 
er, I had the system up and run- 
ning, when — poof! — a fuse blew. 



OtttSINAL K KNUtO 



/--OMIGINAL 

/ Fuse 



Fig. 1. Original PC Board. 



Off went the TRS^. 

To get to the fuse 1 cut open 
the plastic power supply case 
(badly designed by Radio Shack). 
The fuse, soldered to the printed 
circuit board, has pigtails. I 
soklered ieads to a similar fuse 
and then turned on the TR&80 
again. (Radio Shack had incor- 
rectly installed fast blow fuses, 
instead of the required slow 
blow, in a production run.) 

Everything worked fine for a 
half hour or so and then off it 
went. 

During the next few days the 
story repeated itself, and each 
time the fuse went, so dkj what- 
ever program I was working on. 

Change Your Fuae 

I knew the fuse was there to 
protect the expensive chips and 
that the TRS-80 designers prob- 



ably wanted to keep inexperi- 
enced users from Installing too 
heavy a fuse. However, It was 
also impractk:ai to send the unit 
to a service center every half 
hour from Argentina. 

If you have similar trouble you 
can remedy the situation by fol- 
lowing these steps: 

1. Remove the fuse and sol- 
der a jumper wire In its place. 

2. Remove the line cord lead 
from the printed circuit board 
and insert an In-line fuse holder 



■MOIFIEO PC BOARD 




Fig. 2 Modified PC Board. 



In series with the line cord lead 
just removed. Cut one lead of 
the fuse holder long enough to 
pass through the opening at the. 
base of the supply and solder 
this lead to the f>ole previously 
occupied by the line cord lead. 
You can now solder the other 
fuse holder lead to the line cord, 
or do as I did and solder the line 
cord directly to the contact in- 
side the fuse holder. This re- 
quires more work but makes for 
a much neater job. 

3. Replace the fuse with a 
slow blow fuse of the same cur- 
rent rating. 

4. You can now glue the case 
back together. Use the special 
plastic cement available at toy 
and hobby shops. 

Since performing this minor 
surgery, I haven't blown a single 
fuse. ■ 



MicroPhase Systems 

Announcss 

WORDSCRIBE for TRS-eO. 

LctWOMWCIMKtrantroni your Node) I or Hodcl II 
TRS-M tnto I high quilltjr wort proccsilng lystm. 

WONOSCMM fHturci tndudc: full tcrcin 

•dttlng, Hirgln Juitlftcatlon, line Inicrtlon, 
11h ddctlDfi, block Hvi, black cofty. flFid, 
change, ind Much nuch mort. 

Hodtl II 1149.95 

r«q. 1 dtsk, G4k mm. 
Nwicl 1 disk verifon I 99. » 

r«Q. I disk, 48k mtn. 
DocMcnUtlon only J 9.95 

[can be applied to liter purchiie) 

STOCK HUKET UTK TkPf S for TRS-M Ptodel I ! r 

Each tape caiiette contains one sinthi ilaU for 
the RTSt or MEX itock of your clMlce. Data 
incTktdtt daily high, loo. dose, and voliMe 
Inforaitlon. Can be read by any Level II Basic 
prt>9raa alUi i1if)1c Input stateMnti. AvaUable 
for Jan. 1979 to present. Please specify Bonth 
and stock naM. 

one Months d«U I S.9S 

Ghartlng prograai 149.95 

(plots high, 1oo, dose and 2 aov1n<| irgs.) 



MicroPhase SyiteiK 
11223 E. 45 St. So. 1114 

Tulsa, Dk. 74145 



►^123 



DISASSEMBLED HANDBOOK 
FOR TRS-80 

VOLUME I—SrO. POSTPAID 

Ustnc ROM Calls in anonbly languaic prutiaiieiuni 
Sdf-pratianuMd learning course— 10 Chapim 
Alt BASIC ROM Calls— ROM andllary funcuons 
CINT, CSNG Sl CDBL ariih/ing/lo(/nc decno pgm^ 

VOLUME 2— iI5. POSTPAID 

Advanced anembly lai^uage counc— 1 1 Chapters 
Stwinf video in MEM Tor lalcr use &. recall 
Splil-screen video wiih scr oil /.ti ore/ recall 
Decoding ^ngle & double precision numberi 

COMMENTS 

COMPUTER INFORMATION EXCHANGE— ship IM 

Vol. 2 

George Sank— Vol. I food iniro. lo ROM CALLs 

SOFTSIDE— will repriiu 3G0O copws of Vol- t 

Alan Moluff — I apcciaUy cecommcnd ihii book 

S-SO BULLFnN— A muH for e%eT> 80 bookihdr 

Charles Butler — mou informitivc and accurate 

INTERFACE— save you 1 yeai'i »«> lang. study 

ioni Kosloski— wc sold over 500 Tirsi W days 

THE ALTERNATE SOURCE-ad le.i for usini ROM 

MiHa MiCTocompuiing- ship us a i;anon ASAP 

CHICATRUG— ihip us anwho cinon mi Air Mail 

Bill McLaughlin— ship wiothtr 300 air fteighi 

RJCHCRAFT ENGINEERING L ID. '^ "S 
Drawtr 1065, Wahmeda Industrial Park 
Otautauqua. New York 14722 
phone (7 16) 753-2654 for COD orders 



mmmi 





Tbn prapBin a»4n*4iiTrtl W'^j-fMnJ^ Uoiiw TV iivl an ivivilnh tt*^ 
t«Bt ti^m Kipkd h'l''' '■■Ju 111 i*)m|MlrTunJ bi''4 k^rprnf Vmum* rw^rt^MK iw 
Hu^R^uln. lAi »m* ihf ninm i^mr ronwrninr lhu< ll»r Itinnini Timr ipvqf nn mt- 
miiATKn^ihlt htsln^ri^r in hdf Hon Ar^tA^ uai*ntnrii «ii> nrlirf ha«T d* 
rrmd Ike 'v/tilutiAmt m«*« ih^ 

T>»i proriii w i*fft r >gJ tai b m i m w fn^nite mi caaipii»f Lir«[*iBinrlnflTipcfl< All 
inpua ■TV tfrunimd fur Tul ind rfltctom DfavMInn Lf ■ nMh rtirck u >K)ulnd, nlni- 
VA Uid t«lBl< •r'rhvh-4 l**rT trw -»1h ■ r^otlBme II ■ mB-Pi r4pn« » •*« *t 

IfUleTd iBlK lVv1«uH 141^. tewun fv. HI i J u t i* TW pillflVBm dnvT« «■!*« IH IP- 

iDnuHDn « d »«Mn wmd *lll ^^iw thr pn^n !*■ i *i>x b fVftU^ I^Mib 
Euabb o^ n ippw. nsktuc i ^UAtik jbhiIibm nmiwrt fmm ■ Pu ikflnd r^hrr rhan 
lb plan- n4 Knim ■*'»■ bfi ■< rW |dn «1 t — iiip arv vhJi haii^bd W thr pr*k 



F^VT^fflir. 



A h. eidii«4 ■! an^ ■■— r 
..rpf..l.d lb.-«,- 



If B-- 



whwid 



rifiWiPi**DwEiMMtilion. 



solutionsf/' 

^277 Route 55 (5, 

La Grangeville, New York 12540 




154 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



® 



America's Largest Mail-Order Computer Store 

HOB0VUJORLD 

€L€CTRONICS, INC^ 

Coll Toll-Frec: USfi (800) 423-5387 ^ 

In Calif: (800) 382-3651 frrga^ 
Local & Outside USfl: * ^^^ 
(213) 886-9200 




Bockgommon 
Chollenger $109.95 



Chess 
Challenger "7" 
Chess 
"VOICC" Challenger 

II you re into chess you ivill love 
Ct>ess Chaliengeri 7 levels o' play. 
"Mate in Two" and "Chess by Mail". 
Lilie io have your opponent call out 
Ihe moi/es? Try "Voice' Chess 
Challenger. 96.000 Bils ol Read Only 
Memory, and over 8,000 bits of Ran 
dorn Access Memory. Can be used by 
ihe blind as the game will audibly call 
every move, capture, and repeal 
board position 

Cat No. 2399 Chen Challangar "7" 
Cat No 239S Chess Voice Challenger 



Vcu irvili be challenged and intrigued 
by this game. Uses all strategies ol 
the game , including a running garne. 
hit and run, blocking and bear oM 
games YOU handleihe dice! Choose 
oHense or defense Computer 
resDortses va^y every game. 
Weight 3 IBs 
Cat No 2411 




111225 
S336.gS 



TRS-80/flPPLe/€XIDV 
JltTd-^'nTff.'^ W8.00 

Everyth ig needed to uograae your 
TRS-eO App^eo' Exidy I An additional 
16K includes illuslraled instructions, 
RAMS. and preprogram med jumpers 
No Special tools required wt 4 oz 



CAT NO 

1tS6 

tt5«A 



1156-C 
IIS6-D 



DESCRIPTION 

TRS 80 Keyboard Unit 
TR5-80 Eip Inletface 
(prior to 4/I^S) 
TRS80 Exp. Inlarface 
(after 4/1/79) 
lor APPLE \l 
lor EXIDY 



STRR TACK III 

One ol the most aovanced Star Trek 
games ever Locale Ihe- 5 Class U 
Planets, battle Klmgons, but watch 
out lor black holes and pulsars This 
version IS 3 dimensional, not flat like 
Other versions Watch the Er\\efpr\it 
phasers hit anO explode the Kllng- 
ons! Extensive use of graphics 
throughout At the end. return to Star 
Fleet command, whe'e the data In the 
ships computer evaluates ana rales 
your performance Takes about 2 
hours to play a garne 
Cat No. 1041 TRS«] level ll(16K I14.9S 




ATARI 

Home 
Video System 

The nation's best selling home video enlertainmeni 

center Is here! Currently supports a library of twenty 

video game cartridges with over 1300 variations and 

options. Comes with interchangeable joystick and 

paddle controllers, special circuits to protect home 

TV, realistic sound effects and produces crisp, bright 

colors on your TV screen. Also includes ATARI s 

"Combat" game with 108 variations and options. 



CAT NO 

2375 

2206 

2207 

22H 



CAI NO 
2376 

2377 
!37B 
?379 
2310 
23S1 

231; 

2323 
2384 
2385 
2316 
23BT 
23B8 
23B9 



DESCRIPTION 
Sllrlhip 

Bitck Jick 
Spice Wir 
Suritund 
Slot Micliini 
Outliw 
Sm Ric*f 
VidtD OtympKi 
Brtikoul 
Cinyoi> Bomb*! 
SlFSBi Race 
Hamifun 
B»li»(b|ll 
Football 



DESCRIPTION WT 

ATARI VidM Coin(iifl*r Syitem B lb. 

Driving CtntFolltr-PiK 2 Hi 

Piddia Contioller Piii 2 |b 

Joysiicn Controllsi-Piir 7 lb 

ATARI Oom« Cartridges 

WT 
iK 
E 01 
E 01 



PRICE 
S17S95 
t 19 » 

s ig as 

$ D.H 



E 07 

fiai 
Gai 

i 01 

6 Of 
6 01 
B 02 
6 oz 
6 01 
8 01 
8 01 



PRICE 
S1S.9E 
Sis 95 
S1595 
S1S9S 
S1S9S 
11795 
S179S 
S1J9S 
S17 95 
119 95 
tl9 95 
119 95 
119 95 
119 95 



2390 
2391 
2392 
2393 
2394 
2395 
2396 
2397 



6oi 
6 01 



Bowling 
Skydiver 

Fun With NunibBil 6 oi 

Brain Game 6 oi 

Suparmin 6 m 

Cilino 6 m 

Backgammon 6 gz 

Vidoo Chill e 01 



119 9S 
119 95 
119 95 
119 95 

125 95 

126 95 
144 95 
144 95 



NOTC: Not ror us* with 
ATARI Progrommoblc 
Computers 



RDVCNTURC 

Explore an almost endless maze of 

treasures and pitlalls Challenging 

and turi! 

THS-eOLKU 16k 

Cat No. 1723 |l4.fiS 



BARAICRDC 

Similar to breakout. A real tirne game, 

with options of speed Dalls, angle, 

etc. 

TRS-80L1/L2 16k 

Cat No, 1362 t14.9S 



NOVATION "CRT 
flCOUSTICMODCM 

Tne FIRST compact modern designed lor the 
small computer user Transmits data over stan- 
dard telephone i"ies Eichange data or pro- 
grarrs with other systems Data transfer rate up lo 
30 char/sec Complete and ready to use Requires 
110 VAC, 60 H; 
CatNo.lMO Welghl3lbt. Prke:Sie9.0C 



VCftBATIM 5</4" DISKCnCS 
10 per box 



CAT NO, 
1147 

1146 

1149 

2330 
2331 



TYPE 
S2S41 
52&-10 
525-18 

527-01 
57710 

57718 



DESCRIPTION 

•Oft sector, TRS-SO. 

Etc. 

10 hota, hard, 

Appta. North star 

16 nole, hard, 

mlcropolls 

solt aeclor certified 

10 hote, hard, 

certltlad 

IS hole, herd, 

cenilled 



PRICE 

S33.O0 

I33.O0 

133.00 
14995 

S4995 

t49.95 



TAS-80 To S-100 BUS RDAPTOR-MINI 8100 



MflTCHL€SS MS-80 
TflS-80 MINI DISK DRIVC 



Plugs Into Ihe e<pansion mter 
face. Complete factory issted 
drive includes inslallalion in- 
structions and software listing to 




Cat No. 

1375 

2964 

13M 

1938 

1485 D 

1147 



Detcflpllon 

MS-00 Dish Dflva 

2 Drive Cable 

4 Drive Cable 

Acceiiing Scllwara, tracks 36-40 

M5-S0 MPI 51 Manual 

Verbatim Diskalies, (tMn ol 10) 



access 3 times 'aster than Radii- 
Shack drives. 40 tracis instead ol 
35. Existing 35 track software 
completely compataOle 

Welgtit Price 

B Ibe. S39G.0O 

Bor I 19.95 

Boa. S 39.95 

»oi 1 10.00 

2 01, S 1.50 

B 01. S 33.00 




MICRO SQUnR€D M2-250 
DOUBLC SIDCD DISK DRIVCS 



Two double sideo ' drives yielo 
3S8k Bytes on TRS-80. B75l( Bytes 
on S'100 systems Fast transfer 
rate of 250k Byies'Sec. No 
modltlcalion of hardware or soft- 
ware necessary Complete with 
Cat No Oetcripiion 
2054 M2 250 Disk Drtvaa 




Power Supply and Cabinet. Fac- 
tory tested Life Expectancy 
20 000 hours, average nriedia iile 3 
million passes on a smgie-track 
Portec drives. 



2329 



Welflhl 
15 lbs. 



•550-16 Hard Sector OUkeltas 10 oi. 



Price 

S1 195 00 

10 Boi'$5g.95 



Mirii sire, mini price, but maxi- 

perforrnance. Available with 

adaptor circuitry and tour slot 

shielded motherboard lor direct 

S-IOC use. or with adaptor on 
Cal No. Oeacrlpilon 

IMS Kit w'motherboard. one S 100 Conn 

1906 AtT, Motherboard, 4 S 100 Conn. 

1H7 Kit. plugs into S 100 mamtrame 

1908 AAT, plugs Into S-tOO malnliame 



S-100 card to plug into externa) 
S-100 mainlrame. Opens up the 
vast world of S-100 Bus products 
to TRS-80 owrters. Wt. 3 lb 



Price 
StIS.OO 
SI 55 DO 

S 95 00 

t125.00 



TRS-80 Lower Cose 
Modification Kit 

Mcdi'ies ycur Tiac^ine to display 
both upoer and lowei case Installs m 
minutes! Requires drill, soldering 
iron and screw-O'iver Wilh complete 
instructions a«m aa 
Cat No 1550 >l7.UD 

THS-80 's a legisie'ea tiaaeinaik 
ol ine Tanav Company 



SRRGON II 

Hayden 

The champ nf champsi Surpasses 

Microchess, and even Sargon M 01 

tars complex moves. 7 levels of play, 

activity indicator, a special "hlnf' 

mode, plus more ! The best chess pro 

gram ever' 

Cat No, 20S2 TRS-80 S29 95 

Cat No. 2083 Apple II S29.9S 



Pagt' alle' pagu ol cic.Iirg DroCucta. 
Computerized toys and games, per- 
sonal computers, drsk drives, in- 
tegrated circuits, semi conductors. 
Ado new dimension to your Apple. 
Atari, TRS-80, etc withour special ap- 
plication boards and comprehensive 
soltware library. Hundreds ol pro- 
ducts available at terrific Hobbyworid 
prices. Circle our reader service 
number or write/phone for your free 
iliust'aied (Iyer today. 



HOUJ TO ORD€R 

Pay Dy Check MaMeicniigg, Visa or C 
Chaig* card ordofi plaaie includo oipiration 
data Paymsnl In U S dollari only 0rd«r by 
phone mail or at our latail itori MINIMUM 
QRDFR SIO.OD Pleaia Include phong number 
and magaiine iiiuo you art ordtring froni. 
Pncoj valid thru lasl day of covtr dalf SHIP- 
PING USA Add S7.0D lor liril 2 IDl , 15t 
*ach addt I lb lor grounU. For AIR add 13 00 
Iirii2lbi.. TStaachaddt llt> fOHEIGN sur- 
laca S3 00 liiti 2 lbs . BOc sacii addt'l lb 
AIR Sit 00 firtt 2 ibt . SS 00 eacli addl I lb 
CODt add 11 25 addl ) Not rojpontibta lor 
fypogiaphical errort Soma itaint sub|Kt to 
prior sale or quantity limitatMns 120 day 
puiranleod tatitfaclion Eicaption pirtially 
aitsntOlsd kilt 



19511 Business Center Drive Dept. V6 Northridge, Co. 91324 



^RMdt/ S»rvic« — s»€ pag« 162 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 155 
Scanned by Ira Goldklang - vvvvw.trs-80.com 



. , . We have them ALL 

All the Disks and Printers 
that interface to the TRS-80 

514" Drives — 8" Drives — Single and Double Density — 
and Hard Disk Systems with up to 40 megabytes! 



TRS-80 
Disk Drive 

SAVE 
OVER $100 

Vista, Percom, Lobo, 
and others 

Fully compatible with 

expansion interface 

and TRSDOS Software 

Some as Low as 

$359 



CP/M' OPERATING SYSTEM 

for Mod, I List $145 $129 

for Mod. II ListS170 S149 

Complete line of CP/M Software available 
al discount prices 



CENTRONrCS 
PRINTERS 



NEW 730 

w/fficlion 
and tractor 




CORVUS 10 megabyte hard 
disk for Mod. \ or II 

ONLY $4795 



$679 

737 parallel, friction, tractor, List S995 . . . $849 
779 1 (TRS-80 Line Pnr. II. List $1245 949' 

779-2with tractor. List $1350 1049' 

702-2 120 cps, bi-directional. 

tractor, VFU 1995 

703-2 185 cps, bi-directional. 

tractor, VFU 2395 

(shipped (relght collect) 

AIMADEX 

80-COL. DOT MATRIX PRINTER 

t 



CONVERT YOUR EXISTING 

SELECTRIC TYPEWRITER 

TO A PRINTER . . . 

Power Supply & electronics, assembled & 
tested. You make only a simple solenoid 
installation lor have the factory do it). 
Manufactured by Escon. 
Parallel version, List S675 , ONLY $514 

TRS-80 cable (specifv MOD I or MOD in $25 




Complete upper and lower case ASCII chdr. 
set, bi-directional al 84 lines/mm. Features 
RS232 20/60 mil current loop and Centronix 
parallel interface. Ideal 'or use wiit> IPS 80, 
Sorcerer. Cromemco, and North'Star systems. 

OUR PRICE ONLY $749 

ishipping SlOl 




Bi-directional, 150 cps, logic seeking, adjust- 
able tractor. Available with low^r case com 
pressed p-^'int, lornns length control or vertical 
forms control option. Centronics style parallel 
mterface also available 

T.I. 810 with senal/paraliel interface 
List 1940 OUR PRICE $1735 

T.I 810 printer outperforms Line Printer III. 



PAPER TIGER' 




Paper Tiger, List $995 ONLY $895 

w/graphics options, mcl. buffer, $1194 . . $989 

IP225w/1210, 1250 options, List $984 834 
IP-225 w/tractor. 1210', 2K buffer, & 

graphics options. List $1098 899 

TRS 80 cable 45 

•1210 option is expanded/compressed print. 

NEC SPINWRITER™ 




The Fantastic Letter-Quality 
Printer at 55 cps 

-CALL FOR PRICES- 



Printers for TRS-80 require Level II machines. 

Printer cables extra. Call for price and order 

number, 

• Same as Line Printer I 

t Same as Line Pfinier II 



SHIPPING. AND INSURANCE Add $5 for Selectnc Converter. $6 for disk dnves, $W tor Megabox Centronics printers shipped freight 
collect Contact us tor shipping information on other printers 
All prices subiect to change and alt offers suDiect to withdrawal without notice Prices in this ad are for prepaid orders Slightly higher prices prevail ior 



other-than-prepaid orders, le.. CO D.. credit card, etc 



- WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 



MiniMicrolVlart, Inc. 

1618 James Street, Syracuse, NY 13203 {315)422-4467 TWX 710-541-0431 ^2. 




"^ TRS-80 
SERIAL I/O 

• Can input into basic 

• Can use LLIST and 
LPRINT to OJtput. or 
output continuously • 
RS-332 compatible • 
Can be used with or 
without the expansion 
bus • On board switch 
selectable baud rates 
ot 110,150,300,600, 
1200, 2400. pantyor 
no panty odd or even. 
5 to B data bits, and 1 
or- 2 stop bits DT.R 
line • Requires ♦S, 
-12 VDC • Board on^y 
Sl995PariNo 8010. 
with parts S59 95 Part 
No. B010A. assembled 
579 95 Part No. 8010 
C No connectors pro- 
aided, see below 




ho □eesP9 

g|^^^ BO ana Ok^ t*rMt 



COMPUCRUtSE 




S1 2935. wth cruse con - 
trol SI 69,95 



THE TELESIS 

VAR-80 

INTERFACE 

UNIT 



fj 



r 



For the TRS-80 with 
Level II Basic • Prouides 
B outputs • Pr-ovides 6 
inputs • 2 ft of inter- 
conrectmqcablew/cor- 
nector • Rugs directly 
into TRS-80 • Power 
supply proiflded • As- 
sembled arwj tested. 
Part No VARBO. Intro- 
ductory pnce S 1 09.95, 



GAME PADDLES 
& SOUND 




Includes 2 game pad- 
dles, interface, soft- 
ware, soeaker, power 
supply, full documen- 
tation including: sche- 
matics._ theory of 
operation, and user 
guide: plus 2 games on 
cassette (Pong and 
StarshipWferl $79 95 
Comptete Part Ha 
7922C 



DISKETTES 



DIGICOM DATA 
PRODUCTS INC. 

Series 312 
Acoustic Coupler 




300 BAUD Onginate. 
Part. Ho AC3122 
S219,95 300 BAUD 
Answer. Part No 
AC3122, 1219,95 
300 BAUD Answer/Of - 
lunate. Part Nq flC3 1 23. 
S2?9 95. 



LIGHT-PEN 
ForYourTRS-80 




Your TRS-aO Light-Pen 
I s a carefully engineered 
instrument and with the 
proper care will give 
satisfactory use and 
many years of service. 
Part No. TRSBOLP 
S24 95. 



SYSTEM 

EXPANSION 

from 

LNW Research 

• Senal RS232C/20 
mA I/O • Floppy con- 
troller • 32K bytes 
memory • Paraflel print- 
er port • Dual cassette 
port • Real-time ctock 

• Screen pnnter bus • 
Onboard power supply 

• Software compatible 

• Solder mask, silk 
screen. PC board and 
user manual. Part No 
LNWBO. S69.95. 




Aferbatim 



Bo« oi 10. 5 $29 95 
B" $39.95. 
Plastic box. holds 10 
diskettes. 5' - $4 50, 
8" - $6.50. 



16K RAMS 

For the Apple. 
TflS-BO or Pet $8 
each Part No, 4116/ 
2117. 



LEEDEX 
MONITOR 



CI 



12" Black ard White* 
12 MHz Bandwidth 
• Handsome Plastic 
Case -$139 00 



S-100 INTERFACE 




AN S-1 OD bus Adapter— Motherboard for the 
TRS-80 Kit. Part No HUH81 DLXK,E295 95 
Assembled, Part No HUH81DLXA,S375 95 



NOW1 

A FULL SUPPORT SYSTEM 

FOR TRS-80 




• nPK of RAM • EPRDM firmware • Disk 
control • Data acquisition • Parallel I/O • 
Senal I/O • Plug into GPAs Motherboard 
GPA's Quality design includes • 6-44 pm edge 
connectors* '5V,-5V. t12\/. -12V external 
power supply required • Active termination 
The Motherboard, Part No GPA80, is only 
S14995 

TAKE ADVANTAGE OF 

GPA-EXPAN510N CARDS 

FOR THE GPA80 

Memory cards: Now with Fortran compilers 
available for your TRS-8Q. additional expansion 
memory is a must! Card with sockets only. Part 
No. GPA801. $119,95 Card with 16K of 411 6 
Dynamic Ram, Part No, GPA8D2 $224 95 
Card with 32K of 41 16 Dynamic Ram. Part No 
GPA803, S329.95. All cards come equipped 
with sockets to accomodate 32K of Ram, 
EPROM firmware card. Put those valuable 
subroutines in firmware Don t waste time 
loading and unloading tapes and disks For 2708 
or2716EPROMS.PartNo.GPA806.S79 95 
Serial I/O card. Here's what you've been 
asking for. a full senal terminal interface, with 
RS-232Cor2DmA Currenttoop Input/ output 
capabilities. Part No GPA807, $79.95. 
Parallel I/O Card. Control functions in the 
outside world, monitor and store real time 
events. Two parallel output ports. Dip switches 
select Dor-ts (0-254). Part No. GPA80B, 
$79 95 



FLOPPY DISK 
STORAGE BINDER 




Three-rmg binder 
comes with ten trans- 
parert plastic sleeves 
which accommodate 
either twenty, five-inch 
or ten. eight-mch 
floppy disks. Birder & 
10holders$14.95Part 
No. 8800; Extra holders 
950: each. Pan No BOO. 



DIGITAL 
CASSETTE 




5 mm, each side Box 
of 10 $995 Part No 
C-5, 



DISK JACKET' 




Holds two 5-1 /4 inch 
diskettes and will fit 
any standard three ring 
binder.$995/1GPack 



TRENDCOM 
PRINTER 

EJ 

• 40 characters per 
second • 4-7/16 inch 
wide thermal oaper • 
Graphics (TRENDCOM 
100) 480 sevendot 
pnnt postions per line 
TRENDCOM 100, Part 
NoTRC01D0.$495.95 
TRENDCOM 200, Part 
No TRC0200. $375.95 
Interface for TRS-8D. 
PartNo,T80AS45 95. 
For Apple li, Part No. 
TRCAII. $75.95 For 
PET, NO. TRCP2, 
£79 95. PorScoccerer, 
TRCSR1 $45.95 



5ARG0N: A Computer 
Chess Program 

Features the complete program that won the 
1978 West Coast Computer Fajre Tourna- 
ment Part No 0OB03 — TRS-BO Level II, 
Part No. QQ6Q4 — Apple II I24K] $19 95 



SOUND EFFECTS AND MUSIC 
FOR YOUR COMPUTER 



pp^ 



PET TR&.aO Compucolot II 

SOUNDWARE is a complete system It includes 
a speaker/amplifier unit with volume control, 
earphone lack, and connectors. It boasts 
excellent tone quality yet is small and convenient 
to use Add battenes. plug it in, and play One 
year warranty. SOUNDWARE package [in- 
cludes INTRO to SOUNDWARE programs) 
PET I8K), Part No. 20003. $29.95. TRS-80 
Level II (16KI. Part No. 20002, $29,95, 
Compucolor II (8K). Part No, 2D001 , $39.95. 
INTRO to SOUNDWARE programs only PET 
andTRS-BO.Part.No 20005. $14,95 Compu- 
color II Part Nc 20006, $1 9.95, 



Tq Ordfir* ^^"^'0"P3f"t no. description, and price In USA shipping paid by us for orders accompanied by check or money order. 
We accept COD. orders in the U. S. only, or a VISA or Master Charge no,, expiration date, signature, phone no., 
shipping charges will be added, CA residents add B.5% for tax. Outside USA add 10% for air mail postage and han- 
dling. Payment must be in U. S, dollars. Dealer inquiries invited. 24 hour order line (408] 448-0800 



Send for FREE Catalog , a big self -addressed envelope with 41« postage g^s it fastest! 



ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS Qept 80 



P, 0. Box 21638. San Jose. CA USA 95151 



If you enjoy driving, you're going to get a 
COMPUCRUISE. Once you see whet it can 
do, you Just won't be able to live without It. 



ffi [»j] ffl :Ti "^ 

fpl S 'Ti .^J T] 


1 


'"••" 




, ^^ SSmPUEFSiSB \ - 

> 





This Qsdgel (Its into most dashboards ... no strain even in a liny sports car like the Uazda RX-7 and 
once you have it, every trip is like (lyino a 747. The darned Ihing tells you the lime, ho* fast you're going, how 
far you've been on this trip or since the last regassing. how many miles per gallon you're getting, eilfier at the 
instant or the average on the trip or gallons per hour al the moment or for the trip . temperature outside 
. . . inside (or coolant temperature, H you prefer) . oh, it has an elapsed time lor the trip, a Slop walch, lap 
lime, an alarm . . . how much further (or your trip, ho* many gallons more the trip will take, how much longer 
lor the trip at your present average speed yes, it gives you your average speed lor the trip You prelef it in 
metric, no strain liters remaining, etc. Did we menlron that il also has cruise control either at a speed set 
or the control board or al whatever speed you are traveling? The Compucruise will keep you busy and enter- 
tained during any trip . . . telling you more than you will ever want lo know. 

The Compucruise is not difficult to install . though it does connect lo everything etcept the cigarette 
lighter. Until you've tried computerized travel, you haven't found out how much lun driving can be. II will work 
on any car not having fuel injection . . . and there is a front-wheel drive accessory gadget available (or only 
S4.40-#P001 (regularly S5 50) 

The price for the Compuoruise isiegularly S1 99.96 . . . and a bargain at that price. We II sell you one of these 
fantastic gadgets lor SI 59 95 with cruise control (Model 44-*PO02), and S1 27.95 without <Uodel 41-«P003).Send 
money and start having lun! 



O^Cra 



MAIL ORDER MICROS -^ 

Dept. B80 • PO Box 427 • Marlboro NH 03455 
Phone: [603] 924-3041* 



s 

p 

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10 

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HI ADVENTUHELAND 

YOU LLWiNDEH TMSOUGH AN EN 
CM»NT"EQ liND FNCOUNIFRING 
WILD ANJM«LS tNQ MAQICIL 
BEiriGS WMIIE 'OU THY TO 
HECOVER LOST TREASUBES 
OrO»' »S*O0ir lo. TRS Ldrtl II I6K 
IStmiS for SorcsFC ISK ISAOOi* 
'oi ADBif ?'«- 113 "ie»cn. 0" 

«2 PIRATE ADVENTURE 

SAIL -O TBEASunt ISlAND AND 
■'HV TO BCCOVFH LONG jO«N 
SJLVEBSLOS' rntASUHES 
OfMi USAOOJT lor TBS Leve I 16K. 
•SAOOSS '□■ So'ceoF '61 ISAOOJA 
Fi>r*pplf3»K-J045Mcn o" 

«3 MISSION IMPOSSIBLE 
ADVENTURE 

SAVE THE *□«!.□ S FIRST 
AUTOMATED NUCLEAH HEACTOn 
WHEN lOU COMPLETE YOLB 
MICS ON 

OrOiF ISAOOJT Fo' 'RS Ls.el I 16F1 
•SAOCJS lor SorceroF 161 •SA003A 

lOF Aople ^^"-l1^^5l!al:^. an 
cas$Fiii 

■4 VOODOO CASTLE 

SAVf COUNT CBISTO f DOM 'ME 

fiEri[)1SH CURSE OB FOREVEB BE 

DOOUFQ-6EIWABE THE VOOOOO 

MAN 

OfrtflF USAOWT '0- TRS Lewpl II '6K 

•SAOOAS 'OF SoiuOreF 'Bl •SAOO*S 

lor Apole ?1K HJ ISeacn on 

»5 THE COUNT 

LOVF AT tIRST BYTE FBOH 

>OUH BIG BRASS BEO rN 

TBANS*..VftNIA 

OfeWf ISAOtST to' TBS L »ve II ifi" 

■SAOOSS >"' ^'CCFer tex ISAOMA 

lOF toc'r 2tY. -lIllieiCFl OF. 

«6 STRANGE ODVSSEY 

YOU RE MABOONEO AT THE 
GALAJIY 5 EDGE AND DISCOVEB 

RUINS OF AN ANCIENT ALIEN 
CIVILIZATION AND TRY 'O COPE 

WITH uneahtmlY technologies 

WHILE 'OU AMASS rABULOUS 

TREASURES 

OfOsf ■SA006T lor TBS Levc I '6K 

■SA0065 'OF SoFcs'sr 16". 1SA(X16A 

In' ApOle il1-S131b CdcFr on 



#7 MYSTERY FUN HOUSE 

FIND YOUR WAY TMBOUGH IHE 
STRANGEST FUN MOUSE BEFORE 

THE WEIBDPABK CLOSES 
Orle. iSAOOrT lor 'US Le.pI I lER 
"SAM/S 'OF 5o<ceFer IBH SAOOyA 'of 
Acpie ;tH I'JtSeicn on cassvitE 

«8 PYRAMID OF DOOM 

AN EGYPTIAN TREASUBE HUNT 
THHOUGH A NEWLY UNCOVEHFQ 
PVRAM'Q COMPLETE WITH AN 
CIFNT CURSE 

0<»' ISAOOST 'OF TRS Ll>.el ,1 1611 
■SAfOOIS lor SoTceFW IW ■SWOB* 
'or »ODI' 3'"-I'3 "^ !'»':'■ i>n 



CASIO'S NEW C-80 

CALCULATOR 

CHRONOGRAPH 



has lightweight attractive ruggedly 
built blacli plastic water-tight case 
and band, regular digital watch lea- 
lures of hours, minutes, seconds, AM/ 
PU and day on display PLUS two time 
zones, calendar and a 4 function cal- 
culalof' You've seen it advertised in 
the Wall Street Journal (of S75 . 
MOM'S price IS only $69.95, Hurry, our 
supply is limiled ... order #PCBO 
now. 



INSTANT SOFTWARE 

HALF PRICE SPECIAL 
CLOSEOUT— ONLY $4 



HONEYWELL 

15 HorMywMll ASR-33 Communl- 
catloni Coniolas with TTV, 
paper tape reader and punch. 
Used, working when removed 
from service. Shipped freight 
collect or you pick up. Weighl 
3CX1 lbs $395. Order 1IP006, 



TRS^, Level I, Games 

Knights Quest/Robot Chase 4K- 
ms 10003. 

Cave Exploring 16K-((iSI0010. 
Doodles & Display 16K-»iSIO030 
Fun Package I 16K-#ISI0041. 

TRS-SO, Leval I, Finance 
Status of Homes 4K-«IS10012. 

TRS-aO, Level II, Hobby 
Model Rocketry Analyzer- 
#1510024 



Ever had your car stolen? 

The first reaction Is one of disbelief . . . 

. . . you know It was right \hBrB\ 

Whal you want is a modern combinalion lock on your ignition . 
The Steal Stopper, it's easy to install and alrTiost impossible to 
defeat. Vou can bypass it, it you want, (or parking attendants or a 
car wash. Other than that, you set up a secret four digit code and 
only you will then be able to slarl the car . even if you have the 
keys in 
ihe ignition 

This protection retails (or $50 tiut we have a special (or you al 
$39.95 Don't procraslinale Order « P004. 

Note: This product works best on Detroit cars. Mazda RX7 
owners must order additional module. • P008, which costs $8. The 
Steal Stopper can be modified for Mercedes, Porsche, Ferrari, or 
olher high performance European cars by returning unit to 
manufacturer with $3 They promise quick modification and return 



BRAND NEW*TRS-80 
and accessories at FANTASTIC SAVINGS 

LEVEL II 16K COMPLETE $720 #TRS-001S 

16K EXPANSION UNIT $400 #TRS-002S 

32K EXPANSION UNIT $525 #TRS-003 

DISK DRIVES $425 each (Specify which ijrive you want) #TRS-004 

FRICTION MODEL PRINTER $870 #TRS-005S 

TRACTOR FED MODEL PRINTER $1350 #TRS-006 

LINE PRINTER lit (AND CABLq $1550 #TRS-007 

MOD II 64K $3400 #TRS-008 



TERMS: Shipment normally within one week of receipt of your order (with cashier's 
check, money order, or credit card) for microcomputer and three weeks for ac- 
cessories (checks take two weeks extra to clear bank). ADD $2.50 PER ITEM for 
HANDLING. Everything will be sent to you with UPS freight charges COLLECT. 

•WOT" UPGRADED USED OR RECONDITIONED LEVEL I's WITH OLD KEYBOARDS 
BUT BRAND SPANKING NEW TRS-80's IN FACTORY CARTONS WITH FULL FAC- 
TORY WARRANTY! COMPARE PRICES AND QUALITY AND ORDER FROM MOM'S. 




158 • 80 Microcomputing, June 1980 



BOOK CLEARANCE 

UP TO 50% OFF 

Chemistry wuh a Computet (Edu- 

comp-publisheO *6K1010— was 

S9 95. now K.OO. 
Computet Dictionary (Camelol 

puDlishef) #eKlOie— was S5 95, 

now U.00. 
FORTRAN Programming (Came- 

lot-puDiisMet) #BK10i9-was 

$7,95, now S4.00. 
FORTRAN Workbook (Camelot- 

publlshet) #BK1020— was $4 95. 

now $2.50. 
A Quick Look al BASIC (Camelot- 

publisher) IBKKHa— was $4.96. 

traw $2.50. 
How to Buy and Use Mitiis and Mi- 
cros (Sams-puDlisher) iieK1025 

— was S995. now 15.00. 
How lo Program Microcomputeis 

Samspublisrwrl iBKlOZT— was 

te.95. now $4 50 
Yout Own Computer (Sams-pub- 
lisher) »BK1072— was $1 95. 

now $1 .00. 
BOaOA Bugbook (Sams-publisher) 

»BKn03— was $9.95, now 

$5.00. 
Periodical Guide 1976 (Berg-pub- 
lisher) #BK1041— was $3 00. 

now $1.50. 
Petlodical Guide 1977 (Berg-pub- 

lisher) »BK1042 — was 13.00. 

WW 11.50. 
UtKJergtourx] Buying Guide (PMS- 

Kmo-puDllsher) »BKi067-was 

$5.95. now $3.00, 
Unberstanamg MIcrocomputets 

iScelbi-publisher) tBKi079— 

was $8.30. now $4.00 
Compulator (TAB-publi3her| 

tSK1012-was $7.95. now $4 
The Story ol Computers (Cartielot- 

publlsher) tBKl056-was $4 95, 

now $2.50. 
Fun with Computers and BASIC 

(Camelot-publisher) WBK1021- 

was $6.95, now S3. 50. 
Introduction to Microprocessors 

(Microlog-publisher) «BK1032 

was $17.50, now $8.75. 
Microcomputer Dictionary (Matrin- 

pubhsher) »BK1034-was $15.96, 

now $8. 
Microcomputet Pfimer (Sams-pub- 

llsfier) #BK1035-was $7,95, now 

$4 
Home Computers Questions and 
Answers, Hardware. (Dilithium 
Publishers) was $7,95 now $4.00 
IBKia23. 



■ MAIL ORDER MICROS - '^S ■ J ^^ 1 

■ Dapt. ••OaPOBeH 427* RtorttwraMH 03459 m*'*! ^^^^ ' « B^i^ ^^^^ 

■ Phons: (603] tZ4-3041 * g Vi. J 


SIMULATED SURVEILLANCE VIDEO SYSTEMS 

since the video camera systems are totally psychological, trial is, thevisibll- 
ily and suggestion ol video cameras is what deters ihe thieCs desire to steal, 
ail that IS really needed is a device that appears to be a lunctioning video 
carT>era. The SSV System provides Ihe businessman with the same deterrent 
to crime as real systems at a traction of ttie cost, t>ecause the cameras and 
alarm boxes are empty o' electronics, but woukJ-be crooks don t know this, 
and SSV Systems ate exttemely realistic in detail. Sorrw scan back and (orlh 
and all have red neon lights. They feature easy installation, mount on any wall, 
liave metal construction throughout, with wrinkle finish painl. all aluminum 
lens Etarrel with f-stops.lDotagemartiir>gs, and convex optics, simulated coaxi- 
al cable and wall plate, manufacturer's unconditional guarantee, plus warning 
stickers Included with all orders, 

SVS 900 Scanning camera features 155 degree scanning action, long-life 
quiet. 1 rpm motor, only S100 (regularly $1 19.95) catalog « I^OOIO. SVS-880 sta- 
tionary camera is adjustable to any angle lor fixed view coverage wilti moun- 
ting brackets and hardware, only $50 (regularly $58.95) catalog* POOIl.orgo 
first class with the SVS-2000, whicfi has a soft blue finish with satin mylar irim 
only $105 (regularly $124.95) catalog* P0012. the stationaiY version is only $55 
(regularly $62.95) catalog • P0013. Alarm boxes are only $20 (regularly $24.95) 
catalog ■ P00l4andcompleteyour loo* of having real surveillance equipment 
installed at your business, fiome or office. 




HEAD ALIGNMENT KIT 

Best cassette recorder tape head 
alignment kit available. Solves 
loading problems tK00l-only 
$9 95 

PANASONIC 

TAPE DECKS 

Panasonic RS261 US Stereo 
Cassette Decks— with auto- 
stop, record level adiust, VU 
meters, used condition, all have 
had heads replaced and 
aligned. »fT001-$50 
Panasonic nS260 US Stereo 
Cassette Decks same ds 
aDove. Dul also h.i' bias switch 
tor chrome tapes ■f002S50 

MOM'S SOFTWARE 

SPEED READING 
COURSE 



SPECIAL PRICE Includes more than 20% 
discount. * indicates extra price reduc- 
tion since last aO. 

Quantities are limited, immediate refund 
if ordered item is no longer available. 

TERMS; FOB Marlboro. NH USA Limited 
stock, everything guaranteed as de 
scribed, you pay postage on returns 
PRINT orders clearly Minimum order S10 
plus $2 50 shipping and handling charge 
in USA only DOUBLE THAT ELSE- 
WHERE Orders over $50 add 5't for 
shipping in Continental USA, lO^c else- 
wtrere. (We will refund excess) Oroers 
shipped UPS or insured mail only No 
COOsplease Send US funds by check or 
mor>ey order For credit card purchases, 
add4*/i.liSlAE.MC or VISA, number, and 
expiration date. Mail to MOM'S, Depart- 
ment aeO, PO Box 427, Marlboro NH 
03455. 

CondHlon of Inventory: 
New = original container 
Excellent ' new, but nal In original 
contalrter 
Good ' tailed or used in (tore 

*Ptton« atuwervd by machine. Orden 
taken with credit cards. Ouailloni 
MWwecMl by malL Please leave your 
name and addrvM. 




V*^rbafi 



VERBATIM MINI DISKS 

For THS-80, Pel Apple 
(Please specify which) 

10 PACK— ONLY S24.50 
«P007 MOM'S Offers the 

Best for Less . . Again' 



MAGIC LIGHT 
BULB SAVER 

II you ve got a iighi bulb you need 
our MAGIC LBS which increases 
Ifie life expectancy of a new bulb 
93 times' and saves you 44- j 
on energy costs Regularly S2 50 
MOM s p'ice is 1' 99 each 
■t_S001 



Could be the most 
Important program 
you'll ever buy. 



A tachistoscope simulation 
which enables the user to in- 
crease reading and compre- 
hension speeds A must for 
any TRS-80 16K Level II 
owner Only $5 per cassette. 
Order »H2001 



Qly 


Catalog* 


Description 




Unit Price 




Total 






























































Delivery. 3 to 6 weeks Personal checks ''^^^\ \^ ^ %« .^f _^ 
lake about 2 weeks to clear bank / ill/ V^L *■ 
betoreweship / / V 1 1/ / \ 1 P I 


Shipping i. Handiin 
Credit Card (-.4%) 
Total 


•Q _ 




Fnclft-ied 1 


MAIL ORDEQ MICDDS .. 








Bill. AE MC VISA DIO- MO • Kl Bu 4IT • fttoritor. imOMBS 

Mwni [MJ] n4-3|M1 

Card no 






Name 








City 


Rtale Zifi 




Ship UPS 


Insured mail Signature 






^^^^H 


^^^^H 






^^^M 



■ R9tii9fSmnnco — s»»pag» 163 



80 Microcomputing. June 1980 • 159 




asserr^bty anguage pfogrammma for the Z-dO presented as a pro- 
gressive, step-Qy-step course This booh is both an educational 
teKt tfn(^ a sell-contained relerence book, uselui to both the begin- 
ning and (he experienced programmer whowlsh to learn aboul the 
Z-90. Exercises to test the reader are included S14.9S.' 

•Z-80 SOFTWARE QOURMET GUIDE AND COOKBOOK - BK1045 

-by Nat Wadsworin, Sce'bi's newest cooKt>ooti' This Dool< con- 
tains a complete description of the powerful Z-BO instruction set 
and a wide variety ol programmir>g information. Use the author's 
ingredients including routines, subroutines and short programs, 
choose a time-tested recipe and start cooking! $14 9b. ' 

• LEARNING LEVEL ll-BKn75-by David Lion. Written 
especially tof the TRS-80, this book concentrates on Level II 
BASIC, exploring every important BASIC language capabilltv. 
Updates are included for those who have studied the Level I 
User's Manual. Sectioris include: how to use the Editor, dual 
casselle operation, printers and peripheral devices, and trte 
conversion of Level I programs to Level M. $1S 95.* 



• BASIC BASIC (2ND EDITlON)-BK1026-by James S, 
Coan. Th(S IS a lextDook which incorporates the learning ol 
computer programming usmg the BASIC language wilh the 
leaching ol mathematics Over lOO sample programs il 
luslrate the techniques ol the BASIC language and every sec 
lion IS loHowed by practical problems. This second edition 
covers character string har>diir>g and ir^e use of data Mies 
S0.45.* 



• TR&-80 DISK AND OTHER MYSTERIES- BKl 181 - by Harvard C. Pennington. This is the delinilive work on the TRS-80 disk 
system, it is full of aetaiied How to ' information with examples, samples and in-deplh explanations suitable for beginners and 
professionals alike. The recovery of one losi file is worth the pnce alone $22 SO ' 

• Z-eO ASSEMBLY LANQUAQE PROQRAMMINQ-BK1177-by 

Lance A Leventhai. This book thoroughly covera Ihe Z-80 instruc- 
tion sel. abounding in simple programming examplea which illus- 
trate software development concepts and actual assembly 
language usage. Features include Z-BO I/O devices and mlerlaong 
methods, assembler conventions, and comparisons with 
SOSOAydOes instruction sets and interrupt structure. $12 50.* 

• INTRODUCTION TO TRS-«0 GRAPHICS - BKl 180 - by Don In 
man. Dissalislied with your Level I or Level II manual'scoverage of 
graphics capabilities? This well-structured book (suitable lor 
classroom use) is ideal for those who want to use all the graphics 
capabilities built mlo the TRS«) A tutorial irtethod is used with 
many demonstrations. II is based on the Level I, but at) nialerial is 
suitable lor Level li use $8.95 ' 

• THE INCREDIBLE SECRET MONEY MACHINE- BK1178- by 

Don Lancaster A alflerent kmO of ■cookbook" from Don Lan- 
caster Want lo slash taxes? Gel free vacations? Win at m 
vestments? Make money from something that you like to do' 
You'll find Ihis book essential to give you the key insider details ol 
what is really involved m starting up your own money machine 
$5.95.* 

• FREELANCESOFTWARE PUBLISHING - BKl 179- by B. J. Koriles. This booK is "poul rrioney and 
how to make il by writing and selling computer programs " (author s foreword), if you have the sijIMs to 
write a saleable program, you rrow need to acquire the skills to sell that prooram This compaci book 
comprehensively covers the entire publishing process and many aspects ol sollware saiesmananip. 




k 



fM 0J4M. Ba m* lo kiclMia *«*" or 4e«ileJ ct*m wtf InlwrMtkin. No CO.O. orden acwpird. Ai <ibove «ld » 14)0 l»n*ins. PImm dtow 4-t Mek> 
f(tr<l«tv<ry QuMllfvs rrflBrrilng yttur o«l«f7 «M»e <■"•<? Ctiitfim*^ Vf*fcr M Iha «mv« MAvs*. 



f<Ml TOLL FR^ ORDERING CMA, 1^800-258-5473 



^90 • SO MKrooomputlng. June 1980 




microcomputing 



bookshelf 



r 



• THE BASIC HANDBOOK ~ 6K 1 1 74 - by David Lien. This book s 
unique II isa virtual ENCVCLOPEDlAol BASIC WhUe not favoring 
one compuler over another, it exolalns over 250 BASIC words, how 
to use them and alternate strateQies. If a computer does not 
possess the capabilities of a needed or specified word, there are 
often ways to accomplish Ihe same function Dv usmo another 
word or combination of words That's where the HANDBOOK 
comes in. It helps you get the most from your compuler. t>e it a 
"bottcnn-of-the-iine micro or an oversized monster $14.95' 

• ADVANCED BASIC - BKIOOO- Applications and problems by 
James Coan js for (hose Mho want to extend their expertise wiln 
BASIC. Oilers advanced techniques and applications. i965.' 

• PIMS: PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM- 
BK1009 - Learn hoA to unleash (he power of a personal computer 
for your own benefit m this ready-to-use database management 
program. $9 95.* 

• PAYROLL WITH COST ACCOUNTING -IN BASIC-BKIOOI - 

by L. Poole & M Borchers. mduoes arocra'Ti lisllf-ys Alth remarks. 
descriptions, discussions of the principle behind each program. 
file layouls, and a complete user's manual with step-by-step in- 
structions, flowcharts, and simple reports and CPT displays. 
Payroll and cost accounting features include separate payrolls for 
up (0 10 companies, time-tesled interactive data entry, easy cor- 
rection of data entry errors, job costing (labor of distribution]. 
check printing with full deduction and pay detail, and 16 different 
printed report*, irKluding W-2 and 941. $20 00.* 

• LOW-COST. PERSONAL COMPUTER-BASED INVESTMENT DECISION SYSTEMS- BK1101 -Use ths guidebook by Man 

Computer Systems, inc s president. Jerry Feisen, to develop inexpensive personal compuler systems thai can help you maKe 
better investment decisions. $15.00.' 

• HOW TO MAKE MONEY WITH COMPUTERS- BK1003- In 10 Information-packed chapters. Jerry Feisen describes more 

than 30 computer-related, rnoney-maKing. high profit, low capital investment opportunities. $15.00.* 




WHAT TO DO 
)^YOUHIT 

RETURN 



rc.c»'«»°*'^ 

Co«)U»wGo»n«j 




• SOME COMMON BASIC PROGRAMS- BK1053- published by 
Adam Osborne & Associates, inc Perfect (or non-lechnicai com- 
puterists requiring ready-louse programs Busirwss programs, 
plus miscellaneous programs invaluable for the user wrio is not 
an experienced programrner. All will operate m (he stand-atone 
mode S12.50 paperbaclt.' 

• WHAT TO DO AFTER YOU HIT RETURN- BK1071 - PCC 8 first 
book of computer garries 48 different computer games you can 

play in BASIC. ,, programs, descriptions, many illustrations. 
Lunar Landing, Hammurabi, King, Civel 2, Oubic 5, Taxman, Star 
Trek, Crash, Market, etc, $i0 95 * 

• BASIC COMPUTER GAMES- BK1074 -Okay, so once you get 

your computer and are runnmg in BASIC, Ihen what? Then you 
need some programs m BASIC, that's what. This book has 101 
games lor you from very simple to real buggers. You gel (he 
garnes. a descnplion of (ne games, the listmg to put tn your com- 
puter and a sample run to show you how they work Fun. Any of>e 
game will be worth more than Ifie price of the book for Ihe fun you 
ar>d your family will have with it S7 SO * 

• SIXTY CHALLENGING PROBLEMS WITH BASIC SOLUTIONS 
<2nd Edition)- BK 1073- by Donald Spencer, provides the serious 
student of BASIC programming with interesting problems and 
solutions. No knowledge of math above algebra requirad. Includes 
a number of game programs, as well as programs tor financial in- 
terest, conversions and numeric mampulallona S6.9S ' 



^ 



*UmUm D*dvc«rri bi ttiabach ol IhlnnaeaAw arkHnlfeyatfnrrirr on a •rparWc plerr oT paprrand mall laSO MlcnocompuAig BooliiMirB Artcftarau^ 

riH 03436. Bt unlaindk* clKcfcot ihidhiil cndll <«<) lrforfii.iiian no COD. Mdrtt»(rcf)tM All jbuvcaAt il.lMhMwIlli^. PtMseailow 4-0 wM-ki 

lo( dclmary. QHUtkini r«D«dlns )•■"« cdrr? PV.mt larltr C»M<in"-t $r/>kr«t llw Jikn«««<Mr«ss. 



J 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING GALL 1-800-258-5473 



90 kiKrocomputing, Juna 1980 • 161 



PREVIEW 



HOME 
DISTRIBUTION 



THE BASIC 

SWITCHYARD 

Your TRS-80, given the same set 
of instructions and data, will 
always arrive at the same conclu- 
sion. A railroad train, given the 
same track and switch settings, 
will always arrive at the same 
destination. Using this as an 
analogy, we investigate the way 
BASIC works and follow the inter- 
preter through some programs. All 
aboard for BASIC, next month in 
80. 



If you're involved in one of the 
many home distributorships, or 
vending is your business, then this 
article is a must. With it you can 
save time and make money! The 
programs given are designed for 
use by Amway product distribu- 
tors, but could be adapted for use 
by many other businesses. 



DATA FILE 

MANAGEMENT 

If you can believe in anything In 
these days of intensive advertising 
hype, then believe that if there is 
any "reai power" hidden inside 
your TRS-80 it's hidden inside the 
expansion interface — home of the 
disk controlier chip. The use of 
disks opens up a tremendous 
"power," to manipulate data. 




ADVERTISERS 



RS Number 



Pie* 



81 AB Computers 127 

34 Acorn Soltwate Producis, Inc. . 66 

97 Adwenlure International 75 

69 Alpha Byte Storage 97 

Z10 Alpha Products Company 74 

124 Alphanstics 33 

138 The Alternate Source 139 

264 Apparat, Inc 27 

47 Applied Economic Analysis. ... 91 

236 Applied Micro Technology 141 

122 BillArchbold 139 

146 Audio Video Systems 64 

48 Automated Simulations 125 

49 Basics and Beyond, Inc 101 

235 The Bottom Une 110 

6 The Bottom Shelt, Inc 37 

57 Bourrut Consulting Corp 109 

289 The Business Software Co. . . . 131 

166 Business Microproducts 36 

298 CPU Shop 99 

145 C&S Electronics 107 

294 Caldata Systems 114 

1B1 Caldata Systems 36 

' Calsott 69 

195 Cecdat, Inc 94 

62 Cecdat, Inc 135 

46 Checks T&Go .15 

32 Cload Magazine 21 

74 Club Bolt 127 

IX CompuCover 86 

199 Computer Case Company 108 

215 Computer City 23 

288 Computer Connections 114 

240 Computer Forms 108 

299 Computer World 17 

9 Computronics, 

Inc 150,151,152,153 

10 Contract Services Associates. . . 77 

52 Cost Elective Computer 

Services 109 

233 Cottage Software 123 

1 70 Cottage Software 34 

119 Crown Plastic Company 73 

266 Grown Plastic Company 95 

■ Cryptent Corp 91 

7 Custom Computer Center 19 

121 Custom Electronics 86 

* Cyljernetics, Inc 75 

59 DC Software & Computer 

Products 84 

44 Data Train, Inc 17 

274 Dala-Trana 97 



RSNumbsr Pag* 

169 Datagraphics 34 

222 Digibyte 108 

308 Digital Timing Devices 115 

* Discovery Bay Software Co . . . 103 

247 Diversified Computer Services. 115 

88 Documan Software 73 

33 80-US Journal 117 

• 80 Micro 83. 100, 160-161 

58 Electronic Specialists 84 

26 Electronic Systems 157 

278 Emtrol Systems Inc 103 

225 En-Joy Computer Programs 96 

40 Esmarf( Inc 53 

272 Essex PuWishing 93 

3 Exatron Gov. IV 

12 FMG Corporation 49 

224 Fantastic Software 97 

252 Ferin Enterprises 93 

133 Full Service Accounting & 

Processing 135 

279 Futureview Unlimited 125 

203 G.P. Associates 113 

254 Galactic Software Ltd 57 

206 Garner's Computer Center 1 33 

79 Alien Geider Software 133 

75 Godbout 73 

218 Good-Lyddon Data Systems. . . 129 

270 Mark Gordon Computers 58 

93 Granite State Instnjment Co. . . 123 

248 The Hardware Company 63 

23 HobPy World 155 

103 HoweSoftware 113 

37 IJG Inc 89 

300 Information Technology 
Systems 107 

301 Information Technology 
Systems 107 

305 Insiders Software Consultants 

Inc 50 

2 Instant Software. . . . Gov. Ill, 59, 60 

202 Interactive Microware 131 

246 Interface, Inc 103 

287 Interlude 9 

187 International Software 

Associates 85 

249 JUS Corp 125 

190 J PC Products Company 145 

193 Joe Computer 119 

293 Johnson Associates. 70 

85 Johnson Associates 131 

226 Johnson Data 107 

' Kilobaud Microcomputing 109 



ns Numlwr Pag* 

149 Kogyosha Co. Ltd 127 

53 LNW Research 107 

14 Level IV Products, Inc 25 

15 Lobo Drives International 51 

178 Lotx) Drives International 35,36 

158 MOM'S 158, 159 

95 Andrew Machen 110 

163 Macrotronics 35 

268 Maine Software 115 

213 Management Services 64 

90 Manhattan Software, Inc 133 

16 Matchless Systems 61 

128 MED Systems Software 64 

174 Mediamix 36 

104 Mercer Systems, Inc 90 

20 Meta Technologies Corp 6, 7 

64 Micro Architect 85 

176 Micro Architect 35 

250 Micro Business World 123 

214 The Micro Clinic ,...63 

89 Micro Learnlngware 86 

72 Micro Management Systems 

Inc 105 

68 Micro Matrix 67 

29 Micro Mega. 43 

28 Microcomputer Tech. Inc 27 

73 Micron, Inc 119 

306 The Microperipheral Corp 135 

123 MicroPhase Systems 154 

112 Miller Microcomputer Senfices. 86 

24 Mini Micro Mart, Inc 156 

221 MISOSYS 63 

286 Mullen Computer Products 133 

144 Mumford Micro Systems 52 

143 NEECO 47 

132 National Software Marketing, 

Inc 114 

142 National Thcor, Inc 135 

216 National Tricor, Inc 135 

116 Newby Software Development 

Co 64 

74 Northeast Microware 129 

296 Orange Micro 121 

106 Orthon Computers 84 

96 PCD Systems 76 

228 Palomar Software 103 

207 Pensadyne 63 

1 Percom Data Company Gov. II 

258 Percom Data Company 3 

43 The Peripheral Peopie 113 

165 Personal Finance Systems 36 

273 Pickles & Trout 117 



RS NumlMr Pag* 

237 Professional Data Corp 105 

17 The Program Storo/Realsoft. .71 
21 Programma International 79 

269 Quant Systems. 90,121 

304 Quarp Publishing .139 

41 Racet Computes 57 

64 Radio Shack Authorized Sales 
Center 101 

256 Radio Shack Dealer fTN) 119 

241 Rational Software 110 

307 Rational Software 115 

197 Reliable Computer Resources. 127 

70 REMsoft Inc 131 

276 Richcraft Engineering Ltd 154 

191 Rondure Company .70 

271 S-C Computer Technology 90 

244 SJW, Inc „ 115 

154 S&M Systems Inc 125 

291 Scientific Engineehng l^b. . . . 113 

280 SciTronics, Inc 110 

290 Semi-Sofl 127 

297 Service Technology 1 39 

255 Michael Sdrayer Software, Inc. . 81 

167 Michael Shrayer Software, Inc. . 36 

19 Simutek 87 

67 Sinus Systems 91 

18 Small Business Systems Group. 13 

30 Small Systems Software 95 

232 SNAPP, Inc 105 

42 Software Etc 4 

284 Software Exchange 129 

286 The Software Mart 119 

277 Solutioris 80 154 

275 Speedway Electronics 123 

164 Standard Systems Corp 35 

189 Statcom, Inc 119 

227 Stiles Computer Systems 86 

82 Sturdivant & Dunn, Inc 93 

267 Suma Microware 121 

217 Sumware 97 

151 Sun -Technology, Inc 95 

211 Synergistic Solar, Inc 64 

148 TAB Sales Co 121 

45 Taranto & Associates 73 

162 Taranto & Associates 35 

147 Task Computer Applications. . 139 

220 Task Computer Applications. . 139 

303 Tora Systems Limited 149 

84 The Ultimate Computer 

Systems 125 

292 Uf^iversal Interface 63 

177 Urivair, Inc 35 

31 VR Data Corporation , .... 89 

1 1 1 Vern Street Products S3 

65 The Vista Computer Go 30, 31 

180 The Vista Computer Co 34, 35 

27 Web Assoc 33 

230 Woodland-Mafner Associates. 105 

'This advertiser prefers to be 
contacted directly. 



162 • 80 Microcomputing. June 1980 



Ask for Instant Software at a computer store near you. 



Alabama 

Coffipvi*nBn9 01 Hum (VMM 
3090 Unnart>ly Dr . Munlaxiii 

3703 AlriKHi BhO . MoD>ii 

Arliont 

H«mSnacfc 
MII)Mi TV & RMto 

CaHfomla 

n38 Clainnonl Mu« B>vi] . 

San Dwgo 

Brit SHOP 

IISE YoiDi Linda Pur*r>M 

ByleSnopol Ml V«« 

i«!S WmI ec Camino Rmi. mi V1«« 

SrIvSnoc a I Saetamanlo 

■M1 CUMnMck In . Oirut HwgMi 

Cacitai CoTipuier Sytlemt 

3306 El Catninc Aie , SdCamenin 

ComDuia'aMaa* Easy 

tit EmI Af«. Q.g. PilrT>daie 

Compulti Slofa of San Leandic 

701 MlcAririu' Blvi] . San Lsand'o 

Cot" coin WOfW 

Am Wsalminsfw *>• vVeBtminsiw 

IC720 3 Hawlhorn*, Laondalt 

CompulHUrM) o< W I.A 

•WO La CNHMQa Bin)., ingMwood 

Co*it ElKlrofHO 

S11flT4o UamSI Mo'ni Bo 

CompuiarUnd 

240C1 »• FMH'Cinx No KM. 

MMVon VtB)0 

HoMI ironic* 

1378 So BMconi Av«. Sao JMi 

HoObfMorW 

'Mil BuB»i«mCu Oi Un>l< 

BOFItltKlO* 

ICE NouWMc 

3Mi40'tnC.S< San B«>r>«idino 

Jada CiHTipuiei PioOucit 

"•Oi W Ho»«ef»n«, m*1^o^n« 

Uarlam Co. 

6X1 AHnadan Rd . 3«n joaa 

Opamp/Tacnnicai Book* 

t033 N Syumota *■• . Lot Angalai 

01 Cotiftutwi inc 
1MiaHaiiiiNxn*e'*a Lawndal* 
RMtOSIMcii Oaalaa 
KSOUvaUeMBtoa San D>aoo 
RaansnacK Oeaiec 
WN C«Cx>iio»tity Max Moon Bay 
Sania noaa Conipulcr CeniM 

BUTinsi Saniaflou 
S'i«i SiMji Eiad C-ynm 
i3fiU Cwi'si AvB Cwy> 
T'le ComotilB' SlO'e 
820 B'ot<l^t,. Sanii Monica 

Colorado 

Bvit Snoc 

)46« S Acr>Oia St EoglewDOrt 
Colo'vlc Compulw S.sli>r>« 
311 W 7*in Iva WaslminslHi 
CwnpMlwianO Q' Norin Dan»«f 
8749 WacMworm Bm] . A'vaaa 
Comput*! sn»cii 
lUS Soulh PtairW. Pu«elo 
Tt» Compul*) Slwa 
ZXXIWrtlonSi Oamt' 

COflfMCtiOVt 

Aniwican Buiinait Co«n«uM(S 

4S4 TP»mM St . G'Won 

Compulanao 

IK JMtaiSon. Mmt LonOon 

Cofnpm an and 

170OPo»i FW,F»*rl*a 

COTipuieiisnd 

SO 5ii<"E> . Hamoan 

CAfnpular Worlii 

1430 Po«l M E . Liberty Plua. 

WMtporl 

D.C. 

Tne Piofiom tio'* 

4200 WUcontln Ava N W 

wunmsion. DC 

Flortda 

AOiantu'* Inlarnahonai 

200 BaW Cvwa» CI . Longmxnl 

AMFEietlfOmca 

iM4e N Wir SI Tampa 

Eh>ra Etwi Cu'po'aiiun 

U2SMHMMnSi PanamaCilt 

O.^tupula' Ccnlai 

0678 C«ni<a> *>a , S< Palaitbu'g 

Cumou'aiiando' f I l^ixMitlaia 

NKtM FaOwalHiiii fl LaucMiaaM 



Cofvpuiaiianii ot Jac<iaoniniia 

j777«uni»ef»nveiv<) w 
j*cii»on*iti« 

CompuU'iantl o( ftrnpa 
1S» E f owlaf A*a , Tampa 

Cofnpula- Sfiacii 

3338 BaaOi S'vd . J«cKso"'<il« 

Cvii* Waif>» EniaiwiMa 

J3> TMbut *>a . MMbDurn* 

Haairi K<i EiacnOK.i. 

4705n 'MnAia Cania' Hiaiaan 

HIS ComtHiinmaiion 

1218 Cypna* Am . Maibourn* 

Sound hMM 

JWl^CNW )3tn Oanaivui* 

Ukaian Compulv SlO'a 
AHpcl Rd OMtin 
Mllt'Sma nwlki t IV Ine 
XiU i^itMiiy St Jacliaonyiiw 

Oaorela 

Atwma Comcuiw Man 

Ailania 

CompulaDand o< Atlani* 

2423 CoDC P>rli*«y Sr^yin* 

HawaH 

Comoulaiiand ol HaMraii 
987 N C(da<alHiirv. Honolulu 
nadio Snac* Aaaoc. Siort 
1711 S Kino SL. Honolulu 

Idaho 

Elad'on'C SpacialialB 
Mil fairxaiii Am Bona 
llltnola 

CompuiarianO 

4307 No^h Siding, (■aoiia 

Cofnpwia'iand 

M1IN M.KMutLvaAra.NiMi 

Computar Slalion 

3BM Hamaoiii Fid Q'anila Oly 

Midwtal WiCioCompuiar* Inc 

708 6 Mam Si . LomtMtl 

KanMB 

C«nti*i KanMa Conwu**'! 
8 S eiOaOwav Hsringion 

Main* 

Main CoitputiodKM 
Inloain Pisia. Banoo> 

»i»dio S^stl" 

3i; Mir Mill nil 5u Pufiianil 

Mtryland 

JK* Fi^MElMKOn-Ct 

4808 Oal»l«n OcW. niaaxlis 

TinConiniCanla' 

9831 Fi MaadaRd (.au>«i 

MasMchuaaDa 

Compuia^ity 

<7^ Mill Si OwWaloirn 

CnmoutaiCily 

SO MoKaala' WO f lamingna"" 

Compuiarland a( Boilon 

IM WorcvticRd Maimlri 

Compuia' Padiag** unamtad 

3** W Bayi»io« Si fmn BOfiiton 

lignihouH CompuMf Soiioaia 

iiF«itn»ai«Y« Hanooain 

Naw E ngl«na Eiaci'omM C« 

873 HkgMand Am NaMnim 

TAa Cor"c>ula> Slore 

1M CamOtidoa Si Burlinglon 

Tulli Radio i ElacUoKKt 

;08Mv(ticA'<.Mwltora 

Michigan 

Comoula' C«ni«T 

WSt Fold B« GaxMKi CHy 

COf^D^itai Connad'O"! 

]8437 Oiand Rivw rarHiin^lonHilii 

Compiriariand ot Oiaod *lap*d4 

JKT Mm SI 5 E . KanriKMX) 

CompulBiland 01 BotHatHf 

301 S L'ywnou Boehasiw 

Compuiwland ol Soulhliakl 
;M73Morinii>Mlarr Hwr SoulMlaM 
Compuif Mail 

MO w 14 Miia Rd . Oawton 

HOOOy HOVM 

I03S W Tamtoi.ai na . Swila CraM 

ma Alia mala Soutca 

1806 Ada. Lanting 

va CNO* Ttacftai Snoppa 

is;3 Wilmyn St . vpiiianii 

MInnaaota 

Compuietiand dt Hopiiina 

'131flM.»,F,H00«in» 

Oigiiai Dan 

Bull! villa Cantai 

Minnauta SoMwaia inc 

itil f ishw Si . WhM Baa' Lafta 

ZUn ComOulail 

S717 Xiricgt Ave H Biou'im Caniai 

MIsslatlppi 

Oyei s. Inc 

200 E MamSI.WBli l^»n( 



5i>>livaianQ<.i* 
816 Foley St Jaoiaon 
W Vemon Foalai Inc. 
«16 Folay St . JBcaaon 

Mlaaourl 

Comoutanan. inc 

S' FWWMnl OaHs Sltopping Cantai 
Fioiiaaani 

CanBo>i<iai*a Sort*ara 

iftWl C.'iwmaio Cowl Ballon 

Montana 

mietmoun'a'n Conipula< 

UtSo WnSI tnnnffjlon 

fa'aonal Cornp kiia< 

iH«««dOs«t> Ca'iJun.II.On 

Tna Compuii' SlO't 

1118 WnSi A i» Biiiinga 

Nabfaaka 

Compu lanan] ol Onana 
11031 EWiSi Omiria 
Mitfwaai Compuivi Co Inc 
8U;iSi Omaha 
Midwail Comeulai Co Inc 
4442 S 84l^ Si Omaha 
Midwaal CoMipulw Co inc 
4403 S STUiSi Omaha 
Scotlabtu'l TygManiiaii Inc 
1824 BroaOoay. ScoiliDiu^l 

Nawada 

Vtdb Spring Mouniifn Hd . Laa Vagal 

Haw Hampahlra 

Biiandvlaa Compular C«nia> 
W8 PiiaaanI Si Concoio 

COl-ipulB'Clll 

ISKS niiiOH. Mancnnler 
Paid a TV 
Mam SI Frcmonl 
Ponainouin Contpvle' Cenltf 
31 nayias A>« . Poriamouw 
Aadn snack Ahoc SIo'« 
FawbanAa Mua. Kaana 

Haw Jaraay 

Compulat Cneourvla' 

2 Naa a au 8> , Annction 

Coinpui«itand 

36 Plan Ria M. W Paramu« 

CompuiE' Man ol nj 

401 nie i' 'aeMn 

[>a<e s EiecI'OnicB 

Pennaviiifl S^npp'^g Cir . PannavUla 

GHB EniHpriMSInc 

Fhe 38. nuddeiaw Av« . Mao<asna0« 

Paiconal ComoulUig tiK 

fii Canltal Sa . l-inmiod 

Rad-o SnacwJlj EiacKonic 

Mana'ield Shopping Cl'. 

R: 1 7 Allan Ad , HacMtltlown 

Tti« Bwgair Biothari 

Gian Roc Shopping Canlai 

216SCOICK noao, Tianion 

ThaCornpuiai Emporium 

BWg 103 Avanua-iol Commania 

jaJBRM 38 Chw-ff Hill 

tfm MmIco 

Aulal Eiaclionic* Co 

131 Wlacanwn N E , AlOuquwqtM 

Lagay ar>0 AMocialai 

no* TatHII Cl N E AICUQUM^M 

MiichMi t Mufc (Radio Shack) 

407 M Chuieli. Caiiaban 

Soutri Waal Compuiar Canlaf 

121 Wyalt Otiva. Suita 7. Lai Cue** 

Naw York 

AfijioCial! 

3i4FiiinAva MVC 

B'll • Byiai 

JBDOSI'aigni Rd . Fradonia 

Compulat Coinai 

no Hamiilon Av« Whila Plain* 

Compvle' EiaCofp 

1370 3ra Av« . Man foii 

Cortipuia' Facloiy 

4BS La.inglon A« N''C 

Compule' House. Inc 

711 Ailantic Ave. RtKhailw 

Compula'iarid ol NaKMu 

TSWaiiOuiy AvB CaiW Place 

Conipui*' World 

i19 Boaian Poai Rd . Pon Cn**lei 

Comlai' E'aci'onici int 

IM6Conay liland Ave.. BinWIyn 

Coiniait Eiact'onic* inc 

Slalan island Mall 

SlOia J20A SiBlen IMand 

OgAyla Syalona. Coip 

3tE 31tlSt NawVorh 

Hoin* Computa< Canla< 

671 Monroe Ave RocSaSter 

Hey Electron. c» 

Scheneciadv 

Liihe" Eiecltmrc* inc 

21 Bioadway Uenv .« 



Insiant Software Inc 



Peterborough, N.H. 
^«o 03458 



M' LUjrT>pulpf 

Imp aiara nia 9 Mappingan Falia 

Sotl^on Sytiem* 

JOBCoiumtwa TumpHie ReiMiaiaai 

Tilt Co'noole" fie* inr 

409 Hooper Ru Enihveli 

iJceiaia Campui«< Shop 

6?9FtencnRd Cafnpu* Ptat* 
Mev Kaillord 

North Carolina 

Bvit ShopolR>ie>gn 

1211 HiiiaPorOugti St . Raleigh 

Ohio 

Ariaii Suainaa* Eyatams tnc 
3?'i2Nn'tnDi»aO' Davlon 
All 10 Video Elacl'onic* 
W4 E Mam Si i.anc«*l«r 
Cincinnati Compuiai Slot* 
aeieinieialal* Ol Cincmnali 

Computer land 
4579 G>aa< Noiinarn Bivd . 
N Oimweed 
Computer land 
8429 Buacti Bhni Coiumbui 
CoTipuler land 

1288 Sam Rd . MayliaM H«igni« 
Compulai Si ore nl Toieoc 
ieb'ii»yc"l> Toledo 
FoiOeeS Mic'osyeiemiinc 
36 N Broad Faxboin 
Mic'o<:ompi,ie< Cei^ie' 
7(100 <>><agon Ho Daiiun 
Micro Mm CkmHHiter WdiW 
74 RotnnwDud. CoiumBuf 
Univaraai Aniatev Radio Inc 
1280 AMta 0' Columbua 

Oklahoma 

Sounoi ElC 
HyM 33. Aatonga 
'^ttn SIraal Produclt 
Radio Snac« OeaMi 
114 W Tall Si Sapulpa 

Orogofl 

Ct»npola«'and oi Portia no 

I2020SW Mains' T^arn 

t:ortioula< Paiiways uniimileO inr 

2161 OavcoSi SF Sa>en> 

TRS-aOProOumltrt 

3520 6 1 V ntyara Rd Ponland 

Pannaytvania 

Atico Elect 

302 Wyoming Ave Klngelon 

Arte* Elect 

Back Mountain Snoc Cir. 

Shaver toarn 

Audio Mart 

918FlttnA*a New9>lgtiIon 

Compute! WofliBhoppe 

384avViMiarn Penn H«y. Monioeviiie 

Compwler land ol Kaf nauuiB 

*6*4 CB<l>ai* P.Ke. Me c hanic a t m rg 

Erie Coihpuler Co 

;i27Vi.WalMriSi En* 

Mighly Byla Computer Canlar 

537 Eatiun Rd.. Hoianam 

Pertorui Compuler Coip 

24 26 VUeei LancatWr Ave . Paoti 

f»Br»ona( ComouiBi Coip 

Ffuer Ii4bii. i.anca*ia< Ave.. Fraiar 

Rhoda (Stand 

CompjTai Cily 

iBl Afigeii Si Woyidenca 

South Dakota 

C8 Radio Shac* 

21(1 anoBroaaarty (anIilDn 

Tannaaaa* 

Compoiatiat 

an S Mendan Hall Rd MarhpNa 

M & M EiBtl'oniCiinc 

iOSN jactiaon Si , TulUhoma 

Twaa 

Computer Pon 

92SM Cotllna. AMlnglon 

Mooiion Compuis' Tach 

U13Bia*onet. eailail* 

inleiBCii" Corr.outw 

7620 Oasfiivood. Moualon 

K A Elect 

80M Slemtnoti* Fney . t>ali«» 

Pan Amailcan EMol. Inc 

it 17 Conway. Uiaawn 

Radta Shadi Dealer 

21ta>Kaiy FraewBv. Kaly 

Ram Micro Sytlema 

83U Camp Bowie Blvd.. F1 Woith 

Wagnaiiai Bookatnc 

3 <3reen».ai Plata E , ttoualon 

Utah 

OC Compuler Co 

19tl We*t TOSoufn tvovo 

Oualily Technology 

"TCE 2ndSo SaH U** C.t* 

VIrglflla 

Cnmpul»f Worlil 

Hie 6 Be> 6SA. Hlrriaonhufg 



Hjj^a Compulat Ceniui 

292' Viiginia Beach BiyC 

Viigir.aBeaen 

Sou1hi«)e Rao 10 Comm 

>)•> Pii-iivKii A» C^loni*. Mt.giiii 

WasMrtglon 

An>e«n-ar Merrani la Co Jnt 

241S -i' Ave S Seaiiw 

Byte Snopo' Beiievu* 

1470' \t 201^51 Beiienue 

Cornpoleiiai.o "■ soul" "ingCo 

lUOS .VMS- Suiimr 

Federal Way 

Magnolia Mirio Sra'*ma 

2812 rtiormtyka Ave Saallle 

Personal Computer R 

S 104 Freva SpoUna 

V* Old Compute' Shop 

130' a Waihinglon RKtllar-iJ 

Waal Vtrgliiia 

the Compulei Cuine* Itk 

22 Beechuni Ave . >*organtOHr" 

The Computer Store 

MuniciMl Periling Bidg CTiarieslon 

Wtaoonain 

BtlaShopOiWiiivaukae 

6019WettlaTtonAve aieanliald 

Compuletiand 

890 S Wnnne, Way Uadmon 

Pelted M.crosvstemt 

4281 irt Loomt* Re! Mit)ia>ik«« 

Wyoming 

Computet Concepta 

1104 Logan Ay* Uheynnne 

Puarto Rico 

The Mjcrocomputer Slore 
1M8 A>e jatu(T Pitieid 
Ceperia feirace 



Canada 



TAMADlAM OlSTRieiJIORS 
Mitron [i.srritiuting 
409 OuWKi Si W t-ynnln Ow 
Uiv 2A^ 



Compulatlarid of Winnipeg 

71S Portage Ave . Winnipeg. Man 

Conipumarl 

411 Rooaaved Ave . OtUna. Oniar„ 

Micromaiic Srtiema Inc 

101 SI36PBkRd . Ricnmond. B.C 

Micro Shack ol W Canada 

333 Pa'k SlieM. Regma Saili 

Orthon HoMingi Ltd 

12411 Slony Plain Road 

Edmonion Altie<ta 

Total Compu'B' Sviiama 

Aja. O-iarw 

Austria 

Byle Shoe Microelecl'oriK 
F«vo< lien air 20 Wien 

Engiand 

Mighly Miao 

31 Cirdltl Rd . Watlord Herti 

FranM 

SivMaa. 

20, Rue de Leningisd Pant 

Italy 

F40WIC a r I 

Piaua De Angeii 1 Miiano 

SwitMrtand 

Tandy Corp 
BetiaisiT t4<t 2uench 

Watt Oarmany 



EUROPEAN OJS'RlflUTOR 
MiciDihop Borlentee 
MarkatT 3. 7778 M*n>9(iii 

AAA EleclioriiC 
HaMtMrgetalr 134 Freiburg 
BMic Soltarate unO Schuiung 
ConetaminMr 88. Koem 2t 
Eietuootc HoOCy Shop 
Maiimilianat' 22. Bonn 
Hanngai Computeia 
Landawtaalt M. Uwanchen 2 
Micracomputa' Caniar 
Ala(a<iM<ilr 7. Darmtiadt 
MuanMAlohi 
Toelieraii S, Holrkechen 
R t R Eleclfonic 
Adierilr 56, naMBKioio 

AualraHa 

Compulei Country Pty Ltd 
S Tonkin Ave., Balwyn VK 

Oeloreal Software 

36 Glen Tower Orne 

ClanWaveiiy ViC 

Suie Load So<1n>aie 

P O Bo. 28 Weilon ACT 

South Africa 



SOUTH AFRrC*% DiStHiOuTOP 
I EOdi* Taibera 
I P 60> 743 Jnhanneaburg 




STARTER KIT 



EXATRON STRINGY FLOPPY FOR THE TRS-80 

Recommended initial purchase: 

Exatron Stringy Floppy $249.50 

3 Wafers each: 5', 10', 20', 50' 40.00 

Bus Extender, 2for 1 15.00 

ESF Machine Language Monitor 9.95 

Wafer Organizer 5.00 



SPECIAL PRICE FOR THIS STARTER KIT 
Sales Tax (California only) 
Shipping and Handling 



S299.50 



5.50 



$319.45 TOTAL 

For more information see the current Exatron Stringy Floppy Owners Association Newsletter in Microcomputing. 

Stringy Floppy "S a trademark of Exatron Corporation. 

HOT LINE (For Calls Outside CA) 800-538-8559 



If vou hav« any questions about the product, about Exatron. or 
ESFOA, please call the Hot Line. Address letters to ESFOA, 3559 
Ryder St.. Ssnta Clara, CA 95051. 



( 




*^xceHence in electronics 



exatron 

3555 Ryder Street ■ Santa Clara, California 95051 
(4081 737 7111